Matching Items (30)

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Female Solicitation and Male Rejection During Mating Events in Wild Chimpanzees

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Humans are seemingly unique among the great apes with regard to their monogamous mating behavior. Since chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are humans closest living relative, understanding their actions may give insight

Humans are seemingly unique among the great apes with regard to their monogamous mating behavior. Since chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are humans closest living relative, understanding their actions may give insight into the evolutionary development of certain behaviors. In this paper, the mating behavior of chimpanzees will be evaluated in hopes of better understanding any similarities or differences compared to that of humans. Wild male chimpanzees have shown to reject solicitations from females at full swelling. The hypothesis being tested was that a male chimpanzee will reject a female who solicits a mating event due to age, rank, and parity. Long term data from Gombe National Park in Tanzania, Africa was used to test this. As expected, parous females were less likely to be rejected than nulliparous females, rejection was more likely if several other swollen females were present, and rejection was less likely if the female was higher-ranking/older. Surprisingly, it was found that younger males were more likely to reject females than prime males were. This was most likely due to the fact that almost always, higher-ranking males were also present, which may have deterred young males from mating. The results also showed that there was no effect of male rank and female reproductive state on the probability of rejection. The findings of this study may help to show a potential evolutionary step towards conscious mate selection as seen in humans.

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  • 2019-05

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A Comparison of the Interactions between Tiwanaku and Chen Chen Based on Dietary and Isotopic Analyses

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Paleodietary analysis through the interpretation of stable isotopic analyses can be used to determine the approximate diet consumed at archaeological sites. The following question was investigated through the course of

Paleodietary analysis through the interpretation of stable isotopic analyses can be used to determine the approximate diet consumed at archaeological sites. The following question was investigated through the course of this research: What are the differences between the Middle Horizon capital of Tiwanaku and the associated colony of Chen Chen; and what do these differences, including those associated with paleodiet, suggest about interactions between the two sites? The main hypothesis suggested a similar dietary analysis between the two sites with two possible explanations. First, it is possible that similarities between the sites were due to the exchange and consumption of goods at both locations, perhaps through trade. Secondly, it is possible that the similarities were due to the acquisition of similar goods through local sourcing or limited trade. To assess this, an analysis was conducted based on δ13Cdiet (VPDB) values in the comparison of the city center Tiwanaku and the agricultural site of Chen Chen. Archaeological bone samples were processed from a diverse group of individuals at Chen Chen and combined with published values by Tomczak (2001), then compared against δ13C from Tiwanaku, published by Berryman (2010). After conversion to δ13Cdiet (VPDB) as described by Kellner and Schoeninger (2007), it was determined that there was no statistically significant difference between the δ13Cdiet (VPDB) values from either site, suggesting a similar ratio of goods consumed. These values were then compared to baseline values from the region to determine an approximate ratio of C3 to C4 flora or dependent fauna consumed. These data most likely support the second explanation of the main hypothesis, that both sites had access to similar goods through local sourcing or limited trade as an explanation for their similarity. However, because a similar ratio of foods consumed was determined in this analysis, it is still possible that trade occurred in both directions between Tiwanaku and Chen Chen. Additional isotopic analyses would be required to support the first claim, which can be addressed in future research projects.

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  • 2015-05

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A critical literature review and case study of the 'draw and write' research technique

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The ‘draw and write’ research technique was developed as a bottom-up approach to gaining access to children’s ideas, experiences, and views of the world around them in areas such as

The ‘draw and write’ research technique was developed as a bottom-up approach to gaining access to children’s ideas, experiences, and views of the world around them in areas such as health, education, and social issues. While the technique may allow children to participate in research in a way that is less restrictive than other techniques, many critique the method for its adverse ethical concerns, validity, and issues of interpretation and analysis. This article reviews the ‘draw and write’ research technique and its common critiques as well as offers a case study of the ‘draw and write’ technique, performed with children in Acatenango, Guatemala, in order to validate the accuracy of the ‘draw and write’ technique in depicting specific quantitative results.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

The Multiplicity of Souls: Soul Concepts of the Eastern Woodland and Plains Indians of North America

Description

The potential for accurately reconstructing prehistoric Woodland and Plains Indian societies' notions of human soul-like essences using symbolically rich mortuary remains and art can be improved when analogous, comparative ethnohistorical

The potential for accurately reconstructing prehistoric Woodland and Plains Indian societies' notions of human soul-like essences using symbolically rich mortuary remains and art can be improved when analogous, comparative ethnohistorical information is collected systematically and with sensitivity to tribal and regional variations. Literature on 49 historic Woodland-Plains tribes produced 643 cases informing on nine selected subjects: number and locations of souls in an individual, number of souls that leave the body in life and death, where and when they exit, and their functions and qualities in life and death. Ideas varied considerably but patterned in their frequencies and geographic distributions.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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MULTIVECTORED SMAS SUSPENSION FOR SURGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF FACIAL PARALYSIS

Description

In this study, we propose and then assess the efficacy of a new approach to static suspension to correct for facial paralysis. Our method involves placing barbed sutures through the

In this study, we propose and then assess the efficacy of a new approach to static suspension to correct for facial paralysis. Our method involves placing barbed sutures through the superficial muscular aponeurotic system (SMAS) and anchoring them in the temporal fascia parallel to the underlying facial muscles. We first analyzed the ability of this procedure to improve facial symmetry by comparing the degree of asymmetry between the paralyzed and unaffected sides of a patient's face (N=10) prior to and following surgery. Then, to determine if symmetry is improved as a result of placing the sutures parallel to the direction of facial muscle forces, we measured the vectors of levator labii superioris and zygomaticus major in cadaver hemifaces (N=3) and compared them to the angles of the vectors of correction from the patient sample to angles of muscle vectors in three facial hemispheres from cadaver controls. Results indicate that: (1) facial symmetry was significantly improved in these patients and (2) this improvement. We conclude that, compared to existing protocols, our novel surgical method is a better means of static suspension for reconstruction following onset of facial paralysis as it is simple to perform, easy to replicate, able to be post-operatively adjusted in-office, has a good long-term prognosis, and, as we have demonstrated, effectively corrects the appearance of asymmetry by working with the underlying facial anatomy.

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  • 2016-05

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Folklore's Application to Modern Medicine

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In Western medicine, the hard sciences have generally been understood as the sole guiding force in patient care and treatment. However, both history and the present day suggest another strong

In Western medicine, the hard sciences have generally been understood as the sole guiding force in patient care and treatment. However, both history and the present day suggest another strong influence on Western medicine: folklore. The term folklore can easily be dismissed as a term representing beliefs and stories of the past, but its relevance transcends time and continues to impact people daily. It “involves values, traditions, ways of thinking and behaving. It’s about art. It’s about people and the way people learn. It helps us learn who we are and how to make meaning in the world around us” (Sims & Stephens, 2011, pp. 1-2). With its wide range of influence, folklore exists as the umbrella term encompassing several categories. Folk beliefs are one of these categories and can develop from “observation, memory, testimony or inference” (Hutton, 1942, p. 83). Given that each of these forms are subject to some sort of error, folk beliefs become “a jumble of the true and the erroneous” (p. 84). Similarly, contemporary legends are narratives that often combine the physical and supernatural world to explain nuances or uncertainty present in the relevant experiences of a people. Folk beliefs can result in the formation of contemporary legends and they can also stem from contemporary legends. These two categories are often associated with subjects that promote fear and uncertainty, and thus play an essential role in navigating folklore’s application to biomedicine. This paper explores the historical and modern effects that folklore has had on two separate maladies: Hansen’s Disease (leprosy) and Major Depressive Disorder (depression). While these conditions do not resemble each other in physical presentations, Hansen’s Disease and Major Depressive Disorder patients both have faced and continue to face discrimination. Andrea Wiley and John Allen’s three-part definition of a malady: society’s perception (sickness), the individual’s experience (illness), and medical professionals’ diagnosis and treatment (disease); was utilized as a tool for analyzing the application of folklore to modern medicine. The way that a society views a particular malady often dictates the sick role expected of a diagnosed individual. Additionally, the public’s view can directly affect medical professionals’ understanding of a malady. This then can drastically shape a patient’s diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. This anthropological analysis acts as an interdisciplinary bridge between medicine and the humanities.

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  • 2020-05

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How We Live and Die: A Qualitative Analysis of the Relationship between Healthcare Experiences and Perspectives on Physician-Assisted Suicide

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Physician-assisted suicide occurs when a physician facilitates a patient's death by prescribing a lethal medication that they understand will be used for the purpose of ending the patient's life. It

Physician-assisted suicide occurs when a physician facilitates a patient's death by prescribing a lethal medication that they understand will be used for the purpose of ending the patient's life. It is a highly contentious subject and, with the recent addition of California to the list of states that allow physician-assisted suicide, is an increasingly relevant subject. Physician-assisted suicide is rarely framed as a healthcare experience, despite being a choice in the process of end-of-life care. The research seeks to bring together the debates about physician-assisted suicide with conversations about health care experiences. The experiences and perspectives of young people are particularly valuable to evaluate now, as their voices will soon be the leaders in the debate over physician-assisted suicide. Within this research, there is an underlying theme of independence of individuals that is present through both the literature review and the body of data collected and analyzed. The study found that there was no significant relationship between the quality of a person's healthcare and their perspectives about physician-assisted suicide.

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  • 2016-05

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Bow to the Queen: A Study of Perceived Classism and Communication in Renaissance Faire Subculture

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"Bow to the Queen" is an investigation of the presence of classism within the American renaissance faire subculture and the way it impacts communication between community members. While "rennie" subculture

"Bow to the Queen" is an investigation of the presence of classism within the American renaissance faire subculture and the way it impacts communication between community members. While "rennie" subculture has been the subject of many ethnographies in the past, this thesis uses quantitative data to first identify the state of classism and then analyze any effects or correlations it maintains with communication. The literature review shows that unlike past studies, "Bow to the Queen" does not compare members of the renaissance faire community to outsiders, but rather defines the complex social structure and uses it to compare different subgroups of "rennies" to each other. After composing and releasing a survey designed to discreetly measure community members' communication patterns and attitudes toward fellow participants, 100 surveys were collected from current renaissance faire employees from 29 different festivals around the United States. Questions primarily inquired about the relationships between members of the community who stay local to one festival versus those who travel the festival circuit full-time. While results did not prove a definitive nor direct relationship between the presence of classism and increased or decreased communication, they did show that the prevalence of prejudice between social echelons is a far more nuanced construct than was first considered. Ultimately, the significance of this study comes down to the way it demonstrates a fair and thorough treatment of fringe subcultures that are often looked at superficially by the academic community, and by doing so help prevent the pathologization of such cultures in the future.

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  • 2016-12

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Enchanting the Secular: Religion, Science, and Industry

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In my Honors Thesis, I endeavor to complicate and to respond to conventional debates over historical periodization and the problem of what it means to be "modern." I understand the

In my Honors Thesis, I endeavor to complicate and to respond to conventional debates over historical periodization and the problem of what it means to be "modern." I understand the modern as a conceptual product of discourses surrounding religion, science, and industry. Specifically, the modern era has been defined as one in which the forms of rationalization associated with quantitative and experimental scientific methods and large-scale, technologically sophisticated industrial production have surpassed the "irrational" superstitions associated with religion. Critical responses to this definition have largely had the goal of supplanting it with another way of conceiving of the historical discontinuity between the "modern" and the "non-modern." In three essays, I aim to complicate the terms (religion, science, and industry) in which these debates have been conducted and to relate them to one another both historically and conceptually. As opposed to the goal of re-defining the modern, my goal in these essays is to complicate the existing definitions and to reveal and challenge the ideological motives of historical periodization. I illuminate the connections of the modern conception of "religion" to a colonial system of power, between scientific development and changes in economic and religious thinking, and between contemporary technological and industrial projects to an "enchanted" view of the world. In tracing these connections, I am indebted to conventional discourses of modernization, Max Weber's theory of "disenchantment," and recent scholarship on the use of materialist methods in the study of history. In these essays, I move beyond the critical project of "re-imagining" the modern, and illuminate some of the ideological commitments of that project that I consider untenable. In addition to a more sophisticated historical understanding of the meaning of religion, science, and industry, what I aim to achieve in my thesis is a better framing of some of the largest problems faced by contemporary humanity, including the looming risks of ecological, economic, and geopolitical collapse. In this framing, I situate these risks in the context of their connection to strategies of historical periodization, and argue that managing them will require a radically new view of religion, science, industry, and the roles that they play in producing historical discontinuity.

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  • 2018-05

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Genetically-Related Health Disparities in Sports: Frequency Analysis of Two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in NCAA Student Athletes with Sickle Cell Trait

Description

The NCAA recently declared sickle cell trait (SCT) to be a risk factor for sudden illness and death among student athletes. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) concentration in adults is negatively correlated

The NCAA recently declared sickle cell trait (SCT) to be a risk factor for sudden illness and death among student athletes. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) concentration in adults is negatively correlated with disease severity in sickle cell anemia, although its effect on SCT is not fully understood and the concentration is found to have high variability across populations. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the human beta globin gene cluster, rs7482144 and rs10128556, contribute to the heritable variation in HbF levels and are associated with increased HbF concentrations in adults. A sample population of NCAA football student athletes was genotyped for these two polymorphisms, and their allele frequencies were compared to those of other populations. The minor allele of both polymorphisms had allele frequencies of 0.091 in the sample population, which compared closely with other populations of recent African heritage but was significantly different from European populations. The results of this study will be included in a larger study to predict whether these among other polymorphisms can be used as markers to predict susceptibility to heat-related emergencies in NCAA student athletes with SCT, although the small sample size will delay this process until participation in the study increases. Since both rs7482144 and rs10128556 exhibit high levels of linkage disequilibrium, and as their contributions to the heritable variability of HbF concentrations tend to differ greatly between populations of different ancestry, further investigations should be aimed at distinguishing between the effects of each SNP in African American, European, and other populations represented in NCAA football before conclusions can be drawn as to their practical use as genetic markers of heat susceptibility in student athletes with SCT.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05