Matching Items (5)

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Driven-Dissipative Dynamics of the Hubbard Model Attached to a Fermionic Bath

Description

In this project, we created a code that was able to simulate the dynamics of a three site Hubbard model ring connected to an infinite dissipative bath and driven by an electric field. We utilized the master equation approach, which

In this project, we created a code that was able to simulate the dynamics of a three site Hubbard model ring connected to an infinite dissipative bath and driven by an electric field. We utilized the master equation approach, which will one day be able to be implemented efficiently on a quantum computer. For now we used classical computing to model one of the simplest nontrivial driven dissipative systems. This will serve as a verification of the master equation method and a baseline to test against when we are able to implement it on a quantum computer. For this report, we will mainly focus on classifying the DC component of the current around our ring. We notice several expected characteristics of this DC current including an inverse square tail at large values of the electric field and a linear response region at small values of the electric field.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2020-05

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Modeling the TyrZ-His 190 pair of photosystem II for the study of proton coupled electron transfer

Description

The work described in the thesis involves the synthesis of a molecular triad which is designed to undergo proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) upon irradiation with light. Photoinduced PCET is an important process that many organisms use and the elucidation

The work described in the thesis involves the synthesis of a molecular triad which is designed to undergo proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) upon irradiation with light. Photoinduced PCET is an important process that many organisms use and the elucidation of its mechanism will allow further understanding of this process and its potential applications. The target compound designed for PCET studies consists of a porphyrin chromophore (also a primary electron donor), covalently linked to a phenol-imidazole (secondary electron donor), and a C60 (primary electron acceptor). The phenol-imidazole moiety of this system is modeled after the TyrZ His-190 residues in the reaction center of Photosystem II (PS II). These residues participate in an intermolecular H-bond between the phenol side chain of TyrZ and the imidazole side chain of His-190. The phenol side chain of TyrZ is the electron transfer mediator between the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) and P680 (primary electron donor) in PSII. During electron transfer from TyrZ to P680*+, the phenolic proton of TyrZ becomes highly acidic (pKa~-2) and the hydrogen is preferentially transferred to the relatively basic imidazole of His-190 through a pre-existing hydrogen bond. This PCET process avoids a charged intermediate, on TyrZ, and results in a neutral phenolic radical (TyrZ*). The current research consists of building a molecular triad, which can mimic the photoinduced PCET process of PSII. The following, documents the synthetic progress in the synthesis of a molecular triad designed to investigate the mechanism of PCET as well as gain further insight on how this process can be applied in artificial photosynthetic devices.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

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Fluctuation electron microscopy of amorphous and polycrystalline materials

Description

Fluctuation Electron Microscopy (FEM) has become an effective materials' structure characterization technique, capable of probing medium-range order (MRO) that may be present in amorphous materials. Although its sensitivity to MRO has been exercised in numerous studies, FEM is not yet

Fluctuation Electron Microscopy (FEM) has become an effective materials' structure characterization technique, capable of probing medium-range order (MRO) that may be present in amorphous materials. Although its sensitivity to MRO has been exercised in numerous studies, FEM is not yet a quantitative technique. The holdup has been the discrepancy between the computed kinematical variance and the experimental variance, which previously was attributed to source incoherence. Although high-brightness, high coherence, electron guns are now routinely available in modern electron microscopes, they have not eliminated this discrepancy between theory and experiment. The main objective of this thesis was to explore, and to reveal, the reasons behind this conundrum.

The study was started with an analysis of the speckle statistics of tilted dark-field TEM images obtained from an amorphous carbon sample, which confirmed that the structural ordering is sensitively detected by FEM. This analysis also revealed the inconsistency between predictions of the source incoherence model and the experimentally observed variance.

FEM of amorphous carbon, amorphous silicon and ultra nanocrystalline diamond samples was carried out in an attempt to explore the conundrum. Electron probe and sample parameters were varied to observe the scattering intensity variance behavior. Results were compared to models of probe incoherence, diffuse scattering, atom displacement damage, energy loss events and multiple scattering. Models of displacement decoherence matched the experimental results best.

Decoherence was also explored by an interferometric diffraction method using bilayer amorphous samples, and results are consistent with strong displacement decoherence in addition to temporal decoherence arising from the electron source energy spread and energy loss events in thick samples.

It is clear that decoherence plays an important role in the long-standing discrepancy between experimental FEM and its theoretical predictions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

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Cellular Monte Carlo Simulation of Coupled Electron and Phonon Dynamics

Description

A novel Monte Carlo rejection technique for solving the phonon and electron

Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE), including full many-particle interactions, is

presented in this work. This technique has been developed to explicitly model

population-dependent scattering within the full-band Cellular Monte Carlo (CMC)

framework to

A novel Monte Carlo rejection technique for solving the phonon and electron

Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE), including full many-particle interactions, is

presented in this work. This technique has been developed to explicitly model

population-dependent scattering within the full-band Cellular Monte Carlo (CMC)

framework to simulate electro-thermal transport in semiconductors, while ensuring

the conservation of energy and momentum for each scattering event. The scattering

algorithm directly solves the many-body problem accounting for the instantaneous

distribution of the phonons. The general approach presented is capable of simulating

any non-equilibrium phase-space distribution of phonons using the full phonon dispersion

without the need of the approximations commonly used in previous Monte Carlo

simulations. In particular, anharmonic interactions require no assumptions regarding

the dominant modes responsible for anharmonic decay, while Normal and Umklapp

scattering are treated on the same footing.

This work discusses details of the algorithmic implementation of the three particle

scattering for the treatment of the anharmonic interactions between phonons, as well

as treating isotope and impurity scattering within the same framework. The approach

is then extended with a technique based on the multivariable Hawkes point process

that has been developed to model the emission and the absorption process of phonons

by electrons.

The simulation code was validated by comparison with both analytical, numerical,

and experimental results; in particular, simulation results show close agreement with

a wide range of experimental data such as the thermal conductivity as function of the

isotopic composition, the temperature and the thin-film thickness.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

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Fabrication of Superconducting Tunnel Junction via Double Angle Evaporation

Description

This thesis explores the possibility of fabricating superconducting tunnel junctions (STJ) using double angle evaporation using an E-beam system. The traditional method of making STJs use a shadow mask to deposit two films requires the breaking of the vacuum of

This thesis explores the possibility of fabricating superconducting tunnel junctions (STJ) using double angle evaporation using an E-beam system. The traditional method of making STJs use a shadow mask to deposit two films requires the breaking of the vacuum of the main chamber. This technique has given bad results and proven to be a tedious process. To improve on this technique, the E-beam system was modified by adding a load lock and transfer line to perform the multi-angle deposition and in situ oxidation in the load lock without breaking the vacuum of the main chamber. Bilayer photolithography process was used to prepare a pattern for double angle deposition for the STJ. The overlap length could be easily controlled by varying the deposition angles. The low-temperature resistivity measurement and scanning electron microscope (SEM) characterization showed that the deposited films were good. However, I-V measurement for tunnel junction did not give expected results for the quality of the fabricated STJs. The main objective of modifying the E-beam system for multiple angle deposition was achieved. It can be used for any application that requires angular deposition. The motivation for the project was to set up a system that can fabricate a device that can be used as a phonon spectrometer for phononic crystals. Future work will include improving the quality of the STJ and fabricating an STJs on both sides of a silicon substrate using a 4-angle deposition.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019