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Structure-function study of N-isopropylacrylamide copolymers with enzyme degradable GAPGLF and GAPGLL side chains

Description

With an increased demand for more enzyme-sensitive, bioresorbable and more biodegradable polymers, various studies of copolymers have been developed. Polymers are widely used in various applications of biomedical engineering such as in tissue engineering, drug delivery and wound healing. Depending

With an increased demand for more enzyme-sensitive, bioresorbable and more biodegradable polymers, various studies of copolymers have been developed. Polymers are widely used in various applications of biomedical engineering such as in tissue engineering, drug delivery and wound healing. Depending on the conditions in which polymers are used, they are modified to accommodate a specific need. For instance, polymers used in drug delivery are more efficient if they are biodegradable. This ensures that the delivery system does not remain in the body after releasing the drug. It is therefore crucial that the polymer used in the drug system possess biodegradable properties. Such modification can be done in different ways including the use of peptides to make copolymers that will degrade in the presence of enzymes. In this work, we studied the effect of a polypeptide GAPGLL on the polymer NIPAAm and compare with the previously studied Poly(NIPAAm-co-GAPGLF). Both copolymers Poly(NIPAAm-co-GAPGLL) were first synthesized from Poly(NIPAAm-co-NASI) through nucleophilic substitution by the two peptides. The synthesis of these copolymers was confirmed by 1H NMR spectra and through cloud point measurement, the corresponding LCST was determined. Both copolymers were degraded by collagenase enzyme at 25 ° C and their 1H NMR spectra confirmed this process. Both copolymers were cleaved by collagenase, leading to an increase in solubility which yielded a higher LCST compared to before enzyme degradation. Future studies will focus on evaluating other peptides and also using other techniques such as Differential Scanning Microcalorimetry (DSC) to better observe the LCST behavior. Moreover, enzyme kinetics studies is also crucial to evaluate how fast the enzyme degrades each of the copolymers.

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2018-05

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The Characterization and Development of Methylcellulose in Hydrogels

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This report provides information concerning qualities of methylcellulose and how those properties affect further experimentation within the biomedical world. Utilizing the compound’s biocompatibility many issues, ranging from surgical to cosmetic, can be solved. As of recent, studies indicate,

This report provides information concerning qualities of methylcellulose and how those properties affect further experimentation within the biomedical world. Utilizing the compound’s biocompatibility many issues, ranging from surgical to cosmetic, can be solved. As of recent, studies indicate, methylcellulose has been used as a physically cross-linked gel, which cannot sustain a solid form within the body. Therefore, this report will ultimately explore the means of creating a non-degradable, injectable, chemically cross-linking methylcellulose- based hydrogel. Methylcellulose will be evaluated and altered in experiments conducted within this report and a chemical cross-linker, developed from Jeffamine ED 2003 (O,O′-Bis(2-aminopropyl) polypropylene glycol-block-polyethylene glycol-block-polypropylene glycol), will be created. Experimentation with these elements is outlined here, and will ultimately prompt future revisions and analysis.

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2013-05

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Thermo-Responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-Based Polymers for Endovascular Brain Aneurysm Repair

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There is an increasing interest in developing thermo-responsive polymers for treating aneurysms. In this thesis project, the potential for poly(NIPAAm-co-JAAm-co-HEMA-Acrylate) (PNJHAc) as a treatment method for brain aneurysms was investigated. Five different batches of polymer were synthesized, purified, lyophilized, and

There is an increasing interest in developing thermo-responsive polymers for treating aneurysms. In this thesis project, the potential for poly(NIPAAm-co-JAAm-co-HEMA-Acrylate) (PNJHAc) as a treatment method for brain aneurysms was investigated. Five different batches of polymer were synthesized, purified, lyophilized, and characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and cloud point techniques over the course of several months. Two were tested in aneurysm models. Of these five batches, there were two that showed promise as liquid embolic agents for endovascular embolization.

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2020-05

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Easily deliverable and elastic thermosensitive physical-chemical gelling hydrogels for embolization

Description

Rupture of intracranial aneurysms causes a subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is often lethal health event. A minimally invasive method of solving this problem may involve a material, which can be administered as a liquid and then becomes a strong solid within

Rupture of intracranial aneurysms causes a subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is often lethal health event. A minimally invasive method of solving this problem may involve a material, which can be administered as a liquid and then becomes a strong solid within minutes preventing flow of blood in the aneurysm. Here we report on the development of temperature responsive copolymers, which are deliverable through a microcatheter at body temperature and then rapidly cure to form a highly elastic hydrogel. To our knowledge, this is the first physical-and chemical-crosslinked hydrogel capable of rapid crosslinking at temperatures above the gel transition temperature. The polymer system, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-cysteamine-co-Jeffamine® M-1000 acrylamide) and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, was evaluated in wide-neck aneurysm flow models to evaluate the stability of the hydrogels. Investigation of this polymer system indicates that the Jeffamine® M-1000 causes the gels to retain water, resulting in gels that are initially weak and viscous, but become stronger and more elastic after chemical crosslinking.

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2013-05

Statistical Modeling of Drug Release from Spherical Surface-Degrading Particle Batch

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The goal of this research project is to create a Mathcad template file capable of statistically modelling the effects of mean and standard deviation on a microparticle batch characterized by the log normal distribution model. Such a file can be

The goal of this research project is to create a Mathcad template file capable of statistically modelling the effects of mean and standard deviation on a microparticle batch characterized by the log normal distribution model. Such a file can be applied during manufacturing to explore tolerances and increase cost and time effectiveness. Theoretical data for the time to 60% drug release and the slope and intercept of the log-log plot were collected and subjected to statistical analysis in JMP. Since the scope of this project focuses on microparticle surface degradation drug release with no drug diffusion, the characteristic variables relating to the slope (n = diffusional release exponent) and the intercept (k = kinetic constant) do not directly apply to the distribution model within the scope of the research. However, these variables are useful for analysis when the Mathcad template is applied to other types of drug release models.

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2021-05

Engineering of Electrically Conductive Cardiac Microtissues to Study the Influence of Gold Nanomaterials on Maturation and Electrophysiology of Cardiomyocytes

Description

Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the U.S., accounting for nearly 140,000 deaths per year. Heart transplantation and implantation of mechanical assist devices are the options of last resort for intractable heart failure, but

Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the U.S., accounting for nearly 140,000 deaths per year. Heart transplantation and implantation of mechanical assist devices are the options of last resort for intractable heart failure, but these are limited by lack of organ donors and potential surgical complications. In this regard, there is an urgent need for developing new effective therapeutic strategies to induce regeneration and restore the loss contractility of infarcted myocardium. Over the past decades, regenerative medicine has emerged as a promising strategy to develop scaffold-free cell therapies and scaffold-based cardiac patches as potential approaches for MI treatment. Despite the progress, there are still critical shortcomings associated with these approaches regarding low cell retention, lack of global cardiomyocytes (CMs) synchronicity, as well as poor maturation and engraftment of the transplanted cells within the native myocardium. The overarching objective of this dissertation was to develop two classes of nanoengineered cardiac patches and scaffold-free microtissues with superior electrical, structural, and biological characteristics to address the limitations of previously developed tissue models. An integrated strategy, based on micro- and nanoscale technologies, was utilized to fabricate the proposed tissue models using functionalized gold nanomaterials (GNMs). Furthermore, comprehensive mechanistic studies were carried out to assess the influence of conductive GNMs on the electrophysiology and maturity of the engineered cardiac tissues. Specifically, the role of mechanical stiffness and nano-scale topographies of the scaffold, due to the incorporation of GNMs, on cardiac cells phenotype, contractility, and excitability were dissected from the scaffold’s electrical conductivity. In addition, the influence of GNMs on conduction velocity of CMs was investigated in both coupled and uncoupled gap junctions using microelectrode array technology. Overall, the key contributions of this work were to generate new classes of electrically conductive cardiac patches and scaffold-free microtissues and to mechanistically investigate the influence of conductive GNMs on maturation and electrophysiology of the engineered tissues.

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2018