Matching Items (10)

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Understanding Pitting Corrosion in a High-Performance Aluminum Alloy by 4D X-ray Microtomography

Description

Aluminum alloys are commonly used for engineering applications due to their high strength to weight ratio, low weight, and low cost. Pitting corrosion, accelerated by saltwater environments, leads to fatigue

Aluminum alloys are commonly used for engineering applications due to their high strength to weight ratio, low weight, and low cost. Pitting corrosion, accelerated by saltwater environments, leads to fatigue cracks and stress corrosion cracking during service. Two-dimensional (2D) characterization methods are typically used to identify and characterize corrosion; however, these methods are destructive and do not enable an efficient means of quantifying mechanisms of pit initiation and growth. In this study, lab-scale x-ray microtomography was used to non-destructively observe, quantify, and understand pit growth in three dimensions over a 20-day corrosion period in the AA7075-T651 alloy. The XRT process, capable of imaging sample volumes with a resolution near one micrometer, was found to be an ideal tool for large-volume pit examination. Pit depths were quantified over time using renderings of sample volumes, leading to an understanding of how inclusion particles, oxide breakdown, and corrosion mechanisms impact the growth and morphology of pits. This process, when carried out on samples produced with two different rolling directions and rolling extents, yielded novel insights into the long-term macroscopic corrosion behaviors impacted by alloy production and design. Key among these were the determinations that the alloy’s rolling direction produces a significant difference in the average growth rate of pits and that the corrosion product layer loses its passivating effect as a result of cyclic immersion. In addition, a new mechanism of pitting corrosion is proposed which is focused on the pseudo-random spatial distribution of iron-rich inclusion particles in the alloy matrix, which produces a random distribution of pit depths based on the occurrence of co-operative corrosion near inclusion clusters.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Analysis of Different Detector Layouts for Proton Beam Tomography

Description

Professor Alarcon’s lab is producing proton beam detectors, and this project is focused on informing the decision as to which layout of detector is more effective at producing an accurate

Professor Alarcon’s lab is producing proton beam detectors, and this project is focused on informing the decision as to which layout of detector is more effective at producing an accurate backprojection for an equal number of data channels. The comparison is between “square pad” detectors and “wire pad” detectors. The square pad detector consists of a grid of square pads all of identical size, that each collect their own data. The wire pad detector consists of large rectangular pads that span the entire detector in one direction, with 2 additional layers of identical pads each rotated by 60° from the previous. In order to test each design Python was used to simulate Gaussian beams of varying amplitudes, position and size and integrate them in each of the two methods. They were then backprojected and fit to a Gaussian function and the error between the backprojected parameters and the original parameters of the beam were measured.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Corrosion and corrosion-fatigue behavior of 7075 aluminum alloys studied by in situ X-ray tomography

Description

7XXX Aluminum alloys have high strength to weight ratio and low cost. They are used in many critical structural applications including automotive and aerospace components. These applications frequently subject the

7XXX Aluminum alloys have high strength to weight ratio and low cost. They are used in many critical structural applications including automotive and aerospace components. These applications frequently subject the alloys to static and cyclic loading in service. Additionally, the alloys are often subjected to aggressive corrosive environments such as saltwater spray. These chemical and mechanical exposures have been known to cause premature failure in critical applications. Hence, the microstructural behavior of the alloys under combined chemical attack and mechanical loading must be characterized further. Most studies to date have analyzed the microstructure of the 7XXX alloys using two dimensional (2D) techniques. While 2D studies yield valuable insights about the properties of the alloys, they do not provide sufficiently accurate results because the microstructure is three dimensional and hence its response to external stimuli is also three dimensional (3D). Relevant features of the alloys include the grains, subgrains, intermetallic inclusion particles, and intermetallic precipitate particles. The effects of microstructural features on corrosion pitting and corrosion fatigue of aluminum alloys has primarily been studied using 2D techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) surface analysis along with post-mortem SEM fracture surface analysis to estimate the corrosion pit size and fatigue crack initiation site. These studies often limited the corrosion-fatigue testing to samples in air or specialized solutions, because samples tested in NaCl solution typically have fracture surfaces covered in corrosion product. Recent technological advancements allow observation of the microstructure, corrosion and crack behavior of aluminum alloys in solution in three dimensions over time (4D). In situ synchrotron X-Ray microtomography was used to analyze the corrosion and cracking behavior of the alloy in four dimensions to elucidate crack initiation at corrosion pits for samples of multiple aging conditions and impurity concentrations. Additionally, chemical reactions between the 3.5 wt% NaCl solution and the crack surfaces were quantified by observing the evolution of hydrogen bubbles from the crack. The effects of the impurity particles and age-hardening particles on the corrosion and fatigue properties were examined in 4D.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Characterization of local deformation in Pb-free solder joints using three dimensional (3D) X-ray microtomography

Description

Pb-free solder joints are commonly used as interconnects in semiconductor packaging. One of the major defects affecting the mechanical performance of solder joints are reflow pores that form during processing.

Pb-free solder joints are commonly used as interconnects in semiconductor packaging. One of the major defects affecting the mechanical performance of solder joints are reflow pores that form during processing. These pores exhibit significant variability in size and distribution, and understanding the effects of pore geometry on failure is an important reliability concern. In this thesis, the pore microstructures of solder joint samples and the localized plastic deformation around individual pores was characterized in 3D using lab scale X-ray Microtomography. To observe the deformation of a solder joint in 3D, a solder joint was imaged with Microtomography after reflow and then deformed in shear in several loading steps with additional tomography data taken between each. The 3D tomography datasets were then segmented using the 3D Livewire technique into regions corresponding to solder and pores, and used to generate 3D models of the joint at each strain value using Mimics software. The extent of deformation of individual pores in the joint as a function of strain was quantified using sphericity measurements, and correlated with the observed cracking in the joint. In addition, the error inherent in the data acquisition and 3D modeling process was also quantified. The progression of damage observed with X-ray Microtomography was then used to validate the deformation and failure predicted by a Finite Element (FE) simulation. The FE model was based on the as-reflowed tomography data, and incorporated a ductile damage failure model to simulate fracture. Using the measured sphericity change and cracking information obtained from the tomography data, the FE model is shown to correctly capture the broad plastic deformation and strain localization seen in the actual joint, as well as the crack propagation. Lastly, Digital Image Correlation was investigated as a method of obtaining improved local strain measurements in 3D. This technique measures the displacement of the inherent microstructural features of the joint, and can give localized strain measurements that can be directly comparable to that predicted by modeling. The technique is demonstrated in 2D on Pb-Sn solder, and example 3D data is presented for future analysis.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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A chip for hydrodynamic microvortical rotation of live single cells

Description

Single cell analysis has become increasingly important in understanding disease onset, progression, treatment and prognosis, especially when applied to cancer where cellular responses are highly heterogeneous. Through the advent of

Single cell analysis has become increasingly important in understanding disease onset, progression, treatment and prognosis, especially when applied to cancer where cellular responses are highly heterogeneous. Through the advent of single cell computerized tomography (Cell-CT), researchers and clinicians now have the ability to obtain high resolution three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of single cells. Yet to date, no live-cell compatible version of the technology exists. In this thesis, a microfluidic chip with the ability to rotate live single cells in hydrodynamic microvortices about an axis parallel to the optical focal plane has been demonstrated. The chip utilizes a novel 3D microchamber design arranged beneath a main channel creating flow detachment into the chamber, producing recirculating flow conditions. Single cells are flowed through the main channel, held in the center of the microvortex by an optical trap, and rotated by the forces induced by the recirculating fluid flow. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was employed to optimize the geometry of the microchamber. Two methods for the fabrication of the 3D microchamber were devised: anisotropic etching of silicon and backside diffuser photolithography (BDPL). First, the optimization of the silicon etching conditions was demonstrated through design of experiment (DOE). In addition, a non-conventional method of soft-lithography was demonstrated which incorporates the use of two positive molds, one of the main channel and the other of the microchambers, compressed together during replication to produce a single ultra-thin (<200 µm) negative used for device assembly. Second, methods for using thick negative photoresists such as SU-8 with BDPL have been developed which include a new simple and effective method for promoting the adhesion of SU-8 to glass. An assembly method that bonds two individual ultra-thin (<100 µm) replications of the channel and the microfeatures has also been demonstrated. Finally, a pressure driven pumping system with nanoliter per minute flow rate regulation, sub-second response times, and < 3% flow variability has been designed and characterized. The fabrication and assembly of this device is inexpensive and utilizes simple variants of conventional microfluidic fabrication techniques, making it easily accessible to the single cell analysis community.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Limitations of Classical Tomographic Reconstructions from Restricted Measurements and Enhancing with Physically Constrained Machine Learning

Description

This work is concerned with how best to reconstruct images from limited angle tomographic measurements. An introduction to tomography and to limited angle tomography will be provided and a

This work is concerned with how best to reconstruct images from limited angle tomographic measurements. An introduction to tomography and to limited angle tomography will be provided and a brief overview of the many fields to which this work may contribute is given.

The traditional tomographic image reconstruction approach involves Fourier domain representations. The classic Filtered Back Projection algorithm will be discussed and used for comparison throughout the work. Bayesian statistics and information entropy considerations will be described. The Maximum Entropy reconstruction method will be derived and its performance in limited angular measurement scenarios will be examined.

Many new approaches become available once the reconstruction problem is placed within an algebraic form of Ax=b in which the measurement geometry and instrument response are defined as the matrix A, the measured object as the column vector x, and the resulting measurements by b. It is straightforward to invert A. However, for the limited angle measurement scenarios of interest in this work, the inversion is highly underconstrained and has an infinite number of possible solutions x consistent with the measurements b in a high dimensional space.

The algebraic formulation leads to the need for high performing regularization approaches which add constraints based on prior information of what is being measured. These are constraints beyond the measurement matrix A added with the goal of selecting the best image from this vast uncertainty space. It is well established within this work that developing satisfactory regularization techniques is all but impossible except for the simplest pathological cases. There is a need to capture the "character" of the objects being measured.

The novel result of this effort will be in developing a reconstruction approach that will match whatever reconstruction approach has proven best for the types of objects being measured given full angular coverage. However, when confronted with limited angle tomographic situations or early in a series of measurements, the approach will rely on a prior understanding of the "character" of the objects measured. This understanding will be learned by a parallel Deep Neural Network from examples.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Quantifying electromigration processes in Sn-0.7Cu solder with lab-scale X-ray computed micro-tomography

Description

For decades, microelectronics manufacturing has been concerned with failures related to electromigration phenomena in conductors experiencing high current densities. The influence of interconnect microstructure on device failures related to electromigration

For decades, microelectronics manufacturing has been concerned with failures related to electromigration phenomena in conductors experiencing high current densities. The influence of interconnect microstructure on device failures related to electromigration in BGA and flip chip solder interconnects has become a significant interest with reduced individual solder interconnect volumes. A survey indicates that x-ray computed micro-tomography (µXCT) is an emerging, novel means for characterizing the microstructures' role in governing electromigration failures. This work details the design and construction of a lab-scale µXCT system to characterize electromigration in the Sn-0.7Cu lead-free solder system by leveraging in situ imaging.

In order to enhance the attenuation contrast observed in multi-phase material systems, a modeling approach has been developed to predict settings for the controllable imaging parameters which yield relatively high detection rates over the range of x-ray energies for which maximum attenuation contrast is expected in the polychromatic x-ray imaging system. In order to develop this predictive tool, a model has been constructed for the Bremsstrahlung spectrum of an x-ray tube, and calculations for the detector's efficiency over the relevant range of x-ray energies have been made, and the product of emitted and detected spectra has been used to calculate the effective x-ray imaging spectrum. An approach has also been established for filtering `zinger' noise in x-ray radiographs, which has proven problematic at high x-ray energies used for solder imaging. The performance of this filter has been compared with a known existing method and the results indicate a significant increase in the accuracy of zinger filtered radiographs.

The obtained results indicate the conception of a powerful means for the study of failure causing processes in solder systems used as interconnects in microelectronic packaging devices. These results include the volumetric quantification of parameters which are indicative of both electromigration tolerance of solders and the dominant mechanisms for atomic migration in response to current stressing. This work is aimed to further the community's understanding of failure-causing electromigration processes in industrially relevant material systems for microelectronic interconnect applications and to advance the capability of available characterization techniques for their interrogation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Understanding plasticity and fracture in aluminum alloys and their composites by 3D X-ray synchrotron tomography and microdiffraction

Description

Aluminum alloys and their composites are attractive materials for applications requiring high strength-to-weight ratios and reasonable cost. Many of these applications, such as those in the aerospace industry, undergo fatigue

Aluminum alloys and their composites are attractive materials for applications requiring high strength-to-weight ratios and reasonable cost. Many of these applications, such as those in the aerospace industry, undergo fatigue loading. An understanding of the microstructural damage that occurs in these materials is critical in assessing their fatigue resistance. Two distinct experimental studies were performed to further the understanding of fatigue damage mechanisms in aluminum alloys and their composites, specifically fracture and plasticity. Fatigue resistance of metal matrix composites (MMCs) depends on many aspects of composite microstructure. Fatigue crack growth behavior is particularly dependent on the reinforcement characteristics and matrix microstructure. The goal of this work was to obtain a fundamental understanding of fatigue crack growth behavior in SiC particle-reinforced 2080 Al alloy composites. In situ X-ray synchrotron tomography was performed on two samples at low (R=0.1) and at high (R=0.6) R-ratios. The resulting reconstructed images were used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) rendering of the particles and fatigue crack. Behaviors of the particles and crack, as well as their interaction, were analyzed and quantified. Four-dimensional (4D) visual representations were constructed to aid in the overall understanding of damage evolution. During fatigue crack growth in ductile materials, a plastic zone is created in the region surrounding the crack tip. Knowledge of the plastic zone is important for the understanding of fatigue crack formation as well as subsequent growth behavior. The goal of this work was to quantify the 3D size and shape of the plastic zone in 7075 Al alloys. X-ray synchrotron tomography and Laue microdiffraction were used to non-destructively characterize the volume surrounding a fatigue crack tip. The precise 3D crack profile was segmented from the reconstructed tomography data. Depth-resolved Laue patterns were obtained using differential-aperture X-ray structural microscopy (DAXM), from which peak-broadening characteristics were quantified. Plasticity, as determined by the broadening of diffracted peaks, was mapped in 3D. Two-dimensional (2D) maps of plasticity were directly compared to the corresponding tomography slices. A 3D representation of the plastic zone surrounding the fatigue crack was generated by superimposing the mapped plasticity on the 3D crack profile.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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The impact of liquefaction on the microstructure of cohesionless soils

Description

The effect of earthquake-induced liquefaction on the local void ratio distribution of cohesionless soil is evaluated using x-ray computed tomography (CT) and an advanced image processing software package. Intact, relatively

The effect of earthquake-induced liquefaction on the local void ratio distribution of cohesionless soil is evaluated using x-ray computed tomography (CT) and an advanced image processing software package. Intact, relatively undisturbed specimens of cohesionless soil were recovered before and after liquefaction by freezing and coring soil deposits created by pluviation and by sedimentation through water. Pluviated soil deposits were liquefied in the small geotechnical centrifuge at the University of California at Davis shared-use National Science Foundation (NSF)-supported Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) facility. A soil deposit created by sedimentation through water was liquefied on a small shake table in the Arizona State University geotechnical laboratory. Initial centrifuge tests employed Ottawa 20-30 sand but this material proved to be too coarse to liquefy in the centrifuge. Therefore, subsequent centrifuge tests employed Ottawa F60 sand. The shake table test employed Ottawa 20-30 sand. Recovered cores were stabilized by impregnation with optical grade epoxy and sent to the University of Texas at Austin NSF-supported facility at the University of Texas at Austin for high-resolution CT scanning of geologic media. The local void ratio distribution of a CT-scanned core of Ottawa 20-30 sand evaluated using Avizo® Fire, a commercially available advanced program for image analysis, was compared to the local void ratio distribution established on the same core by analysis of optical images to demonstrate that analysis of the CT scans gave similar results to optical methods. CT scans were subsequently conducted on liquefied and not-liquefied specimens of Ottawa 20-30 sand and Ottawa F60 sand. The resolution of F60 specimens was inadequate to establish the local void ratio distribution. Results of the analysis of the Ottawa 20-30 specimens recovered from the model built for the shake table test showed that liquefaction can substantially influence the variability in local void ratio, increasing the degree of non-homogeneity in the specimen.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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A new approach for the enhancement of dual-energy computed tomography images

Description

Computed tomography (CT) is one of the essential imaging modalities for medical diagnosis. Since its introduction in 1972, CT technology has been improved dramatically, especially in terms of its acquisition

Computed tomography (CT) is one of the essential imaging modalities for medical diagnosis. Since its introduction in 1972, CT technology has been improved dramatically, especially in terms of its acquisition speed. However, the main principle of CT which consists in acquiring only density information has not changed at all until recently. Different materials may have the same CT number, which may lead to uncertainty or misdiagnosis. Dual-energy CT (DECT) was reintroduced recently to solve this problem by using the additional spectral information of X-ray attenuation and aims for accurate density measurement and material differentiation. However, the spectral information lies in the difference between two low and high energy images or measurements, so that it is difficult to acquire the accurate spectral information due to amplification of high pixel noise in the resulting difference image. In this work, a new model and an image enhancement technique for DECT are proposed, based on the fact that the attenuation of a high density material decreases more rapidly as X-ray energy increases. This fact has been previously ignored in most of DECT image enhancement techniques. The proposed technique consists of offset correction, spectral error correction, and adaptive noise suppression. It reduced noise, improved contrast effectively and showed better material differentiation in real patient images as well as phantom studies.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011