Matching Items (12)

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Structure-function study of N-isopropylacrylamide copolymers with enzyme degradable GAPGLF and GAPGLL side chains

Description

With an increased demand for more enzyme-sensitive, bioresorbable and more biodegradable polymers, various studies of copolymers have been developed. Polymers are widely used in various applications of biomedical engineering such

With an increased demand for more enzyme-sensitive, bioresorbable and more biodegradable polymers, various studies of copolymers have been developed. Polymers are widely used in various applications of biomedical engineering such as in tissue engineering, drug delivery and wound healing. Depending on the conditions in which polymers are used, they are modified to accommodate a specific need. For instance, polymers used in drug delivery are more efficient if they are biodegradable. This ensures that the delivery system does not remain in the body after releasing the drug. It is therefore crucial that the polymer used in the drug system possess biodegradable properties. Such modification can be done in different ways including the use of peptides to make copolymers that will degrade in the presence of enzymes. In this work, we studied the effect of a polypeptide GAPGLL on the polymer NIPAAm and compare with the previously studied Poly(NIPAAm-co-GAPGLF). Both copolymers Poly(NIPAAm-co-GAPGLL) were first synthesized from Poly(NIPAAm-co-NASI) through nucleophilic substitution by the two peptides. The synthesis of these copolymers was confirmed by 1H NMR spectra and through cloud point measurement, the corresponding LCST was determined. Both copolymers were degraded by collagenase enzyme at 25 ° C and their 1H NMR spectra confirmed this process. Both copolymers were cleaved by collagenase, leading to an increase in solubility which yielded a higher LCST compared to before enzyme degradation. Future studies will focus on evaluating other peptides and also using other techniques such as Differential Scanning Microcalorimetry (DSC) to better observe the LCST behavior. Moreover, enzyme kinetics studies is also crucial to evaluate how fast the enzyme degrades each of the copolymers.

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  • 2018-05

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Advanced biomaterials and microengineering technologies to recapitulate the stepwise process of cancer metastasis

Description

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally according to the World Health Organization. Although improved treatments and early diagnoses have reduced cancer related mortalities, metastatic disease remains

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally according to the World Health Organization. Although improved treatments and early diagnoses have reduced cancer related mortalities, metastatic disease remains a major clinical challenge. The local tumor microenvironment plays a significant role in cancer metastasis, where tumor cells respond and adapt to a plethora of biochemical and biophysical signals from stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Due to these complexities, there is a critical need to understand molecular mechanisms underlying cancer metastasis to facilitate the discovery of more effective therapies. In the past few years, the integration of advanced biomaterials and microengineering approaches has initiated the development of innovative platform technologies for cancer research. These technologies enable the creation of biomimetic in vitro models with physiologically relevant (i.e. in vivo-like) characteristics to conduct studies ranging from fundamental cancer biology to high-throughput drug screening. In this review article, we discuss the biological significance of each step of the metastatic cascade and provide a broad overview on recent progress to recapitulate these stages using advanced biomaterials and microengineered technologies. In each section, we will highlight the advantages and shortcomings of each approach and provide our perspectives on future directions.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Thermo-Responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-Based Polymers for Endovascular Brain Aneurysm Repair

Description

There is an increasing interest in developing thermo-responsive polymers for treating aneurysms. In this thesis project, the potential for poly(NIPAAm-co-JAAm-co-HEMA-Acrylate) (PNJHAc) as a treatment method for brain aneurysms was investigated.

There is an increasing interest in developing thermo-responsive polymers for treating aneurysms. In this thesis project, the potential for poly(NIPAAm-co-JAAm-co-HEMA-Acrylate) (PNJHAc) as a treatment method for brain aneurysms was investigated. Five different batches of polymer were synthesized, purified, lyophilized, and characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and cloud point techniques over the course of several months. Two were tested in aneurysm models. Of these five batches, there were two that showed promise as liquid embolic agents for endovascular embolization.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Easily deliverable and elastic thermosensitive physical-chemical gelling hydrogels for embolization

Description

Rupture of intracranial aneurysms causes a subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is often lethal health event. A minimally invasive method of solving this problem may involve a material, which can be administered

Rupture of intracranial aneurysms causes a subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is often lethal health event. A minimally invasive method of solving this problem may involve a material, which can be administered as a liquid and then becomes a strong solid within minutes preventing flow of blood in the aneurysm. Here we report on the development of temperature responsive copolymers, which are deliverable through a microcatheter at body temperature and then rapidly cure to form a highly elastic hydrogel. To our knowledge, this is the first physical-and chemical-crosslinked hydrogel capable of rapid crosslinking at temperatures above the gel transition temperature. The polymer system, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-cysteamine-co-Jeffamine® M-1000 acrylamide) and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, was evaluated in wide-neck aneurysm flow models to evaluate the stability of the hydrogels. Investigation of this polymer system indicates that the Jeffamine® M-1000 causes the gels to retain water, resulting in gels that are initially weak and viscous, but become stronger and more elastic after chemical crosslinking.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

Statistical Modeling of Drug Release from Spherical Surface-Degrading Particle Batch

Description

The goal of this research project is to create a Mathcad template file capable of statistically modelling the effects of mean and standard deviation on a microparticle batch characterized by

The goal of this research project is to create a Mathcad template file capable of statistically modelling the effects of mean and standard deviation on a microparticle batch characterized by the log normal distribution model. Such a file can be applied during manufacturing to explore tolerances and increase cost and time effectiveness. Theoretical data for the time to 60% drug release and the slope and intercept of the log-log plot were collected and subjected to statistical analysis in JMP. Since the scope of this project focuses on microparticle surface degradation drug release with no drug diffusion, the characteristic variables relating to the slope (n = diffusional release exponent) and the intercept (k = kinetic constant) do not directly apply to the distribution model within the scope of the research. However, these variables are useful for analysis when the Mathcad template is applied to other types of drug release models.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Investigating the Effect of a Hyaluronic Acid-Laminin Hydrogel on Inflammation After Traumatic Brain Injury

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death in individuals under the age of 45, resulting in over 50,000 deaths each year. Over 80,000 TBI patients report long-term

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death in individuals under the age of 45, resulting in over 50,000 deaths each year. Over 80,000 TBI patients report long-term deficits consisting of motor or cognitive dysfunctions due to TBI pathophysiology. The biochemical secondary injury triggers a harmful inflammatory cascade, gliosis, and astrocyte activation surrounding the injury lesion, and no current treatments exist to alleviate these underlying pathologies. In order to mitigate the negative inflammatory effects of the secondary injury, we created a hydrogel comprised of hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin, and we hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory properties of HA will decrease astrocyte activation and inflammation after TBI. C57/BL6 mice were subjected to mild-to-moderate CCI. Three days following injury, mice were treated with injection of vehicle or HA-Laminin hydrogel. Mice were sacrificed at three and seven days post injection and analyzed for astrocyte and inflammatory responses. In mice treated with vehicle injections, astrocyte activation was significantly increased at three days post-transplantation in the injured cortex and injury lesion. However, mice treated with the HA-Laminin hydrogel experienced significantly reduced acute astrocyte activation at the injury site three days post transplantation. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in astrocyte activation at seven days post treatment in either group. Although the microglial and macrophage response remains to be investigated, our data suggest that the HA-Laminin hydrogel demonstrates potential for TBI therapeutics targeting inflammation, including acute modulation of the astrocyte, microglia, and macrophage response to TBI.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Electrically Conductive Hydrogel-Based Topographies for Development of Three Dimensional (3D) Cardiac Tissues

Description

Cardiac tissue engineering is an emerging field that has the potential to regenerate and repair damaged cardiac tissues after myocardial infarction. Numerous studies have introduced hydrogel-based cardiac tissue constructs featuring

Cardiac tissue engineering is an emerging field that has the potential to regenerate and repair damaged cardiac tissues after myocardial infarction. Numerous studies have introduced hydrogel-based cardiac tissue constructs featuring suitable microenvironments for cell growth along with precise surface topographies for directed cell organization. Despite significant progress, previously developed cardiac tissue constructs have suffered from electrically insulated matrices and low cell retention. To address these drawbacks, we fabricated micropatterned hybrid hydrogel constructs (uniaxial microgrooves with 50 µm with) using a photocrosslinkable gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel incorporated with gold nanorods (GNRs). The electrical impedance results revealed a lower impedance in the GelMA-GNR constructs versus the pure GelMA constructs. Superior electrical conductivity of GelMA-GNR hydrogels (due to incorporation of GNRs) enabled the hybrid tissue constructs to be externally stimulated using a pulse generator. Furthermore, GelMA-GNR tissue hydrogels were tested to investigate the biological characteristics of cultured cardiomyocytes. The F-actin fiber analysis results (area coverage and alignment indices) revealed higher directed (uniaxial) cytoskeleton organization of cardiac cells cultured on the GelMA-GNR hydrogel constructs in comparison to pure GelMA. Considerable increase in the coverage area of cardiac-specific markers (sarcomeric α-actinin and connexin 43) were observed on the GelMA-GNR hybrid constructs compared to pure GelMA hydrogels. Despite substantial dissimilarities in cell organization, both pure GelMA and hybrid GelMA-GNR hydrogel constructs provided a suitable microenvironment for synchronous beating of cardiomyocytes.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Investigation of Cell Media and Aminoglycoside Hydrogel Properties for Cancer Cell Dormancy

Description

In a dormant state, cancer cells survive chemotherapy leaving the opportunity for cancer cell relapse and metastasis ultimately leading to patient death. A novel aminoglycoside-based hydrogel ‘Amikagel’ developed in Dr.

In a dormant state, cancer cells survive chemotherapy leaving the opportunity for cancer cell relapse and metastasis ultimately leading to patient death. A novel aminoglycoside-based hydrogel ‘Amikagel’ developed in Dr. Rege’s lab serves as a platform for a 3D tumor microenvironment (3DTM) mimicking cancer cell dormancy and relapse. Six Amikagels of varying mechanical stiffness and adhesivities were synthesized and evaluated as platforms for 3DTM formation through cell viability and cell cycle arrest analyses. The impact of fetal bovine serum concentration and bovine serum albumin concentration in the media were studied for their impact on 3DTM formation. These experiments allow us to identify the best possible Amikagel formulation for 3DTM.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Enhancing CXCR4 expression of hNPCs using Hyaluronic Acid - Laminin Hydrogel: A Potential Treatment for TBI

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in numerous pathologies that cannot currently be mitigated by clinical interventions. Stem cell therapies are widely researched to address TBI-related pathologies with limited success

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in numerous pathologies that cannot currently be mitigated by clinical interventions. Stem cell therapies are widely researched to address TBI-related pathologies with limited success in pre-clinical models due to limitations in transplant survival rates. To address this issue, the use of tissue engineered scaffolds as a delivery mechanism has been explored to improve survival and engraftment rates. Previous work with hyaluronic acid \u2014 laminin (HA-Lm) gels found high viability and engraftment rates of mouse fetal derived neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs) cultured on the gel. Furthermore, NPSCs exposed to the HA-Lm gels exhibit increased expression of CXCR4, a critical surface receptor that promotes cell migration. We hypothesized that culturing hNPCs on the HA-Lm gel would increase CXCR4 expression, and thus enhance their ability to migrate into sites of tissue damage. In order to test this hypothesis, we designed gel scaffolds with mechanical properties that were optimized to match that of the natural extracellular matrix. A live/dead assay showed that hNPCs preferred the gel with this optimized formulation, compared to a stiffer gel that was used in the CXCR4 expression experiment. We found that there may be increased CXCR4 expression of hNPCs plated on the HA-Lm gel after 24 hours, indicating that HA-Lm gels may provide a valuable scaffold to support viability and migration of hNPCs to the injury site. Future studies aimed at verifying increased CXCR4 expression of hNPCs cultured on HA-Lm gels are necessary to determine if HA-Lm gels can provide a beneficial scaffold for stem cell engraftment therapy for treating TBI.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Aptamer-functionalized Hydrogel for the Capture and Release of CCRF-CEM Leukemia Cancer Cells

Description

The main objective of this project is to create a hydrogel based material system to capture and release CCRF-CEM Leukemia cancer cells via chemo-mechanical modulation. This system is composed of

The main objective of this project is to create a hydrogel based material system to capture and release CCRF-CEM Leukemia cancer cells via chemo-mechanical modulation. This system is composed of an aptamer-functionalized hydrogel thin film at the bottom of a microfluidic channel, which changes its film thickness as the temperature of the fluid in the system changes. The functionalized hydrogel film has been created as the primary steps to creating the microfluidic device that could capture and release leukemia cells by turning the temperature of the fluid and length of exposure. Circulating tumor cells have recently become a highly studied area since they have become associated with the likelihood of patient survival. Further, circulating tumor cells can be used to determine changes in the genome of the cancer leading to targeted treatment. First, the aptamers were attached onto the hydrogel through an EDC/NHS reaction. The aptamers were verified to be attached onto the hydrogel through FTIR spectroscopy. The cell capture experiments were completed by exposing the hydrogel to a solution of leukemia cells for 10 minutes at room temperature. The cell release experiments were completed by exposing the hydrogel to a 40°C solution. Several capture and release experiments were completed to measure how many cells could be captured, how quickly, and how many cells captured were released. The aptamers were chemically attached to the hydrogel. 300 cells per square millimeter could be captured at a time in a 10 minute time period and released in a 5 minute period. Of the cells captured, 96% of them were alive once caught. 99% of cells caught were released once exposed to elevated temperature. The project opens the possibility to quickly and efficiently capture and release tumor cells using only changes in temperature. Further, most of the cells that were captured were alive and nearly all of those were released leading to high survival and capture efficiency.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12