Matching Items (5)

Summary of Lung Cancer

Description

This work examines lung cancer to provide a tool for patients, health care workers, and the community in the form of an informational pamphlet. The research was done through the

This work examines lung cancer to provide a tool for patients, health care workers, and the community in the form of an informational pamphlet. The research was done through the analysis of peer-reviewed scientific publications, books, and other credible sources. This thesis establishes a timeline of disease from the broad definition, through molecular development and further progression through the stages of the disease. To simulate the natural flow of the disease from a patient’s perspective, the symptoms section appears next, followed by diagnosis, which then makes patients question statistics, treatment, and finances. The next section focuses on prevention as a solution to decrease incidence. Finally, the commentary and conclusion section offer alternative ideas. Lung cancer is found to be the most prolific killer among cancers due to high occurrence rate and low survival rates. Some of the reasons for low survival are asymptomatic nature of the disease, lack of early detection tools, and fast progression rate. While patients’ out of pocket cost is found to be around $57,000, lung cancer research receives inadequate funding. Smoking and radon exposure is the leading causes of lung cancer development. Prevention of these and other risk factors is the key to lowering cancer occurrence and death. These issues require solutions such as early detection tools, semi-frequent testing, community awareness, and education, as well as adequate research funding.

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  • 2020-05

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Pre-Symptomatic Detection of Lung Cancer Via Protein Biomarkers

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The purpose of this project was to examine the viability of protein biomarkers in pre-symptomatic detection of lung cancer. Regular screening has been shown to vastly improve patient survival outcome.

The purpose of this project was to examine the viability of protein biomarkers in pre-symptomatic detection of lung cancer. Regular screening has been shown to vastly improve patient survival outcome. Lung cancer currently has the highest occurrence and mortality of all cancers and so a means of screening would be highly beneficial. In this research, the biomarker neuron-specific enolase (Enolase-2, eno2), a marker of small-cell lung cancer, was detected at varying concentrations using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in order to develop a mathematical model of predicting protein expression based on a measured impedance value at a determined optimum frequency. The extent of protein expression would indicate the possibility of the patient having small-cell lung cancer. The optimum frequency was found to be 459 Hz, and the mathematical model to determine eno2 concentration based on impedance was found to be y = 40.246x + 719.5 with an R2 value of 0.82237. These results suggest that this approach could provide an option for the development of small-cell lung cancer screening utilizing electrochemical technology.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Immunosignature System for Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

Description

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the US. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) scans are speculated to reduce lung cancer mortality. However LDCT scans impose multiple risks

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the US. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) scans are speculated to reduce lung cancer mortality. However LDCT scans impose multiple risks including false-negative results, false- positive results, overdiagnosis, and cancer due to repeated exposure to radiation. Immunosignaturing is a new method proposed to screen and detect lung cancer, eliminating the risks associated with LDCT scans. Known and blinded primary blood sera from participants with lung cancer and no cancer were run on peptide microarrays and analyzed. Immunosignatures for each known sample collectively indicated 120 peptides unique to lung cancer and non-cancer participants. These 120 peptides were used to determine the status of the blinded samples. Verification of the results from Vanderbilt is pending.

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  • 2015-05

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Loss of LKB1 Leads to Increased Chemokine Secretion in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has become the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States with a combined 5-year survival rate of only 16%. Even with advancements in

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has become the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States with a combined 5-year survival rate of only 16%. Even with advancements in aggressive chemotherapeutics, there has been little improvement in patient survival. LKB1 (liver kinase B1)/STK11 (serine-threonine kinase 11) is a tumor suppressor gene mutated in ~30% of NSCLC adenocarcinomas and loss of LKB1 is associated with a more aggressive cancer phenotype. In LKB1-deficient NSCLC, we observe significantly elevated expression and secretion of the chemokines CCL2, CCL5, and CCL20, which are involved in macrophage recruitment. Numerous studies have shown that high infiltration of a unique subset of macrophages called tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) is associated with poor prognosis in patients with various cancers. mTORC1-HIF1-α and NFκB are two pathways that have been shown to regulate chemokine secretion and are often up-regulated in the absence of LKB1. Dosing LKB1-null cell lines with inhibitors of mTOR and NFκB in addition to silencing HIF1-α gene expression demonstrate that NFκB but not mTORC1-HIF1-α signaling may play a role in regulating chemokine secretion in LKB1-deficient NSCLC. Collectively, these results provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for the aggressive phenotype associated with LKB1-deficient non-small cell lung cancer.

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  • 2015-05

Early Detection of Lung Cancer Using Low Dose Computed Tomography Screening, Thin Section Computed Tomography Screening, And Computer Aided Diagnosis

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The goal of this paper is to discuss the most efficient method to achieve early detection in lung cancers by reducing the occurrences of false-positive readings. Imaging techniques

The goal of this paper is to discuss the most efficient method to achieve early detection in lung cancers by reducing the occurrences of false-positive readings. Imaging techniques (computed tomography screenings) have greater impact than non-imaging techniques in early detection for lung cancer. On the other hand, positron emission tomography and non-imaging techniques, such as liquid biopsy, are better at distinguishing cancer stages. Therefore, these techniques are not suitable early detection methods for lung cancer. Based on literature reviews, the combination that is most capable of early lung cancer detection incorporate low-dose computed tomography screenings, thin-section computed tomography screenings, and computer-aided diagnosis. Low-dose computed tomography screenings has lower radiation-associated risks compared to the standard-dose computed tomography. This technique can be used as both at the first examination and the follow-up examinations. Thin-section computed tomography screenings can be used as a supplement to check if there is any nodules that have not yet been discovered. Computer-aided diagnosis is an add-on method to make sure the computed tomography screenings images are being correctly labeled. Identifying other contributing factors to the effectiveness of the early lung cancer detection, such as the amount of forced expiratory volume, forced vital capacity, and the presence of emphysema, could also decrease the percentage of false positive outcomes.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05