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Ionic Liquid Corrosion of Magnesium-Aluminum Alloys

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In 2015, the United States consumed about 140.43 billion gallons of gasoline, resulting in the emission of over 1 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Despite continued efforts to develop more efficient engines

In 2015, the United States consumed about 140.43 billion gallons of gasoline, resulting in the emission of over 1 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Despite continued efforts to develop more efficient engines and cleaner fuels, a major barrier to reducing energy consumption and CO2 production is the mass of the vehicle. Replacing traditional automotive materials such as iron and steel with lighter-weight materials is a big step toward improving fuel economy. Magnesium has great potential for use in the automotive industry because of its low density, about 78% less than the density of steel, and high strength-to-weight ratio. Using cast magnesium instead of steel can reduce the overall weight of a vehicle, improving performance and increasing fuel efficiency. However, magnesium’s high susceptibility to corrosion limits its feasibility as a substitute for traditional materials.

This project aimed to understand the effects of composition and phase distribution on the corrosion behavior of magnesium-aluminum (Mg-Al) alloys in an ionic liquid electrolyte. The purpose of studying corrosion in nonaqueous ILs is to determine the anodic dissolution behaviors of the alloy phases without the interference of side reactions that occur in aqueous electrolytes, such as di-oxygen or water reduction. Three commercial Mg-Al alloys were studied: AZ91D (9% Al), AM60 (6% Al), and AZ31B (3% Al). An annealed alloy containing solid-solution α-phase Mg-Al with 5 at% aluminum content (Mg5Al) was also used. The ionic liquid chosen for this project was 1:2 molar ratio choline-chloride:urea (cc-urea), a deep eutectic solvent. After potentiostatic corrosion in cc-urea, the magnesium alloys were found to form a high surface area porous morphology as corrosion duration increased. This morphology consists of aluminum-rich ridges formed by Al nanowires surrounding an aluminum-poor base area, but with an overall increase in surface Al composition, indicating selective dealloying of the Mg in cc-urea and redistribution of the Al on the surface. Further work will focus on the development of hydrophobic coatings using ionic liquids.

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2016-05

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Breakdown and classification of skill transfer type between a hockey slap shot and golf drive

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There is surprisingly little scientific literature describing whether a hockey slap shot positively or negatively transfers to a driving golf swing. Golf and hockey use a similar kinematic sequence to send the ball / puck towards a target, but does

There is surprisingly little scientific literature describing whether a hockey slap shot positively or negatively transfers to a driving golf swing. Golf and hockey use a similar kinematic sequence to send the ball / puck towards a target, but does that directly translate to positive skill transfer between the two sports, or are there other important factors that could result in a negative skill transfer? The aim of this study is to look further into the two kinematic sequences and determine their intertask skill transfer type. A field experiment was conducted, following a specific research design, in order to compare performance between two groups, one being familiar with the skill that may transfer (hockey slapshot) and the other group being unfamiliar. Both groups had no experience in the skill being tested (driving golf swing) and various data was collected as all of the subjects performed 10 golf swings. The results of the data analysis showed that the group with experience in hockey had a higher variability of ball distance and ball speed. There are many factors of a hockey slapshot that are likely to develop a negative intertask skill transfer, resulting in this group's high inconsistency when performing a golf swing. On the other hand, the group with hockey experience also had higher mean club speed, showing that some aspects of the hockey slapshot resulted in a positive skill transfer, aiding their ability to perform a golf swing.

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2021-05

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Understanding Pitting Corrosion in a High-Performance Aluminum Alloy by 4D X-ray Microtomography

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Aluminum alloys are commonly used for engineering applications due to their high strength to weight ratio, low weight, and low cost. Pitting corrosion, accelerated by saltwater environments, leads to fatigue cracks and stress corrosion cracking during service. Two-dimensional (2D) characterization

Aluminum alloys are commonly used for engineering applications due to their high strength to weight ratio, low weight, and low cost. Pitting corrosion, accelerated by saltwater environments, leads to fatigue cracks and stress corrosion cracking during service. Two-dimensional (2D) characterization methods are typically used to identify and characterize corrosion; however, these methods are destructive and do not enable an efficient means of quantifying mechanisms of pit initiation and growth. In this study, lab-scale x-ray microtomography was used to non-destructively observe, quantify, and understand pit growth in three dimensions over a 20-day corrosion period in the AA7075-T651 alloy. The XRT process, capable of imaging sample volumes with a resolution near one micrometer, was found to be an ideal tool for large-volume pit examination. Pit depths were quantified over time using renderings of sample volumes, leading to an understanding of how inclusion particles, oxide breakdown, and corrosion mechanisms impact the growth and morphology of pits. This process, when carried out on samples produced with two different rolling directions and rolling extents, yielded novel insights into the long-term macroscopic corrosion behaviors impacted by alloy production and design. Key among these were the determinations that the alloy’s rolling direction produces a significant difference in the average growth rate of pits and that the corrosion product layer loses its passivating effect as a result of cyclic immersion. In addition, a new mechanism of pitting corrosion is proposed which is focused on the pseudo-random spatial distribution of iron-rich inclusion particles in the alloy matrix, which produces a random distribution of pit depths based on the occurrence of co-operative corrosion near inclusion clusters.

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2020-05