Matching Items (11)

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Breaking the Glass Canopy: The Ascension of Women in Colombian Revolutionary Groups

Description

In previous research, little work was done to understand how and to what extent female combatants in Colombian revolutionary groups functioned as leaders. This paper seeks to assess the agency

In previous research, little work was done to understand how and to what extent female combatants in Colombian revolutionary groups functioned as leaders. This paper seeks to assess the agency that women in Colombian leftist revolutionary organizations such as M-19 and FARC had access to, specifically with regards to leadership. Colombian revolutionary groups failed to successfully incorporate women into higher ranks, despite claiming otherwise. The military structure particularly favors men by esteeming masculine roles and blaming women for the transgressions of men. This paper specifically evaluates the differences between the M-19 and FARC with regards to female leadership. The M-19 more effectively incorporated women into leadership roles than FARC due to differences regarding representation.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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PRISONERS OF OUR OWN DESIGN: EXPLORING THE NATURE-CIVILIZATION DICHOTOMY'S EMOTIONAL IMPACT ON PACIFIC CREST TRAIL THRU-HIKERS

Description

While many report positive changes after completing a long distance hike on the PCT, many who return experience a sense of depression or intense sadness. This sadness can be debilitating,

While many report positive changes after completing a long distance hike on the PCT, many who return experience a sense of depression or intense sadness. This sadness can be debilitating, but very little research has been done to explore possible causes and remedies. This thesis argues that volatile environmental conditions on the Pacific Crest Trail act in a similar way to that of entities such as fraternities and the military in that the effort required to be initiated must be justified with the value received. As such, thru-hikers increase the value of the trail for themselves along with the cultural values that the trail may hold. These cultural values are predominantly equality, liberty, and the concept of the sublime. However, as nature is understood to be the opposite of urban environments, urban environments take on qualities of inequality, oppression, and corruption in the eyes of the hiker. These qualities then cause a hiker distress upon returning from their six month journey in that they have to both exist in and participate with such a society.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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A Combative Contract amongst Society and Reality

Description

Women have served in combat for centuries and in many cases, in nontraditional gender roles. Through the shroud of history, women have supported their country in times of conflict, from

Women have served in combat for centuries and in many cases, in nontraditional gender roles. Through the shroud of history, women have supported their country in times of conflict, from Sparta to Greece, and even to Persia. This case study reviews how women in combat impact gender inclusive policies in their regimes and society perception. We examine Kurdistan, Israel, and the United States because they all have been in major conflicts for the last few decades, and because there has been a significant female presence in their units on the frontlines. All three countries showed interesting effects when it came to gender equality: Kurdistan's female fighters were very active in liberating women from Sharia Law and implementing human rights in their territory, Israel's government supports their female soldiers and continues to push for more women to enter the combat arms units, and lastly, the United States' government has recently allowed women to have access to combat arms. All three countries have showed positive effects on their social constructions of women and both Israel and the US are in Social Watch's top 20 countries for gender equality. The social constructions are built on the norms of behaviors as well as perceptions that shape societal views. Kurdistan is not ranked in the Social Watch because it is not recognized by the international community; however, since Kurdistan is the region of Iraq, Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey, all four of those countries are ranked very low on the scale for gender equality. All three countries have shown support for gender equality in one way or the other and the desire to push for acceptance of these modern ideas. There are still a lot of obstacles in the road, especially for Kurdistan because it is under pressure to reform his regime in order to gain the support of the West and satisfy the activism of its women fighters.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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That Despotism which America Today may (or may not) have to Fear: Defining, Understanding, and Measuring Tocquevillian Soft Despotism in a Contemporary Context

Description

Alexis de Tocqueville concludes the second volume of his influential political work Democracy in America with a discussion of “What Kind of Despotism Democratic Nations have to Fear.” The

Alexis de Tocqueville concludes the second volume of his influential political work Democracy in America with a discussion of “What Kind of Despotism Democratic Nations have to Fear.” The phenomenon Tocqueville seeks to capture in his final chapters is often called “democratic” or “soft” despotism, and it is notably distinct from the traditional conception of despotism. The threat soft despotism represents to democracies is new to the world Tocqueville lived in, and as such, Tocqueville chose the word despotism to describe it because he felt no better word existed. So, to accurately describe the phenomenon that Tocqueville feared, he had to re-conceptualize despotism. When Tocqueville discusses soft despotism, he means a democratic state where people are incapable of being truly free. In examining this concretely, I have developed five criteria which capture all the characteristics of soft despotism: 1. The equality of conditions; 2. The destruction of social connection; 3. The creation of a centralized administrative state; 4. The fulfillment of base desires; and 5. The death of the political sphere. In “Defining Soft Despotism,” I offer explanations of what each of these five criteria means, and I discuss both how Tocqueville and later scholars view them. I offer my own understanding of each of these criteria framed in Tocqueville’s thought. Next, in “Understanding Soft Despotism,” I discuss what about soft despotism is so concerning to Tocqueville and focus on his belief that it fundamentally changes the people who live under it, depriving them of their humanity. Then, I discuss why Americans should be concerned today. Lastly, in “Measuring Soft Despotism,” I take data for each of the five criteria and examine them to see if they appear to match what Tocqueville envisioned a soft despotism would be like. In my assessment, I find that America today does not seem to be a soft despotism. America does not meet all five criteria I believe define a soft despotism. Instead, it appears America is only close to experiencing two of the five: the destruction of social connection, and the death of the political sphere. Despite these findings, there is still room for concern that America is heading towards becoming a soft despotism, or is perhaps headed in a different, but equally undesirable direction.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Working Towards Gender Equity in International Development Projects

Description

This thesis explores the framing of gender equity within International Development organizations and the design of projects to promote it. Using case studies of projects financed by United States Agency

This thesis explores the framing of gender equity within International Development organizations and the design of projects to promote it. Using case studies of projects financed by United States Agency for International Development (a major donor agency), and Inter Pares (a Canadian NGO) as evidence, the thesis identifies what works and what does not work in different contexts within these projects.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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21st Century Policing: Creating New Evidence-Based Policies to Improve Policing and Gender Equality in the Police Workforce

Description

The author in this paper takes a further examination at the current 21st century policing policies in recruitment, selection, education, training, and use of force. This paper goes back in

The author in this paper takes a further examination at the current 21st century policing policies in recruitment, selection, education, training, and use of force. This paper goes back in time to look at how policing first started and how policies have changed over the years. This paper also takes a look at The President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing and how this was the first step towards evidence-based policing. The current 21st century policing policies are not evidence-based that have no support behind them and are no longer working for police agencies. The author also goes into small detail about gender equality within policing and how police departments can change their policies to ensure this. The author implements eleven new evidence-based policing policies in recruitment, selection, education, training, and use of force for police departments to follow. The author proposes a model process that is grounded in the latest research and evidence. It creates a road map for other police agencies to follow to ensure that only the best qualified individuals are hired, and once hired, they are properly trained, supervised, and taken care of to ensure they are professionals throughout their career. All of the new implemented evidence-based policies have been researched and have facts to support their success in police agencies. The hope is that police departments will follow these new evidence-based policies with the research support and implement these policies in their departments in hopes to improve policing and to improve officers work ethic.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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The History of Women's Basketball and the struggle for equality in the sport

Description

In this project, I went through four stages of the history of women's basketball and talked about where sexism related to the sport comes from. I went through the birth

In this project, I went through four stages of the history of women's basketball and talked about where sexism related to the sport comes from. I went through the birth of women's college basketball and the WNBA as well as where the game is today.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Regional economic inequality analysis : a comparative study of the United States and China

Description

Economic inequality is always presented as how economic metrics vary amongst individuals in a group, amongst groups in a population, or amongst some regions. Economic inequality can substantially impact the

Economic inequality is always presented as how economic metrics vary amongst individuals in a group, amongst groups in a population, or amongst some regions. Economic inequality can substantially impact the social environment, socioeconomics as well as human living standard. Since economic inequality always plays an important role in our social environment, its study has attracted much attention from scholars in various research fields, such as development economics, sociology and political science. On the other hand, economic inequality can result from many factors, phenomena, and complex procedures, including policy, ethnic, education, globalization and etc. However, the spatial dimension in economic inequality research did not draw much attention from scholars until early 2000s. Spatial dependency, perform key roles in economic inequality analysis. The spatial econometric methods do not merely convey a consequence of the characters of the data exclusively. More importantly, they also respect and quantify the spatial effects in the economic inequality. As aforementioned, although regional economic inequality starts to attract scholars' attention in both economy and regional science domains, corresponding methodologies to examine such regional inequality remain in their preliminary phase, which need substantial further exploration. My thesis aims at contributing to the body of knowledge in the method development to support economic inequality studies by exploring the feasibility of a set of new analytical methods in use of regional inequality analysis. These methods include Theil's T statistic, geographical rank Markov and new methods applying graph theory. The thesis will also leverage these methods to compare the inequality between China and US, two large economic entities in the world, because of the long history of economic development as well as the corresponding evolution of inequality in US; the rapid economic development and consequent high variation of economic inequality in China.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Demographic change and white flight in rural America: exploiting minority labor and segregating public schools in Garden City, KS

Description

"White flight" is a sociological phenomenon where White members depart urban neighborhoods or schools predominantly populated by minorities, and move to places like suburbs or commuter towns. A huge

"White flight" is a sociological phenomenon where White members depart urban neighborhoods or schools predominantly populated by minorities, and move to places like suburbs or commuter towns. A huge limitation in White flight research does not account for communities in rural America. The rural community of Garden City, Kansas, is of particular interest because of its shift in demographics over the years. Garden City has transformed dramatically with the arrival of immigrants to staff meatpacking plants and their children who attend the Garden City Public School District. In the last eighteen years, the Garden City Public School District has experienced a 204% growth in Hispanic student enrollment while simultaneously experiencing a 54% decline in White student enrollment. The exodus of White students from the Garden City Public School District is the focus of this research. The findings of this study indicate that White flight exists in the Garden City Public School District primarily as a product of racism due to White community constituents' feelings of xenophobia and ethnophobia toward Garden City's minority populations.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

Social inequality in the Mimbres Region of the U.S. Southwest, ca. 200-1130 C.E

Description

This dissertation develops a multidimensional approach to examine the ways in which people in small-scale societies create, perpetuate, justify, and overcome social inequality. Inequality can exist within a number of

This dissertation develops a multidimensional approach to examine the ways in which people in small-scale societies create, perpetuate, justify, and overcome social inequality. Inequality can exist within a number of independent domains, some of which are likely to be subtle and dissimilar from those familiar to Western society. The advantages and disadvantages of inequality can shift between various groups and across social scales. Recent ethnographic work suggest that the most common domain of inequality in small-scale societies may involve status accrued to founding lineages. This hypothesis is examined in relation to four additional domains, each inspired by ethnographic data from indigenous groups of the U.S. Southwest: differential access to productive resources, ritual knowledge and practice, nonlocal objects and styles, and material wealth. Analyses are carried out with data from seven archaeological sites in the Mimbres region of southwestern New Mexico, spanning a period from approximately 250 to 1130 C.E. Results show that inequality was present throughout the Mimbres archaeological sequence but that it shifted over time, across space and social scales, and varied in magnitude in non-directional ways. Results also identify persistent factionalism wherein groups vied for moral authority based on differences in residential antecedence and justified via religious differences. Insight from this research benefits the social sciences by developing a number of methodological approaches, particularly to the archaeological study of primacy and antecedence, by demonstrating the necessity of a nuanced, multi-faceted approach to inequality, and by revealing the complex and plastic nature of inequality.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016