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Assessment of Upper Limb Function and the Underlying Movement Strategies with Potential Application to Rotator Cuff Tears

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Introduction: Individuals with rotator cuff tears (RCT) have been found to compensate in their movement patterns by using lower thoracohumeral elevation angles during certain tasks, as well as increased internal rotation of the shoulder (Vidt et al., 2016). The leading

Introduction: Individuals with rotator cuff tears (RCT) have been found to compensate in their movement patterns by using lower thoracohumeral elevation angles during certain tasks, as well as increased internal rotation of the shoulder (Vidt et al., 2016). The leading joint hypothesis (LJH) suggests there is one leading joint that creates the foundation for the entire limb motion, and there are other subordinate joints that monitor the passive interaction torque (IT) and create a net torque (NT) aiding to limb motions required for the task. This experiment hopes to establish a better understanding of joint control strategies during a wide range of arm movements. Based off of the LJH, we hypothesize that when a subject has a rotator cuff tear, their performance of planar and three- dimensional motions should be altered not only at the shoulder, which is often the leading joint, but also at other joints on the arm such as the elbow and wrist.

Methods: There were 3 groups of participants: healthy younger adults (age 21.74 ± 1.97), healthy older adult controls (age 69.53 ± 6.85), and older adults with a RCT (age 64.33 ± 4.04). All three groups completed strength testing, horizontal drawing and pointing tasks, and three-dimensional (3D) activities of daily living (ADLs). Kinematic and kinetic variables of the arm were obtained during horizontal and 3D tasks using data from 13 reflective markers placed on the arm and trunk, 8 motion capture cameras, and Cortex motion capture software (Motion Analysis Corp., Santa Rosa, CA). During these tasks, electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on 12 muscles along the arm that affect shoulder, elbow, and wrist rotation. Strength testing tasks were measured using a dynamometer. All strength testing and 3D tasks were completed for three trials and horizontal tasks were completed for two trials.

Results: Results of the younger adult participants showed that during the forward portion of seven 3D tasks, there were four phases of different joint control mechanics seen in a majority of the movements. These phases included active rotation of both the shoulder and the elbow joint, active rotation of the shoulder with passive rotation of the elbow, passive rotation of the shoulder with active rotation of the elbow, and passive rotation of both the shoulder and the elbow. Passive rotation during movements was a result of gravitational torque (GT) on the different segments of the arm and IT caused as a result the multi-joint structure of human limbs. The number of tested participants for the healthy older adults and RCT older adults groups is not yet high enough to produce significant results and because of this their results are not reported in this article.

Discussion: Through the available results, multiple phases were found where one or both of the joints of the arm moved passively which further supports the LJH and extends it to include 3D movements. This article is a part of a bigger project which hopes to get a better understanding of how older adults adjust to large passive torques acting on the arm during 3D movements and how older adults with RCTs compensate for the decreased strength, the decreased range of motion (ROM), and the pain that accompany these types of tears. Hopefully the results of this experiment lead to more research toward better understanding how to treat patients with RCTs.

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2018-05

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A Comparison of the Effects of Two Warm- Up Protocols on Strength and Power in College- Aged Females

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The following study compared the effects of acute static stretching (SS) and whole body vibration (WBV) protocols on strength and power in college-aged recreationally active females. Ten active, Arizona State University females participated in the study after providing informed consent

The following study compared the effects of acute static stretching (SS) and whole body vibration (WBV) protocols on strength and power in college-aged recreationally active females. Ten active, Arizona State University females participated in the study after providing informed consent and filling out a survey to determine their health status and physical activity level. Participants took part in the study over two days, each day starting with a standardized cycling protocol, followed by random assignment to either a static stretching or whole body vibration warm-up condition. Whichever protocol they did not complete during the first session, they completed during the second session. After the warm-up protocol, vertical hang time and vertical jump were used to test leg power, and 1- RM bench press, and 1- RM leg press were used to evaluate the participants’ upper and lower body strength, respectively. Multiple t-tests were conducted for each sports performance test conducted: vertical hang time, vertical jump, bench press, and leg press. Strength and power, as assessed in this sample, were not significantly different based on warm-up protocol. T-tests comparing the effects of two warm-up techniques revealed that there were no significant differences in the leg power scores for vertical hang time (p ≤0.86) (effect size = 0), or vertical jump height (p =1) (effect size = 0). Similarly, there were no significant differences in bench press (p ≤0.08) (effect size = 0.38), and leg press (p ≤0.29) (effect size = 0.31), although effect sizes were moderate. Because of the medium effect sizes for leg press (0.31) and bench press (0.38), it is possible that WBV can facilitate greater strength gains in female college students, but more subjects are needed to further evaluate this finding. Given that leg power was not different based on warm-up technique, it is possible that static stretching for less than 30 seconds did not impede power in these active females. Clearly, more research needs to be performed on the effectiveness of the vibration platform comparing additional bouts of duration and frequency in active and athletic college-aged females.

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2017-12

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Translation of Physical Activity from Adolescence to Adulthood in Women: Investigating the Relationship Between Adolescent Engagement in Coordination and Performance Activities and Adult Physical Activity Levels

Description

Physical activity has been shown to be effective in primary and secondary prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (Warburton, Nicol & Bredin, 2006). Women tend to be much less active than males and are henceforth

Physical activity has been shown to be effective in primary and secondary prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (Warburton, Nicol & Bredin, 2006). Women tend to be much less active than males and are henceforth at a greater risk for developing these conditions (Biddle & Mutrie, 2008). This study addresses what impact type of physical activity in adolescence has on adult physical activity levels in the female population. Specifically, the study focuses on coordination and performance activities in adolescence, and how adult physical activity levels compare to both sedentary adolescents and adolescent endurance and ball sport athletes. Ninety-six female participants that were ages 20-29 (N=53) and 30-39 (N=43) were asked to fill out a survey about their adolescent activity levels and their current activity levels. Those participants who identified as participating in coordination and performance activity (N=43) were compared to those who were sedentary (N=14) and then further compared to those who engaged in other types of adolescent activity (N=39). It was determined that coordination and performance activities during adolescence did have a significant effect on frequency of female adult physical activity when compared to their sedentary counterparts (p=0.015). Adolescent endurance and ball sport athletes did tend to have a greater frequency of current activity in adulthood than those involved in coordination and performance activities, which was attributed to a greater frequency of practice per week in those sports. In conclusion, introducing a frequent amount of physical activity the female adolescent enjoys increases their likelihood of frequently engaging in physical activity as an adult.

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2015-12

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Assisted Cycling Improves Cognitive and Motor Functioning in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

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This study examines cognitive and motor function in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-four participants were randomly assigned to three groups consisting of an assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., exercise accomplished through the use

This study examines cognitive and motor function in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) following an 8-week assisted cycling therapy intervention. Forty-four participants were randomly assigned to three groups consisting of an assisted cycling (AC) (i.e., exercise accomplished through the use of a motor), a voluntary cycling (VC) (self-selected cadence), and a no cycling (NC) control group. Both ACT and VC groups rode a stationary bicycle for three 30-minute sessions a week, for a total of eight weeks. Participants completed cognitive testing that assessed information processing and manual dexterity at the beginning and at the end of the 8-week intervention. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results showed that information processing and manual dexterity improved following 8 weeks of cycling for the ACT group. These results were not seen for individuals in the voluntary and non-exercise groups. Our results suggest that assisted cycling therapy may induce permanent changes in the prefrontal cortex in adolescents with DS.

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2015-05

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The Effect of Resistance Band Training on Power Output

Description

Most athletic or daily activities require the use of force production at a given velocity, in other words, power is needed to complete these activities. There are different methods for how this can be done, but the main two are

Most athletic or daily activities require the use of force production at a given velocity, in other words, power is needed to complete these activities. There are different methods for how this can be done, but the main two are heavy resistance training and plyometric training (Kawamori and Haff, 2004). However, resistance bands are another option of training that is available at a low cost and equipment needs. Resistance bands can also be used by athletes and elderly alike, but so far the benefits have barely been studied. Two participants were recruited to be followed as a case study. Both were of college age and were currently recreationally active with no health or musculoskeletal problems. Both participants were given a 35 lb. resistance band and instructed to do four different lower extremity exercises (three sets of four repetitions each) that were designed to target the muscles used for jumping. The study ran for five weeks, requiring three workouts per week separated by at least 24 hours. Participants were tested at three points; initial, halfway, and after all 15 workouts had been completed. Tests included measuring for changes in maximal vertical jump height as well as maximal broad jump. Results showed that both participants were able to increase their vertical jump and broad jump measurements from the initial testing day. Participant one had a 22.95% and 39.40% increase in broad jump and vertical jump respectively. Participant two had a 7.84% and 11.72% increase in broad jump and vertical jump respectively. Based on this study, it would appear that the power training program is effective in producing an increase in power based off the measured performance variables. There may be some effect from familiarity with testing protocol but most likely increased were caused by neural adaptation from speed aspect of program, as well as some increase in force production.

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2014-05

Explaining Motor Imagery: Mirror Neurons as a Physiological Mechanism

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This project, which consists of a review article and an applied creative project, proposes mirror neurons as being a physiological mechanism for motor imagery. The review article highlights similarities between motor imagery research and research on mirror neurons. The research

This project, which consists of a review article and an applied creative project, proposes mirror neurons as being a physiological mechanism for motor imagery. The review article highlights similarities between motor imagery research and research on mirror neurons. The research is roughly divided into three types of studies: neuroimaging studies, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electromyography (EMG) studies, and electroencephalography (EEG) studies. The review also discusses the associative hypothesis of mirror neuron origin as support for the hypothesis and concludes with an assessment of conflicting research and the limitations of the hypothesis. The applied creative project is an instructional brochure, aimed at anyone who teaches motor skills, such as dance teachers or sports coaches. The brochure takes the academic content of the review and presents it in a visually pleasing, reader-friendly fashion in an effort to educate the intended audience and make the research more accessible. The brochure also prescribes research-based suggestions for how to use motor imagery during teaching sessions and how to get the best benefits from it.

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2015-05

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Prompt-To-Action Text Messages For Increasing Physical Activity

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The WalkIT Study is a mobile health study examining the efficacy of a four month text message-based intervention for increasing physical activity among 96 overweight adults. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the potency of the different types

The WalkIT Study is a mobile health study examining the efficacy of a four month text message-based intervention for increasing physical activity among 96 overweight adults. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the potency of the different types of motivational prompt-to-action text messages used in the WalkIT Study for increasing steps per day by examining the individual messages, creating qualitative themes and comparing themed groups, and evaluating the interaction between demographic subgroups and themed groups. A total of nine themes was created. The results found that Message 13, “It doesn't matter how old you are – it's never too early or too late to become physically active so start today; only then will you start to see results!”, had the highest median step count (7129 steps) and Message 71, “It's ok if you can't reach your goal today. Just push yourself more tomorrow.”, had the lowest median step count (5054 steps). For themes, the highest median step count (6640 steps) was found in Theme 6, Challenges, and the lowest median step count (5450 steps) was found in Theme 9, Unconditional Feedback. Theme 6 (Challenges) had the highest median step count for females, Theme 7 (Everyday Tips) had the highest median step count for males, Theme 4 (Nutrition) had the highest median step count for the 18-42 group, Theme 6 (Challenges) had the highest median step count for the 43-61 group, and Theme 9 (Unconditional Feedback) had the lowest median step count for both genders and both age groups. The results suggest the usefulness of analyzing the effectiveness of individual motivational text messages, themes, and the interaction between demographic groups and themes in physical activity interventions.

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2015-05

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Grip Strength and How it Relates to the Functional Disabilities in Persons with Down Syndrome

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The aim of this study is to understand the affects of grip strength and manual dexterity in activities of daily living (ADL) in persons with Down syndrome (DS). This is important because it could help with future interventions that are

The aim of this study is to understand the affects of grip strength and manual dexterity in activities of daily living (ADL) in persons with Down syndrome (DS). This is important because it could help with future interventions that are focused around improving related disadvantages in this particular population. Ten participants with DS performed the manual dexterity tests (i.e., Purdue Pegboard) and measured their grip strength with a hydraulic dynamometer. Overall, grip strength was lower than the average for the typical population and was reduced after aeorbic exercise. Improvements, however, were found in their manual dexterity from pre-test to post-test. This indicates that the assisted moderate intensity exercise intervention helped their dexterity performance. The improvements in dexterity are consistent with previous research conducted by Ringenbach et al. (2007). These results suggest that a moderate intensity treadmill walking exercise intervention can increase precision and efficiency in dexterity in persons with Down syndrome, however their grip force production may be stimulated by another means.

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2012-12

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DIFFERENCES IN UNILATERAL CHEST PRESS MUSCLE ACTIVATION ON A STABLE VERSUS UNSTABLE SURFACE WHILE HOLDING ONE VERSUS TWO DUMBBELLS

Description

Training the bench press exercise on a traditional flat bench does not induce a level of instability as seen in sport movements and activities of daily living. Because of this, many new types of equipment have been created in an

Training the bench press exercise on a traditional flat bench does not induce a level of instability as seen in sport movements and activities of daily living. Because of this, many new types of equipment have been created in an attempt to induce instability, such as the COR Bench. 15 males and 7 females between the ages of 18 and 30 were recruited for the present study, which tested two forms of instability: using one dumbbell rather than two, and lifting on the COR bench compared to a flat bench. Thusly, EMG was used to measure muscle activity in four separate conditions of unilateral bench press movements: on a flat bench with one dumbbell, on a flat bench with two dumbbells, on the COR Bench with one dumbbell, and on the COR Bench with two dumbbells. Results indicated that lifting with one dumbbell compared to two dumbbells on the flat bench significantly increased muscle activity across all four muscles being analyzed (pectoralis major, p = .005; middle trapezius, p = .008; external obliques, p = .004; and internal obliques, p = .003), but lifting with one dumbbell compared to two dumbbells on the COR Bench only significantly increased muscle activity in the middle trapezius (p = .001), external obliques(p = . 032), and internal obliques (p = .001). The only muscle to exhibit a significant increase in muscle activity when going from one dumbbell on the flat bench to one dumbbell on the COR Bench was the middle trapezius (p = .010). These results imply that the COR Bench itself does not increase muscle activity as much as switching from two dumbbells to one dumbbell, regardless of the bench being used.

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2013-12

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ASYMMETRIES OF THE LOWER LIMBS AND VERTICAL JUMP LANDING PATTERNS IN DANCERS COMPARED TO NON-DANCERS AND POTENTIAL RISK OF INJURY

Description

Dancers tend to injure the anterior cruciate ligament in their left leg more often than the right. It is unclear whether this trend is due to biased choreography or if leg dominance and left versus right asymmetries are contributing factors.

Dancers tend to injure the anterior cruciate ligament in their left leg more often than the right. It is unclear whether this trend is due to biased choreography or if leg dominance and left versus right asymmetries are contributing factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate asymmetries between the left and right leg, in knee abduction during landing, hip external rotation (ER) and internal rotation (IR) strength, and hip ER and IR range of motion in dancers compared to non-dancers. This study aimed to determine whether these asymmetries can be linked to leg dominance, and if this puts one leg at higher risk for ACL injury. Ten dancers and eleven non-dancers performed three maximal effort countermovement vertical jumps off of two feet, as well as three maximal effort single leg jumps on each leg. Knee abduction angles during the landing phase of the jumps were calculated using motion capture data. Maximum isometric hip ER and IR strength was measured at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 of knee flexion, and hip ER and IR range of motion was measured at 90 of knee flexion. Contrary to the hypothesis, few significant differences were found between the left and right leg, as well as between dancers and non-dancers. Dancers exhibited significantly greater IR range of motion than non-dancers, and knee abduction angles were greater on the right than left leg during double leg jumps. This opposes the hypothesis that knee abduction angles would be greater in dancers on the left leg. However, significant positive correlations were found
between IR strength and knee abduction angles during single leg jumps on the left leg, suggesting that IR strength may be a contributing factor to knee valgus. Further studies may want to utilize qualitative analyses, more relevant jumping tasks, and a different marker set to elucidate asymmetries of the lower limbs that may truly be present.

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2013-05