Matching Items (18)

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The Focusing of Proteins Using Dielectrophoresis in an Improved Microfluidic Device

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Dielectrophoresis is a separations strategy that has the potential to separate small amounts of different proteins from each other. The forces at play in the channel used for dielectrophoresis are

Dielectrophoresis is a separations strategy that has the potential to separate small amounts of different proteins from each other. The forces at play in the channel used for dielectrophoresis are electroosmotic flow (EOF), electrophoresis (EP), and dielectrophoresis (DEP). EOF is the force exerted on liquid from an applied potential (1). EP is the force exerted on charged particles in a uniform electric field (2). DEP is the force exerted on particles (charged and uncharged) in a non-uniform electric field (3). This experiment was focused on the testing of a new microfluidic device to see if it could improve the focusing of proteins in dielectrophoresis. It was predicted that the addition of a salt bridge would improve focusing by preventing the ions created by the electrolysis of water around the electrodes from interacting with the proteins and causing aggregation, among other problems. Control trials using the old device showed that electrolysis was likely occurring and was the causal agent for poor outcomes. After applying the electric potential for some time a pH front traveled through the channel causing aggregation of proteins and the current in the channel decreased rapidly, even while the voltage was held constant. The resistance in the channels of the control trials also slightly decreased over time, until the pH shift occurred, at which time it increased rapidly. Experimental trials with a new device that included salt bridges eliminated this pH front and had a roughly linear increase of current in the channel with the voltage applied. This device can now be used in future research with protein dielectrophoresis, including in the potential differentiation of different proteins. References: 1) Electroosmosis. Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. 2006. 2) Electrophoresis. Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. 2006. 3) Dielectrophoresis. Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. 2006.

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  • 2016-05

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Biophysical differentiation of MRSA and MSSA using Dielectrophoresis

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Dielectrophoresis has been shown in the recent past to successfully separate bioparticles of very subtle differences at high resolutions using biophysical forces. In this study, we test the biophysical differences

Dielectrophoresis has been shown in the recent past to successfully separate bioparticles of very subtle differences at high resolutions using biophysical forces. In this study, we test the biophysical differences of methicillin resistant and susceptible Staph. aureus that are known to have very similar genomes by using a modified gradient insulator-based dielectrophoresis device (g-iDEP). MRSA is commonly seen in hospitals and is the leading killer of infectious bacteria, claiming the lives of around 10,000 people annually. G-iDEP improves many capabilities within the DEP field including sample size, cost, ease of use and analysis time. This is a promising foundation to creating a more clinically optimized diagnostic tool for both separation and detection of bacteria in the healthcare field. The capture on-set potential for fluorescently tagged MRSA (801 ± 34V) is higher than fluorescently tagged MSSA (610 ± 32V), resulting in a higher electrokinetic to dielectrophoretic mobility ratio for MRSA. Since the strains have proven to be genomically similar through sequencing, it is reasonable to attribute this significant biophysical difference to the added PBP2a enzyme in MRSA. These results are consistent with other bacterial studied within in this device and have proven to be reproducible.

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  • 2020-05

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Temperature Measurement In Microfluidic Devics

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Microfluidics is an expanding research area for analytical chemistry and the biomedical industry. Microfludic devices have been used for protein and DNA sorting, early detection techniques for cancer and other

Microfluidics is an expanding research area for analytical chemistry and the biomedical industry. Microfludic devices have been used for protein and DNA sorting, early detection techniques for cancer and other disease, and a variety of other analytical techniques. Dielectrophoresis is a technique is often used to control particles within microfluidic devices however the non-uniform electric field can affect the interior of the device. In order to expand the applications of microfluidic devices and to make it easier to work with techniques such as dielectrophoresis, it is essential to understand as much as possible about how the internal environment of the device will affect the sample. A significant part of this is being able to non-invasively determine the temperature inside the microfluidic device in the both the channel and reservoir regions. Several other research group have successfully used temperature sensitive dyes and fluorescence to measure the temperature within microfluidic devices so research began with understanding their techniques and trying to optimize them for the chosen microfluidic channel. Results from calibration and reservoir tests show that there is a linear relationship between the temperature of the channel and the ratio between the dyes Rhodamine 110 and Rhodamine B. Results within the channel showed that the calibration may be difficult to apply directly as absorption from the PDMS continues to be a problem but several coatings can be used to improve the results.

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  • 2013-12

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Differentiation of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains using DC gradient insulator dielectrophoresis

Description

Bacteria play a vital role in the world ecosystem, more importantly human health and disease. The capability to differentiate and identify these microorganisms serves as an important research objective. In

Bacteria play a vital role in the world ecosystem, more importantly human health and disease. The capability to differentiate and identify these microorganisms serves as an important research objective. In past years, separations-based approaches have served as a way to observe and identify bacteria based on their characteristics. Gradient insulator dielectrophoresis (g-iDEP) provides benefits in identifying serotypes of a single species with precise separation. Separation of Staphylococcus epidermidis in a single g-iDEP microchannel is conducted exploiting their electrophoretic and electrokinetic properties. The cells were captured and concentrated at gates with interacting forces within the microchannel to clearly distinguish between the two strains. These results provide support for g-iDEP serving as a separating method and, furthermore, future clinical applications.

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  • 2015-05

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High Resolution Identification of Bioparticle Subpopulations with Electrophysical Properties

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There is increasing interest and demand in biology studies for identifying and characterizing rare cells or bioparticle subtypes. These subpopulations demonstrate special function, as examples, in multipotent proliferation, immune system

There is increasing interest and demand in biology studies for identifying and characterizing rare cells or bioparticle subtypes. These subpopulations demonstrate special function, as examples, in multipotent proliferation, immune system response, and cancer diagnosis. Current techniques for separation and identification of these targets lack the accuracy and sensitivity needed to interrogate the complex and diverse bioparticle mixtures. High resolution separations of unlabeled and unaltered cells is an emerging capability. In particular, electric field-driven punctuated microgradient separations have shown high resolution separations of bioparticles. These separations are based on biophysical properties of the un-altered bioparticles. Here, the properties of the bioparticles were identified by ratio of electrokinetic (EK) to dielectrophoretic (DEP) mobilities.

As part of this dissertation, high-resolution separations have been applied to neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs). The abundance of NSPCs captured with different range of ratio of EK to DEP mobilities are consistent with the final fate trends of the populations. This supports the idea of unbiased and unlabeled high-resolution separation of NSPCs to specific fates is possible. In addition, a new strategy to generate reproducible subpopulations using varied applied potential were employed for studying insulin vesicles from beta cells. The isolated subpopulations demonstrated that the insulin vesicles are heterogenous and showed different distribution of mobility ratios when compared with glucose treated insulin vesicles. This is consistent with existing vesicle density and local concentration data. Furthermore, proteins, which are accepted as challenging small bioparticles to be captured by electrophysical method, were concentrated by this technique. Proteins including IgG, lysozyme, alpha-chymotrypsinogen A were differentiated and characterized with the ratio factor. An extremely narrow bandwidth and high resolution characterization technique, which is experimentally simple and fast, has been developed for proteins. Finally, the native whole cell separation technique has also been applied for Salmonella serotype identification and differentiation for the first time. The technique generated full differentiation of four serotypes of Salmonella. These works may lead to a less expensive and more decentralized new tool and method for transplantation, proteomics, basic research, and microbiologists, working in parallel with other characterization methods.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Insulator based dielectrophoretic trapping of single mammalian cells

Description

This work demonstrated a novel microfluidic device based on direct current (DC) insulator based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) for trapping individual mammalian cells in a microfluidic device. The novel device is also

This work demonstrated a novel microfluidic device based on direct current (DC) insulator based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) for trapping individual mammalian cells in a microfluidic device. The novel device is also applicable for selective trapping of weakly metastatic mammalian breast cancer cells (MCF-7) from mixtures with mammalian Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) and highly metastatic mammalian breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231. The advantage of this approach is the ease of integration of iDEP structures in microfliudic channels using soft lithography, the use of DC electric fields, the addressability of the single cell traps for downstream analysis and the straightforward multiplexing for single cell trapping. These microfluidic devices are targeted for capturing of single cells based on their DEP behavior. The numerical simulations point out the trapping regions in which single cell DEP trapping occurs. This work also demonstrates the cell conductivity values of different cell types, calculated using the single-shell model. Low conductivity buffers are used for trapping experiments. These low conductivity buffers help reduce the Joule heating. Viability of the cells in the buffer system was studied in detail with a population size of approximately 100 cells for each study. The work also demonstrates the development of the parallelized single cell trap device with optimized traps. This device is also capable of being coupled detection of target protein using MALDI-MS.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Migration for organelles and bacteria in insulator-based microfluidic devices

Description

Efficient separation techniques for organelles and bacteria in the micron- and sub-micron range are required for various analytical challenges. Mitochondria have a wide size range resulting from the sub-populations, some

Efficient separation techniques for organelles and bacteria in the micron- and sub-micron range are required for various analytical challenges. Mitochondria have a wide size range resulting from the sub-populations, some of which may be associated with diseases or aging. However, traditional methods can often not resolve within-species size variations. Strategies to separate mitochondrial sub-populations by size are thus needed to study the importance of this organelle in cellular functions. Additionally, challenges also exist in distinguishing the sub-populations of bio-species which differ in the surface charge while possessing similar size, such as Salmonella typhimurium (Salmonella). The surface charge of Salmonella wild-type is altered upon environmental stimulations, influencing the bacterial survival and virulence within the host tissue. Therefore, it is important to explore methods to identify the sub-populations of Salmonella.

This work exploits insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) for the manipulation of mitochondria and Salmonella. The iDEP migration and trapping of mitochondria were investigated under both DC and low-frequency AC conditions, establishing that mitochondria exhibit negative DEP. Also, the first realization of size-based iDEP sorting experiments of mitochondria were demonstrated. As for Salmonella, the preliminary study revealed positive DEP behavior. Distinct trapping potential thresholds were found for the sub-populations with different surface charges.

Further, DEP was integrated with a non-intuitive migration mechanism termed absolute negative mobility (ANM), inducing a deterministic trapping component which allows the directed transport of µm- and sub-µm sized (bio)particles in microfluidic devices with a nonlinear post array under the periodic action of electrokinetic and dielectrophoretic forces. Regimes were revealed both numerically and experimentally in which larger particles migrate against the average applied force, whereas smaller particles show normal response. Moreover, this deterministic ANM (dANM) was characterized with polystyrene beads demonstrating improved migration speed at least two orders of magnitude higher compared to previous ANM systems with similar sized colloids. In addition, dANM was induced for mitochondria with an AC-overlaid waveform representing the first demonstration of ANM migration with biological species. Thus, it is envisioned that the efficient size selectivity of this novel migration mechanism can be employed in nanotechnology, organelle sub-population studies or fractionating protein nanocrystals.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Electric Field Driven Migration and Separation in the Microenvironment

Description

Novel electric field-assisted microfluidic platforms were developed to exploit unique migration phenomena, particle manipulation, and enhanced droplet control. The platforms can facilitate various analytical challenges such as size-based separations, and

Novel electric field-assisted microfluidic platforms were developed to exploit unique migration phenomena, particle manipulation, and enhanced droplet control. The platforms can facilitate various analytical challenges such as size-based separations, and delivery of protein crystals for structural discovery with both high selectivity and sensitivity. The vast complexity of biological analytes requires efficient transport and fractionation approaches to understand variations of biomolecular processes and signatures. Size heterogeneity is one characteristic that is especially important to understand for sub-micron organelles such as mitochondria and lipid droplets. It is crucial to resolve populations of sub-cellular or diagnostically relevant bioparticles when these often cannot be resolved with traditional methods. Herein, novel microfluidic tools were developed for the unique migration mechanism capable of separating sub-micron sized bioparticles by size. This based on a deterministic ratchet effect in a symmetrical post array with dielectrophoresis (DEP) for the fast migration allowing separation of polystyrene beads, mitochondria, and liposomes in tens of seconds. This mechanism was further demonstrated using high throughput DEP-based ratchet devices for versatile, continuous sub-micron size particle separation with large sample volumes. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) with X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) revolutionized protein structure determination. In SFX experiments, a majority of the continuously injected liquid crystal suspension is wasted due to the unique X-ray pulse structure of XFELs, requiring a large amount (up to grams) of crystal sample to determine a protein structure. To reduce the sample consumption in such experiments, 3D printed droplet-based microfluidic platforms were developed for the generation of aqueous droplets in an oil phase. The implemented droplet-based sample delivery method showed 60% less sample volume consumption compared to the continuous injection at the European XFEL. For the enhanced control of aqueous droplet generation, the device allowed dynamic triggering of droplets for further improvement in synchronization between droplets and the X-ray pulses. This innovative technique of triggering droplets can play a crucial role in saving protein crystals in future SFX experiments. The electric field-assisted unique migration and separation phenomena in microfluidic platforms will be the key solution for revolutionizing the field of organelle separation and structural analysis of proteins.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Ultrafine dielectrophoresis-based technique for virus and biofluid manipulation

Description

Microfluidics has shown great potential in rapid isolation, sorting, and concentration of bioparticles upon its discovery. Over the past decades, significant improvements have been made in device fabrication techniques and

Microfluidics has shown great potential in rapid isolation, sorting, and concentration of bioparticles upon its discovery. Over the past decades, significant improvements have been made in device fabrication techniques and microfluidic methodologies. As a result, considerable microfluidic-based isolation and concentration techniques have been developed, particularly for rapid pathogen detection. Among all microfluidic techniques, dielectrophoresis (DEP) is one of the most effective and efficient techniques to quickly isolate and separate polarizable particles under inhomogeneous electric field. To date, extensive studies have demonstrated that DEP devices are able to precisely manipulate cells ranging from over 10 μm (mammalian cells) down to about 1 μm (small bacteria). However, very limited DEP studies on manipulating submicron bioparticles, such as viruses, have been reported.

In this dissertation, rapid capture and concentration of two different and representative types of virus particles (Sindbis virus and bacteriophage M13) with gradient insulator-based DEP (g-iDEP) has been demonstrated. Sindbis virus has a near-spherical shape with a diameter ~68 nm, while bacteriophage M13 has a filamentous shape with a length ~900 nm and a diameter ~6 nm. Under specific g-iDEP experimental conditions, the concentration of Sindbis virus can be increased two to six times within only a few seconds, using easily accessible voltages as low as 70 V. A similar phenomenon is also observed with bacteriophage M13. Meanwhile, their different DEP behavior predicts the potential of separating viruses with carefully designed microchannels and choices of experimental condition.

DEP-based microfluidics also shows great potential in manipulating blood samples, specifically rapid separations of blood cells and proteins. To investigate the ability of g-iDEP device in blood sample manipulation, some proofs of principle work was accomplished including separating two cardiac disease-related proteins (myoglobin and heart-type fatty acid binding protein) and red blood cells (RBCs). Consistent separation was observed, showing retention of RBCs and passage of the two spiked protein biomarkers. The numerical concentration of RBCs was reduced (~70 percent after one minute) with the purified proteins available for detection or further processing. This study explores and extends the use of the device from differentiating similar particles to acting as a sample pretreatment step.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Analyzing cellular properties with dielectrophoresis

Description

Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a technique that influences the motion of polarizable particles in an electric field gradient. DEP can be combined with other effects that influence the motion of

Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a technique that influences the motion of polarizable particles in an electric field gradient. DEP can be combined with other effects that influence the motion of a particle in a microchannel, such as electrophoresis and electroosmosis. Together, these three can be used to probe properties of an analyte, including charge, conductivity, and zeta potential. DEP shows promise as a high-resolution differentiation and separation method, with the ability to distinguish between subtly-different populations. This, combined with the fast (on the order of minutes) analysis times offered by the technique, lend it many of the features necessary to be used in rapid diagnostics and point-of-care devices.

Here, a mathematical model of dielectrophoretic data is presented to connect analyte properties with data features, including the intercept and slope, enabling DEP to be used in applications which require this information. The promise of DEP to distinguish between analytes with small differences is illustrated with antibiotic resistant bacteria. The DEP system is shown to differentiate between methicillin-resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. This differentiation was achieved both label free and with bacteria that had been fluorescently-labeled. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-positive and negative Klebsiella pneumoniae were also distinguished, demonstrating the differentiation for a different mechanism of antibiotic resistance. Differences in dielectrophoretic behavior as displayed by S. aureus and K. pneumoniae were also shown by Staphylococcus epidermidis. These differences were exploited for a separation in space of gentamicin-resistant and -susceptible S. epidermidis. Besides establishing the ability of DEP to distinguish between populations with small biophysical differences, these studies illustrate the possibility for the use of DEP in applications such as rapid diagnostics.

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Date Created
  • 2019