Matching Items (49)

131565-Thumbnail Image.png

Using a Sensory Learning Framework to Design Effective Curricula: Evidence from Indigenous Nutrition Education Programs

Description

As health disparities among Native Americans persist, promoting better health outcomes is of paramount concern among Native populations. A variety of programs exist that try to alleviate problems resulting in

As health disparities among Native Americans persist, promoting better health outcomes is of paramount concern among Native populations. A variety of programs exist that try to alleviate problems resulting in higher rates of diet-related chronic diseases and premature death. Indigenous-led nonprofits have implemented a series of nutritional education courses designed to empower community members to make healthier food choices. A theoretically-based curriculum, which provides learners information in the form of sensory-based modules, e.g., food preparation, food handling, cultural awareness, and practical cooking skills, has been introduced in various communities in the Great Plains and Southwest and met with success. We present evidence of success of a series of nutritional education programs, modeled after a canonical educational learning model Bloom’s Taxonomy, whereby families received information and resources necessary to make healthier food across three tiers. As each successive module of the program challenges higher cognitive domains, participants are more likely to indicate satisfaction in the course material as well as a desired change in their behavior, which we attribute to synthesizing and evaluating information to fully master program concepts. Aspects of this programming framework have the potential to be adapted to and integrated into other Native communities striving for the successful adoption of healthier diets.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

134846-Thumbnail Image.png

The Importance of University Level Psychology Education for the Incarcerated

Description

Education is a fundamental human right. However, when groups of people are subjugated to systematic violence and institutionalization, the importance of education often is often forgotten. A team of students

Education is a fundamental human right. However, when groups of people are subjugated to systematic violence and institutionalization, the importance of education often is often forgotten. A team of students and faculty at Arizona State University (ASU) currently teach an Introduction to Psychology course within a minimum-security unit in conjunction with both the Arizona Department of Corrections and the Prison Education Program at ASU. This course aims to enhance the current educational programs offered by the prison by fostering an environment where inmates can practice literacy skills and are introduced to standard classroom procedures for the typical university class. In addition, the course introduces students to an academic field previously unknown to them, specifically, psychology. However, the most important aspect of this educational endeavor is to provide an environment where people who have been deemed inhuman and outside of the human experience can come together and learn. By doing so, the curriculum sought to instill confidence in the students by demonstrating that they are in fact capable of learning and comprehending university level material. As of 2016, numerous studies have been conducted from across the nation that have reaffirmed the validity and efficacy of prison education on reducing recidivism levels of the previously incarcerated (ADC 2005, Kim & Clark 2013, Nuttal et al. 2003). Additionally, studies have determined that the benefits that students receive from education while incarcerated are, over time, shared with the family members (Erisman & Contardo, 2005). These benefits, while not strictly educational, are incredibly important within the realm of reduction in crime as they pertain to "reduction of costs, reduction of strain of offenders on their families, and an economic boost for society" (Erisman & Contardo, 2005). Teaching within any prison unit, regardless of the security level, provides a variety of unique challenges. Some of these include the lack of technological resources within most classrooms, prohibition of outside material unless vetted and approved by prison education staff, and rigid restrictions on student-teacher interactions. Also, because of the nature of psychology and the students within the class, certain sensitive topics must be either handled with extreme care or will not be covered at all. However, particular achievements were made in regards to increasing in class participation and encouraging the students to continue to pursue academics. Most importantly, it provides an environment where the humanity of the prisoner is restored, if but for only a few hours a week. It allows them to be seen as more than numbers, allows them to think and voice their opinions in a space that respects them for their beliefs. And the restoration of humanity to an inherently inhumane system is far more important than any other educational goal.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

153542-Thumbnail Image.png

The use of proportional reasoning and rational number concepts by adults in the workplace

Description

Industry, academia, and government have spent tremendous amounts of money over several decades trying to improve the mathematical abilities of students. They have hoped that improvements in students' abilities

Industry, academia, and government have spent tremendous amounts of money over several decades trying to improve the mathematical abilities of students. They have hoped that improvements in students' abilities will have an impact on adults' mathematical abilities in an increasingly technology-based workplace. This study was conducted to begin checking for these impacts. It examined how nine adults in their workplace solved problems that purportedly entailed proportional reasoning and supporting rational number concepts (cognates).

The research focused on four questions: a) in what ways do workers encounter and utilize the cognates while on the job; b) do workers engage cognate problems they encounter at work differently from similar cognate problems found in a textbook; c) what mathematical difficulties involving the cognates do workers experience while on the job, and; d) what tools, techniques, and social supports do workers use to augment or supplant their own abilities when confronted with difficulties involving the cognates.

Noteworthy findings included: a) individual workers encountered cognate problems at a rate of nearly four times per hour; b) all of the workers engaged the cognates primarily via discourse with others and not by written or electronic means; c) generally, workers had difficulty with units and solving problems involving intensive ratios; d) many workers regularly used a novel form of guess & check to produce a loose estimate as an answer; and e) workers relied on the social structure of the store to mitigate the impact and defuse the responsibility for any errors they made.

Based on the totality of the evidence, three hypotheses were discussed: a) the binomial aspect of a conjecture that stated employees were hired either with sufficient mathematical skills or with deficient skills was rejected; b) heuristics, tables, and stand-ins were maximally effective only if workers individually developed them after a need was recognized; and c) distributed cognition was rejected as an explanatory framework by arguing that the studied workers and their environment formed a system that was itself a heuristic on a grand scale.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

151682-Thumbnail Image.png

The theatrical ties that bind: an examination of the hidden curriculum of theatre education

Description

Examining the elements of the hidden curriculum in theatre education allows theatre educators the opportunity to reflect on their own pedagogy and its effects on the learner. The hidden curriculum

Examining the elements of the hidden curriculum in theatre education allows theatre educators the opportunity to reflect on their own pedagogy and its effects on the learner. The hidden curriculum refers to the unspoken or implicit values, norms, and beliefs that are transmitted through tacit messages. When the hidden curriculum remains veiled, the impact on the learner's education and socialization process can perpetuate gender, race, and class inequalities. In order to understand how the hidden curriculum manifests itself in theatre classrooms, we have to look at schools as "agents of legitimation, organized to produce and reproduce the dominant categories, values, and social relationships necessary for the maintenance of the larger society" (Giroux, 1983, p. 72). This qualitative study examined the hidden curriculum in theatre at the secondary level and looked at theatre teachers' pedagogy in reproducing elements of the hidden curriculum. Interviews, naturalistic observation, and a researcher reflective journal were employed in the data collection process to better understand: a) the elements of hidden curriculum that appear in theatre education at the secondary level, b) how the pedagogical practices of theatre teachers support societal structures, and c) how the hidden curriculum in theatre reinforces gender, race, and social class distinctions. Data were then coded and analyzed to find emergent themes. Multiple theoretical perspectives serve as a conceptual framework for understanding the hidden curriculum, and provide a neglected perspective of the hidden curriculum in theatre education. The theatre classroom provides a unique space to view hidden curriculum and can be viewed as a unique agent of social change. Themes related to the first research question emerged as: a) privileges for older students, b) school rules, c) respect for authority, d) acceptance of repetitive tasks, and c) punctuality. Themes related to the second research question emerged as: a) practices, b) procedures, c) rules, d) relationships, and e) structures. Finally, themes related to the third question emerged as: a) reinforcement of social inequality, b) perpetuation of class structure, and c) acceptance of social destiny. The discussion looks at the functions of theatre pedagogy in the reproduction of class, inequality, and institutionalized cultural norms.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

150654-Thumbnail Image.png

Whiteness in social work education: authentic White allies

Description

This dissertation is guided by the following questions: How do People of Color define and experience White people as "authentic" allies? What does a White ally look like to People

This dissertation is guided by the following questions: How do People of Color define and experience White people as "authentic" allies? What does a White ally look like to People of Color? How do White allies view themselves as "authentic" White allies? What experiences lead White people to anti-racism and anti-racist praxis? How do White people translate what they know about racism into an active and courageous anti-racist praxis in their own lives? What kinds of educational experiences in the social work classroom might foster or hinder students from learning how to translate anti-racist knowledge into anti-racist praxis? Using narrative methods, I explore some of the answers to these questions. Findings from this study offer ways to design deeper and more meaningful social work/social justice pedagogy that will better prepare social workers to be active, anti-racist practitioners and allies in all aspects of their work.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

150989-Thumbnail Image.png

Curriculum improvement in education for sustainable development: measuring learning outcomes in an introductory urban planning course

Description

Education for sustainable development (ESD) is an academic goal for many courses in higher learning. ESD encompasses a specific range of learning outcomes, competencies, skills and literacies that include and

Education for sustainable development (ESD) is an academic goal for many courses in higher learning. ESD encompasses a specific range of learning outcomes, competencies, skills and literacies that include and exceed the acquisition of content knowledge. Methods and case studies for measuring learning outcomes in ESD is absent from the literature. This case study of an undergraduate course in urban sustainability examines the processes, curriculum, pedagogies, and methods to explore whether or not learning outcomes in education for sustainable development are being reached. Observations of the course, and the statistical analysis of student surveys from course evaluations, are explored to help identify the relationships between learning outcomes in ESD and the processes of learning and teaching in the case study. Recommendations are made for applying the lessons of the case study to other courses, and for continuing further research in this area.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

151452-Thumbnail Image.png

The hidden curriculum of home learning in ten LDS families

Description

This study investigates the hidden curriculum of home learning, through participant observation of ten families, members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), who chose to educate

This study investigates the hidden curriculum of home learning, through participant observation of ten families, members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), who chose to educate their children at home. The term "hidden curriculum" is typically used to describe the values and behaviors that are taught to students implicitly, through the structure and organization of formal schooling. I used the concept of hidden curriculum as a starting point for understanding how the organization and process of home learning might also convey lessons to its participants, lessons that are not necessarily an explicit object of study in the home. Using naturalistic inquiry and a multiple case study method, I spent a minimum of ten hours each with ten families, five who homeschool and five who unschool. Through questionnaires, taped interviews, and observation, I documented typical home learning practices and purposes. These families were selected through a combination of purposive and snowball sampling to reflect a diversity of approaches to home learning. Key findings were organized into four main categories that incorporated the significant elements of the hidden curriculum of these homes: relationships, time, the learning process, and technology. The study offers three main contributions to the literature on home learning, to families, whether their children attend public schools or not, to policy makers and educators, and to the general public. First, in the case of these LDS families, their religious beliefs significantly shaped the hidden curriculum and specifically impacted relationships, use of time, attitudes about learning, and engagement with technology. Second, lines were blurred between unschooling and homeschooling practices, similar to the overlap found in self-reports and other discussions of home learning. Third, similar to families who do not home school, these families sought to achieve a balance in children's use of technology and other educational approaches. Lastly, I discuss the significant challenges that lay in defining curriculum, overt as well as hidden, in the context of home learning. This research contributes insights into alternative ways of educating children that can inform parents and educators of effective elements of other paradigms. In defining their own educational success, these families model the kind of teaching and learning advocated by professionals but that remain elusive in institutionalized education, inviting a re-thinking of and discussions about the "one best system" approach.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

151043-Thumbnail Image.png

Engineering-based problem solving strategies In AP calculus: an investigation into high school student performance on related rate free-response problems

Description

A sample of 127 high school Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus students from two schools was utilized to study the effects of an engineering design-based problem solving strategy on student performance

A sample of 127 high school Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus students from two schools was utilized to study the effects of an engineering design-based problem solving strategy on student performance with AP style Related Rate questions and changes in conceptions, beliefs, and influences. The research design followed a treatment-control multiple post-assessment model with three periods of data collection. Four high school calculus classes were selected for the study, with one class designated as the treatment and three as the controls. Measures for this study include a skills assessment, Related Rate word problem assessments, and a motivation problem solving survey. Data analysis utilized a mixed methods approach. Quantitative analysis consisted of descriptive and inferential methods utilizing nonparametric statistics for performance comparisons and structural equation modeling to determine the underlying structure of the problem solving motivation survey. Statistical results indicate that time on task was a major factor in enhanced performance between measurement time points 1 and 2. In the experimental classroom, the engineering design process as a problem solving strategy emerged as an important factor in demonstrating sustained achievement across the measurement time series when solving volumetric rates of change as compared to traditional problem solving strategies. In the control classrooms, where traditional problem solving strategies were emphasized, a greater percentage of students than in the experimental classroom demonstrated enhanced achievement from point 1 to 2, but showed decrease in achievement from point 2 to 3 in the measurement time series. Results from the problem solving motivation survey demonstrated that neither time on task nor instruction strategy produced any effect on student beliefs about and perceptions of problem solving. Qualitative error analysis showed that type of instruction had little effect on the type and number of errors committed, with the exception of procedural errors from performing a derivative and errors decoding the problem statement. Results demonstrated that students who engaged in the engineering design-based committed a larger number of decoding errors specific to Pythagorean type Related Rate problems; while students who engaged in routine problem solving did not sustain their ability to correctly differentiate a volume equation over time. As a whole, students committed a larger number of misused data errors than other types of errors. Where, misused data errors are the discrepancy between the data as given in a problem and how the student used the data in problem solving.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

149884-Thumbnail Image.png

Reflective photographic practice: developing socially engaged student photographers

Description

This study examines the possibility of using social and historical contexts, image analysis, and personal themes to engage adolescent photography students in the craft of photography. This new curriculum

This study examines the possibility of using social and historical contexts, image analysis, and personal themes to engage adolescent photography students in the craft of photography. This new curriculum was designed around large themes that correspond to the developmental stage of adolescence. Issues such as self-identity, teenage stereotypes, school, family, and community were explored through examining historical documents and photographs, comparing popular culture perspectives, and learning basic semiotics. The students then worked within these ideas by creating their own photographs and reflecting upon their art making choices. The new approach was implemented in an analog film class in which basic 35mm camera and film techniques are taught. It is argued that meaning making motivates the adolescent photographer rather than the achievement of strong technical skills. This qualitative study was conducted using an action research approach, in which the author was both the classroom teacher and the researcher. The study incorporates data collected from student-created photographs, student written responses, interviews of students, interviews of photography teachers, and the researcher's field notes. Major themes were discovered over time by applying a grounded theory approach to understanding the data. The curriculum brought a new level of student engagement, both in participation in the course and in the complexity of their image making. By incorporating the chosen topics, students' images were rich with personal meaning. Students retained concepts of historical and social uses for photography and demonstrated a base understanding of semiotic theory. Furthermore, the data points to a stronger sense of community and teacher-student relationships within the classroom. The researcher argues that this deeper rapport is due to the concentration on personal themes within the practice of photography. Setbacks within the study included censorship by the school of mature subjects, a limited amount of equipment, and a limited amount of time with the students. This study demonstrates the need for art curriculum to provide connections between visual art, interdisciplinary associations, students' level of development, and students' personal interests. The research provides a possible approach to redesigning curriculum for photography courses for the twenty-first century student.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

157784-Thumbnail Image.png

Scaffolding in the Center: Training Tutors to Facilitate Learning Interactions with L2 Writers

Description

Writing centers are learning settings and communities at the intersection of multiple disciplines and boundaries, which afford opportunities for rich learning experiences. However, navigating and negotiating boundaries as part of

Writing centers are learning settings and communities at the intersection of multiple disciplines and boundaries, which afford opportunities for rich learning experiences. However, navigating and negotiating boundaries as part of the learning is not easy or neutral work. Helping tutors shift from fixing to facilitating language and scaffolding literacy learning requires training. This is particularly true as tutors work with second or subsequent language (L2) writers, a well-documented area of tension. This mixed methods action research study, conducted at a large university in the United States (US), centered on a tutor training intervention designed to improve writing tutors’ scaffolding with L2 learners by increasing tutors’ concrete understanding of scaffolding and shifting the ways tutors view and value L2 writers and their writing. Using a sociocultural framework, including understanding writing centers as communities of practices and sites for experiential learning, the effectiveness of the intervention was examined through pre- and post-intervention surveys and interviews with tutors, post-intervention focus groups with L2 writers, and post-intervention observations of tutorials with L2 writers. Results indicated a shift in tutors’ use of scaffolding, reflecting increased understanding of scaffolding techniques and scaffolding as participatory and multidirectional. Results also showed that post-intervention, tutors increasingly saw themselves as learners and experienced a decrease in confidence scaffolding with L2 writers. Findings also demonstrated ways in which time, common ground, and participation mediate scaffolding within tutorials. These findings provide implications for tutor education, programmatic policy, and writing center administration and scholarship, including areas for further interdisciplinary action research.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019