Matching Items (5)

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Synbody Assisted MRSA Growth Inhibition

Description

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a major challenge to healthcare professionals. Treatment of MRSA is expensive, and otherwise avoidable deaths occur every year in the United States due to MRSA infections. Additionally, such infections lengthen patients’ stays in hospitals,

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a major challenge to healthcare professionals. Treatment of MRSA is expensive, and otherwise avoidable deaths occur every year in the United States due to MRSA infections. Additionally, such infections lengthen patients’ stays in hospitals, keeping them out of work and adversely affecting the economy. Beta lactam antibiotics used to be highly effective against S. aureus infections, but resistance mechanisms have rendered methicillin, oxacillin, and other beta lactam antibiotics ineffective against these infections. A promising avenue for MRSA treatment lies in the use of synthetic antibodies—molecules that bind with specificity to a given compound. Synbody 14 is an example of such a synbody, and has been designed with MRSA treatment in mind. Mouse model studies have even associated Syn14 treatment with reduced weight loss and morbidity in MRSA-infected mice. In this experiment, in vitro activity of Syn 14 and oxacillin was assessed. Early experiments measured Syn 14 and oxacillin’s effectiveness in inhibiting colony growth in growth media, mouse serum, and mouse blood. Syn14 and oxacillin had limited efficacy against USA300 strain MRSA, though interestingly it was noted that Syn14 outperformed oxacillin in mouse serum and whole mouse blood, indicating the benefits of its binding properties. A second experiment measured the impact that a mix of oxacillin and Syn 14 had on colony growth, as well as the effect of adding them simultaneously or one after the other. While use of either bactericidal alone did not show a major inhibitory effect on USA300 MRSA colony growth, their use in combination showed major decreases in colony growth. Moreover, it was found that unlike other combination therapies, Syn14 and oxacillin did not require simultaneous addition to MRSA cells to achieve inhibition of cell growth. They merely required that Syn14 be added first. This result suggests Syn14’s possible utility in therapeutic settings, as the time insensitivity of synergy removes a major hurdle to clinical use—the difficulty in ensuring that two drugs reach an affected area at the same time. Syn14 remains a promising antimicrobial agent, and further study should focus on its precise mechanism of action and suitability in clinical treatment of MRSA infections.

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Date Created
2015-05

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Investigating geopolymer-mediated adsorption of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cells and secreted proteins

Description

The rise in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and the ability of the organism to develop resistance to antibiotics necessitate new treatment methods for MRSA. Geopolymers (GPs) are cheap, porous materials that have demonstrated adsorptive capabilities. In this study,

The rise in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and the ability of the organism to develop resistance to antibiotics necessitate new treatment methods for MRSA. Geopolymers (GPs) are cheap, porous materials that have demonstrated adsorptive capabilities. In this study, GPs were investigated for their ability to adsorb whole MRSA cells and MRSA secreted proteins [culture filtrate proteins (CFPs)] as a complementary method of controlling MRSA infections. GPs have been synthesized with variable pore sizes (meso/macro scale) and further modified with stearic acid (SA) to increase surface hydrophobicity. Four GPs (SA-macroGP, macroGP, SA-mesoGP, and mesoGP) were incubated with whole cells and with CFPs to quantify GP adsorption capabilities. Following MRSA culture incubation with GPs, unbound MRSA cells were filtered and plated to determine cell counts. Following CFP incubation with GPs, unbound CFPs were separated via SDS-PAGE, stained with SYPRO Ruby, and analyzed using densitometry. Results indicate that macroGP was the most effective at adsorbing whole MRSA cells. Visual banding patterns and densitometry quantitation indicate that SA-mesoGP was the most effective at adsorbing CFP. Ultimately, GP-based products may be further developed as nonselective or selective adsorbents and integrated into fibrous materials for topical applications.

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Date Created
2020-05

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Biophysical differentiation of MRSA and MSSA using Dielectrophoresis

Description

Dielectrophoresis has been shown in the recent past to successfully separate bioparticles of very subtle differences at high resolutions using biophysical forces. In this study, we test the biophysical differences of methicillin resistant and susceptible Staph. aureus that are known

Dielectrophoresis has been shown in the recent past to successfully separate bioparticles of very subtle differences at high resolutions using biophysical forces. In this study, we test the biophysical differences of methicillin resistant and susceptible Staph. aureus that are known to have very similar genomes by using a modified gradient insulator-based dielectrophoresis device (g-iDEP). MRSA is commonly seen in hospitals and is the leading killer of infectious bacteria, claiming the lives of around 10,000 people annually. G-iDEP improves many capabilities within the DEP field including sample size, cost, ease of use and analysis time. This is a promising foundation to creating a more clinically optimized diagnostic tool for both separation and detection of bacteria in the healthcare field. The capture on-set potential for fluorescently tagged MRSA (801 ± 34V) is higher than fluorescently tagged MSSA (610 ± 32V), resulting in a higher electrokinetic to dielectrophoretic mobility ratio for MRSA. Since the strains have proven to be genomically similar through sequencing, it is reasonable to attribute this significant biophysical difference to the added PBP2a enzyme in MRSA. These results are consistent with other bacterial studied within in this device and have proven to be reproducible.

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Date Created
2020-05

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Progress towards the synthesis of polyalthenol

Description

Throughout time, compounds from natural sources have provided humans with medicines, and recently become the structural inspiration for semisynthetic drugs. One arena that has benefited greatly from the use of these natural products is the discovery of novel antibacterial agents.

Throughout time, compounds from natural sources have provided humans with medicines, and recently become the structural inspiration for semisynthetic drugs. One arena that has benefited greatly from the use of these natural products is the discovery of novel antibacterial agents. Methicillin-resistant Staphylcoccus aureus (MRSA) continues to plague the United States as well as throughout the world, at least in part because of increasing antibiotic resistance. Therefore, scientists continue to scour natural products as potential leads, either directly or indirectly, for antibiotics to treat MRSA. The structure of the indole sesquiterpene, polyalthenol, was discovered in 1976 and recent work shows a 4µg/mL minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against a variety of strains of MRSA. Given the unique framework of this natural product and its biological activity against MRSA, the total synthesis becomes the next logical step. Presently a racemic synthesis has successfully afforded an indole ketone with the correct relative stereochemistry of polyalthenol, however, the completion of the total synthesis of polyalthenol presents several challenges. Herein, the work towards the synthesis is described in addition to the proposed completion of the synthesis.

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Date Created
2012

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In vitro and In vivo assessment of the mechanism of action and efficacy of antibacterial clays for the treatment of cutaneous infections

Description

The prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens has increased since the introduction of penicillin in the 1940s. Insufficient development of novel antibacterial agents is leaving us with a failing arsenal of therapies to combat these pathogenic organisms. We have identified

The prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens has increased since the introduction of penicillin in the 1940s. Insufficient development of novel antibacterial agents is leaving us with a failing arsenal of therapies to combat these pathogenic organisms. We have identified a clay mineral mixture (designated CB) that exhibits in vitro antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens, yet the antibacterial mechanism of action remains unknown. Antibacterial susceptibility testing of four different clay samples collected from the same source revealed that these natural clays had markedly different antibacterial activity. X-ray diffraction analyses of these minerals revealed minor mineralogical differences across the samples; however, ICP analyses demonstrated that the concentrations of many elements, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn in particular, vary greatly across the four clay mixture leachates. Supplementation of a non-antibacterial leachate containing lower concentrations of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn to final ion concentrations and a pH equivalent to that of the antibacterial leachate resulted in antibacterial activity against E. coli and MRSA, confirming the role of these ions in the in vitro antibacterial clay mixture leachates. The prevailing hypothesis is that metal ions participate in redox cycling and produce ROS, leading to oxidative damage to macromolecules and resulting in cellular death. However, E. coli cells showed no increase in DNA or protein oxidative lesions and a slight increase in lipid peroxidation following exposure to CB-L. Supplementation of CB-L with ROS scavengers eliminated oxidative damage in E. coli, but did not rescue the cells from killing, indicating that in vitro killing is due to direct metal toxicity and not to indirect oxidative damage. Finally, we ion-exchanged non-antibacterial clays with Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn and established antibacterial activity in these samples. Treatment of MRSA skin infections with both natural and ion-exchanged clays significantly decreased the bacterial load after 7 days of treatment. We conclude that 1) in vitro clay-mediated killing is due to toxicity associated directly with released metal ions and not to indirect oxidative damage and 2) that in vivo killing is due to the physical properties of the clays rather than metal ion toxicity.

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Date Created
2014