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Do Young-Adult Cannabis Users Show Amotivation? An Analysis of Reports from Third-Party Observers

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Cannabis use has been purported to cause an amotivation-like syndrome among users. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether third party observers noticed amotivation among cannabis users. Participants in this study were 72 undergraduate university students, with a

Cannabis use has been purported to cause an amotivation-like syndrome among users. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether third party observers noticed amotivation among cannabis users. Participants in this study were 72 undergraduate university students, with a mean age of M=19.20 years old (SD=2.00). Participants nominated Informants who knew them well and these informants completed a version of the 18-item Apathy Evaluation Scale. Results indicated that more frequent cannabis use was associated with higher informant-reported levels of amotivation, even when controlling for age, sex, psychotic-like experiences, SES, alcohol use, tobacco use, other drug use, and depression symptoms (β=0.34, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.64, p=.027). A lack of motivation severe enough to be visible by a third party has the potential to have negative social impacts on individuals who use cannabis regularly.

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2016-12

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Assessing the impact of oral vitamin B12 supplementation on vibration sensitivity, dexterity, and balance in young adult vegetarians and vegans

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Vitamin B12, found only in animal products, is a water-soluble vitamin important for DNA methylation, purine and pyrimidine synthesis, and the myelination of nerves. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include anemia, gait disturbances, altered vibration proprioception, impaired vision, psychosis,

Vitamin B12, found only in animal products, is a water-soluble vitamin important for DNA methylation, purine and pyrimidine synthesis, and the myelination of nerves. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include anemia, gait disturbances, altered vibration proprioception, impaired vision, psychosis, depression, dementia-like illness, and ultimately death. Because vegetarians and vegans consume fewer animal products in their diet than omnivores, they are inherently more at risk for developing these symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between nervous system markers (balance, dexterity, and vibration sensitivity) and markers of vitamin B12 nutriture (serum B12 and serum holo-transcobalamin II) in a cross-sectional study (n=38). In addition, the impact of daily oral vitamin B12 supplementation on these markers in an 8-week randomized controlled trial was also examined (n=18). The results of the cross-sectional study revealed a moderate correlation (R=-0.351, p=0.031) between serum B12 and left-hand functional dexterity. The results of the intervention study revealed no significant time*group interactions for markers of nervous system functions and biochemical values (after the removal of outliers). In addition, the time*group interaction appeared to be larger for those individuals with a baseline serum B12 of less than 303 pmol/L. These results suggest that vitamin B12 supplementation may have a more pronounced effect on those individuals who are in a state of vitamin B12 depletion (<303 pmol/L serum concentration). In addition, the results also suggest that 8 weeks of oral supplementation is not a long enough period to create significant clinical change, and it is likely that improvements in neurological measures would require long-term supplementation.

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2016

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The effect of a basic food safety intervention on food safety knowledge in U.S. young adults: an intervention trial

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The true number of food borne illness occurrences that stem from the home is largely unknown, but researchers believe the number is much greater than represented in national data. The focus on food safety has generally been directed at food

The true number of food borne illness occurrences that stem from the home is largely unknown, but researchers believe the number is much greater than represented in national data. The focus on food safety has generally been directed at food service establishments, which have made great strides at improving the methods of how their food is prepared. However, that same drive for proper food safety education is lacking in home kitchens, where the majority of food is prepared. Young adults are among some of the riskiest food preparers, and limited research and education methods have been tested on this vulnerable population. This study examined the effect of a basic food safety intervention on consumer food safety knowledge in young adults in the United States (U.S.) over a week period. The study had a pre/post survey design, where participants answered a survey, watched a short 10-minute video, and then recompleted the same survey a week later. Ninety-one participants age 18-29 years completed the initial food safety knowledge questionnaire. Twenty-six of those participants completed both the pre- and post-intervention food safety knowledge questionnaires. A paired t-test was used to analyze changes in questionnaire scores pre/post intervention. The majority of participants were female (78.9%), Arizona State University (ASU) students (78.0%), did not have any formal food safety education (58.2%), prepared a minimum of one meal per week from home (96.7%), and had completed 0-1 college nutrition courses (64.8%). The average overall score for all participants who completed the initial questionnaire was 62.6%. For those that took both the initial questionnaire and the follow up questionnaire (n=26), their scores shifted from 66.8% to 65.5% after the intervention. Scores increased significantly only for one question post-intervention: 38.5% (n=10) to 53.8% (n=14) for the safest method for cooling a large pot of hot soup (p = 0.050). This was the first study of its kind to test a video intervention in attempts to increase food safety knowledge in young adults, and additional studies must be done to solidify the results of this study. Other means of education should be explored as well to determine the best way of reaching this population and others.

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2019