Matching Items (23)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

132745-Thumbnail Image.png

Female Solicitation and Male Rejection During Mating Events in Wild Chimpanzees

Description

Humans are seemingly unique among the great apes with regard to their monogamous mating behavior. Since chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are humans closest living relative, understanding their actions may give insight into the evolutionary development of certain behaviors. In this paper,

Humans are seemingly unique among the great apes with regard to their monogamous mating behavior. Since chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are humans closest living relative, understanding their actions may give insight into the evolutionary development of certain behaviors. In this paper, the mating behavior of chimpanzees will be evaluated in hopes of better understanding any similarities or differences compared to that of humans. Wild male chimpanzees have shown to reject solicitations from females at full swelling. The hypothesis being tested was that a male chimpanzee will reject a female who solicits a mating event due to age, rank, and parity. Long term data from Gombe National Park in Tanzania, Africa was used to test this. As expected, parous females were less likely to be rejected than nulliparous females, rejection was more likely if several other swollen females were present, and rejection was less likely if the female was higher-ranking/older. Surprisingly, it was found that younger males were more likely to reject females than prime males were. This was most likely due to the fact that almost always, higher-ranking males were also present, which may have deterred young males from mating. The results also showed that there was no effect of male rank and female reproductive state on the probability of rejection. The findings of this study may help to show a potential evolutionary step towards conscious mate selection as seen in humans.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-05

133051-Thumbnail Image.png

A Case Study in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease of Two Ancient Andean Agriculturalists

Description

As a child passes through the birth canal, they become inoculated with vital gram positive and gram-negative bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes. Breast milk helps to support this growing microbiome by providing oligosaccharides that support its proliferation. Breast milk can be

As a child passes through the birth canal, they become inoculated with vital gram positive and gram-negative bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes. Breast milk helps to support this growing microbiome by providing oligosaccharides that support its proliferation. Breast milk can be considered the most nutritious source of food available to a growing infant by providing the necessary nutrients, growth hormones and antibodies to promote digestive health, growth, and a strong immune system. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Theory (DOHaD) is a theory that suggests a growing fetus and nursing child's nutrients and immune system are dependent on the mother's exposure to nutrients and toxins. Studies have shown a positive correlation between the length of nursing and a child's overall health through life. In addition, consuming an enriched diet after weaning builds a strong immunological and nutritional basis from which the child can grow. This leads to improvements in a child's overall health, which has beneficial long-term effects on morbidity and mortality. This project applied the theory to two Middle Horizon (AD500-1100) individuals from Akapana, Tiwanaku, in the Lake Titicaca Basin, Bolivia. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis was applied to first molar serial samples of these two individuals to determine weaning age and early childhood diet. Both individuals were male; one male died in adolescence between the age of 9-15 years, and the other died as an elderly adult around the age of 50-59 years. The results showed that the male who died in adulthood was provisioned with supplemental and post-weaning foods high in animal protein, and received breast milk until around 37 months of age. The adolescent male was weaned between 11-12 months and consumed a diet dominated by C4 plants \u2014 most likely maize \u2014 with much less protein. The correlation between prolonged access to breast milk and a healthier and more nutritious childhood diet and longevity are consistent with the theory discussed above.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-12

133529-Thumbnail Image.png

Distinguishing Post Mortem Faunal Predation from Intentional Sharp Force Trauma

Description

Due to the nature of animals, even domesticated pets, animal scavenging of human remains is an important taphonomic factor. This area of study has, however, been undercounted in the current literature. The purpose of this study was to begin the

Due to the nature of animals, even domesticated pets, animal scavenging of human remains is an important taphonomic factor. This area of study has, however, been undercounted in the current literature. The purpose of this study was to begin the first step in creating a taphonomic profile for urban / household animal scavenging as distinguishable from manmade tool marks. Using volunteered animals and regularly available tools, alterations were made on beef ribs in order to characterize the distinguishing profiles between the two groups. It was found that animal scavenging alterations, in the short term (20 minutes used in this study) have a distinctly different appearance than tool mark alterations. Animal scavenging has less visible alterations, consistent bite morphology across different species, and symmetrical cut marks along the midsection of the long bones. Ultimately, this study was a successful first step in furthering taphonomic alteration database research across various biomes and conditions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-05

133421-Thumbnail Image.png

Enchanting the Secular: Religion, Science, and Industry

Description

In my Honors Thesis, I endeavor to complicate and to respond to conventional debates over historical periodization and the problem of what it means to be "modern." I understand the modern as a conceptual product of discourses surrounding religion, science,

In my Honors Thesis, I endeavor to complicate and to respond to conventional debates over historical periodization and the problem of what it means to be "modern." I understand the modern as a conceptual product of discourses surrounding religion, science, and industry. Specifically, the modern era has been defined as one in which the forms of rationalization associated with quantitative and experimental scientific methods and large-scale, technologically sophisticated industrial production have surpassed the "irrational" superstitions associated with religion. Critical responses to this definition have largely had the goal of supplanting it with another way of conceiving of the historical discontinuity between the "modern" and the "non-modern." In three essays, I aim to complicate the terms (religion, science, and industry) in which these debates have been conducted and to relate them to one another both historically and conceptually. As opposed to the goal of re-defining the modern, my goal in these essays is to complicate the existing definitions and to reveal and challenge the ideological motives of historical periodization. I illuminate the connections of the modern conception of "religion" to a colonial system of power, between scientific development and changes in economic and religious thinking, and between contemporary technological and industrial projects to an "enchanted" view of the world. In tracing these connections, I am indebted to conventional discourses of modernization, Max Weber's theory of "disenchantment," and recent scholarship on the use of materialist methods in the study of history. In these essays, I move beyond the critical project of "re-imagining" the modern, and illuminate some of the ideological commitments of that project that I consider untenable. In addition to a more sophisticated historical understanding of the meaning of religion, science, and industry, what I aim to achieve in my thesis is a better framing of some of the largest problems faced by contemporary humanity, including the looming risks of ecological, economic, and geopolitical collapse. In this framing, I situate these risks in the context of their connection to strategies of historical periodization, and argue that managing them will require a radically new view of religion, science, industry, and the roles that they play in producing historical discontinuity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-05

134590-Thumbnail Image.png

Developing the Codebook for Water and Hygiene Stigma Surveys Global Ethnohydrology Study 2015

Description

The Culture, Health, and Environment Lab (CHEL) at Arizona State University uses anthropological methods and field-based studies to research how cultural knowledge may be used to help understand and respond to contemporary environmental and health issues—primarily the global challenges of

The Culture, Health, and Environment Lab (CHEL) at Arizona State University uses anthropological methods and field-based studies to research how cultural knowledge may be used to help understand and respond to contemporary environmental and health issues—primarily the global challenges of water insecurity and obesity. In their efforts to research water insecurity and it implications, CHEL has been working on studying water insecurity through the Global Ethnohydrology Study (GES). The Global Ethnohydrology study examines local knowledge and perceptions of water issues, using transdisciplinary methods in a multi-year and cross-country program. In the 2015-2016 study, the GES examined water, hygiene norms, and hygiene stigma. It sought to investigate how hygiene norms are impacted by the level of water security, examining if water-poor communities have laxer laxer or more accommodating hygiene norms. This paper will explore the development of the codebook for this study, following the process in which the qualitative data from the GES 2015 was organized through a series of codes so that it may later be analyzed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017-05

134594-Thumbnail Image.png

Ethical Concerns about the Negative Impact of Tourism on Cultural Heritage Sites in Italy

Description

Cultural heritage sites bring people of different backgrounds together to learn about their differences and bond over their shared human history. The tourism industry is an essential tool to access cultural heritage sites, however tourists themselves pose a threat to

Cultural heritage sites bring people of different backgrounds together to learn about their differences and bond over their shared human history. The tourism industry is an essential tool to access cultural heritage sites, however tourists themselves pose a threat to the delicate state of ancient ruins and heritage objects. The ways in which tourists interact with cultural heritage sites negatively impacts them, resulting in the premature destruction of cultural heritage, a non-renewable resource. These damaging behaviors may include leaving the guided path, resting on the ruins themselves, touching vulnerable parts of the ruins, and committing acts of vandalism. Tourism must be managed, as the industry works to bring business and revenue into its host community. However, the industry also brings concerns of commercialization to the area, risking the integrity of the site. My research revolves around case studies of Pompeii and the Capuchin Crypt, and their underlying tension with the booming international tourism industry of Italy. Pompeii is not actually the "city frozen in time" by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, but rather an active archaeological site from which a lot can be learned. The Capuchin Crypt is an exquisite expression of beauty in the face of death that features chambers of biblical scenes reenacted with the human remains of Capuchin friars. Each of the sites reflects an aspect of the identity of Italy as a nation and of Italians as individuals, all contributing to a greater global identity. My case studies and research allowed me to find solutions that promote the collaboration between tourism and cultural heritage sites, rather than a state of constant tension.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2017-05

135363-Thumbnail Image.png

How We Live and Die: A Qualitative Analysis of the Relationship between Healthcare Experiences and Perspectives on Physician-Assisted Suicide

Description

Physician-assisted suicide occurs when a physician facilitates a patient's death by prescribing a lethal medication that they understand will be used for the purpose of ending the patient's life. It is a highly contentious subject and, with the recent addition

Physician-assisted suicide occurs when a physician facilitates a patient's death by prescribing a lethal medication that they understand will be used for the purpose of ending the patient's life. It is a highly contentious subject and, with the recent addition of California to the list of states that allow physician-assisted suicide, is an increasingly relevant subject. Physician-assisted suicide is rarely framed as a healthcare experience, despite being a choice in the process of end-of-life care. The research seeks to bring together the debates about physician-assisted suicide with conversations about health care experiences. The experiences and perspectives of young people are particularly valuable to evaluate now, as their voices will soon be the leaders in the debate over physician-assisted suicide. Within this research, there is an underlying theme of independence of individuals that is present through both the literature review and the body of data collected and analyzed. The study found that there was no significant relationship between the quality of a person's healthcare and their perspectives about physician-assisted suicide.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016-05

136343-Thumbnail Image.png

Anthropology, Dance, and Education: Integrated Curriculum in Social Studies

Description

Students not only deserve to be actively involved and engaged in learning content knowledge, but it can in fact help them learn better. Arguably too few classrooms actually utilize teaching methods that support this kind of environment. There is perhaps

Students not only deserve to be actively involved and engaged in learning content knowledge, but it can in fact help them learn better. Arguably too few classrooms actually utilize teaching methods that support this kind of environment. There is perhaps fear that methods like integrated curriculum may detract from student knowledge. The purpose of this intervention study was to determine how the integration of dance and social studies with an anthropological framework effects student learning of content knowledge in social studies, as well as student attitude toward the topic. Research questions that were addressed in this study are the following: (a) How does the integration of dance and social studies with an anthropological framework affect students' chapter test scores when compared to typical instruction?; (b) How does the integration of dance and social studies with an anthropological framework affect students' attitude toward social studies when compared to typical instruction?. Participants were two 6th grade classes at the same elementary school. As a supplement to a unit on Ancient Egypt, the experimental group received four intervention lessons, taught by the investigator, incorporating creative dance to encourage student exploration and increased understanding of content. An anthropological framework was also implemented to foster respectful investigation of culture. Results show that at posttest the intervention group had significantly higher content knowledge, as measured by a chapter test, compared to the control group. This suggests that this program did in fact help students to reach a better understanding of content. Though surveys showed no difference in attitude between groups or over the course of the study, qualitative student responses from the experimental group suggest extremely positive feelings towards concepts covered in the intervention lessons.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2015-05

136310-Thumbnail Image.png

Forbidden Love and Adulterous Affairs: An Analysis of the Portrayal of Tristan and Isolde throughout the Ages

Description

This project examines the literary figures of Tristan and Isolde, looking to see how each character is portrayed, how their portrayals change through time, and takes a socio-cultural perspective in attempts to explain why these portrayals were used, and why

This project examines the literary figures of Tristan and Isolde, looking to see how each character is portrayed, how their portrayals change through time, and takes a socio-cultural perspective in attempts to explain why these portrayals were used, and why they changed. Three different versions of the Tristan and Isolde story from three different time periods were used: Le Morte Darthur by Sir Thomas Malory from the 1400's, Idylls of The King by Lord Alfred Tennyson from the 1800's, and the film Tristan + Isolde distributed by 20th Century Fox in the mid 2000's. For each version of the story, the primary text or film, along with secondary sources, were used to determine how each character was portrayed. This was done by examining Tristan and Isolde's physical appearances, stations in life, actions, and personality/tone. These portrayals from each version were then compared with portrayals from the other versions to determine what changes had occurred. Finally, secondary textual information was used to examine the culture in which each version was originally published, specifically examining such socio-cultural changes that could explain why the previously determined portrayals of Tristan and Isolde were used and why they differ from versions of these characters from different time periods. The results of this study found that some characteristics of Tristan and Isolde's portrayals do not change through time. Specifically, their physical appearances and stations in life are, for the most part, fixed. Tristan is always a handsome, strong, and noble knight/warrior while Isolde is always a beautiful and delicate princess. Other characteristics, such as personality/tone and actions do change drastically from one version to the next in accordance with the changing culture in which the authors and audience members lived.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2015-05

135464-Thumbnail Image.png

Austin City Limits: An Ethnographic Analysis of the Modern Music Festival

Description

This ethnographic study explores the music festival phenomenon in the context of the Austin City Limits music festival, held in Austin, Texas with a total attendance of over 450,000 people annually. Using Glaser and Strauss' grounded theory method (1967), central

This ethnographic study explores the music festival phenomenon in the context of the Austin City Limits music festival, held in Austin, Texas with a total attendance of over 450,000 people annually. Using Glaser and Strauss' grounded theory method (1967), central questions concerning structure, community identity, sustainable consumption, and waste were generated from the ethnography. These topics were analyzed with supporting theory in cultural anthropology, sociology, and sustainability. The findings are the basis for our "local-washing" theory, suggesting that localness is utilized to create a sense of authenticity. It is our shared conclusion that local-washing is a prevalent phenomenon at the modern music festival and presents the impact of commercialization on the public sphere. The research conducted includes collecting ethnographic fieldnotes pertaining to festival-goers behaviors that we observed at the festival as well as an investigation of the waste at the festival. By attending the Austin City Limits music festival and utilizing the ethnographic research method, we gained a deeper understanding of what motivates and bonds people in the unique context of the music festival. Through this we found basis for an analysis of the sustainable consumption of food and beverages at the festival as well as waste behaviors and theories behind them including the idea of waste having an absent presence in society.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016-05