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Design of an Electrically Driven Centrifugal Pump for Hybrid Sounding Rocket Applications

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The objective of this project was to design an electrically driven centrifugal pump for the Daedalus Astronautics @ASU hybrid rocket engine (HRE). The pump design was purposefully simplified due to time, fabrication, calculation, and capability constraints, which resulted in a

The objective of this project was to design an electrically driven centrifugal pump for the Daedalus Astronautics @ASU hybrid rocket engine (HRE). The pump design was purposefully simplified due to time, fabrication, calculation, and capability constraints, which resulted in a lower fidelity design, with the option to be improved later. The impeller, shroud, volute, shaft, motor, and ESC were the main focuses of the pump assembly, but the seals, bearings, lubrication methods, and flow path connections were considered as elements which would require future attention. The resulting pump design is intended to be used on the Daedalus Astronautics HRE test cart for design verification. In the future, trade studies and more detailed analyses should and will be performed before this pump is integrated into the Daedalus Astronautics flight-ready HRE.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Shape memory polymers fabricated with recycled thermoplastics by 3D printing

Description

Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs) are smart polyurethane thermoplastics that can recover their original shape after undergoing deformation. This shape recovery can be actuated by raising the SMP above its glass transition temperature, Tg. This report outlines a process for repeatedly

Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs) are smart polyurethane thermoplastics that can recover their original shape after undergoing deformation. This shape recovery can be actuated by raising the SMP above its glass transition temperature, Tg. This report outlines a process for repeatedly recycling SMPs using 3D printing. Cubes are printed, broken down into pellets mechanically, and re-extruded into filament. This simulates a recycling iteration that the material would undergo in industry. The samples are recycled 0, 1, 3, and 5 times, then printed into rectangular and dog-bone shapes. These shapes are used to perform dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and 3-point bending for shape recovery testing. Samples will also be used for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to characterize their microstructure.

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Created

Date Created
2018-05

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An Examination of the Impact of Support Design on 316 Stainless Steel Supports

Description

The removal of support material from metal 3D printed objects is a laborious necessity for the post-processing of powder bed fusion printing (PBF). Supports are typically mechanically removed by machining techniques. Sacrificial supports are necessary in PBF printing to relieve

The removal of support material from metal 3D printed objects is a laborious necessity for the post-processing of powder bed fusion printing (PBF). Supports are typically mechanically removed by machining techniques. Sacrificial supports are necessary in PBF printing to relieve thermal stresses and support overhanging parts often resulting in the inclusion of supports in regions of the part that are not easily accessed by mechanical removal methods. Recent innovations in PBF support removal include dissolvable metal supports through an electrochemical etching process. Dissolvable PBF supports have the potential to significantly reduce the costs and time associated with traditional support removal. However, the speed and effectiveness of this approach is inhibited by numerous factors such as support geometry and metal powder entrapment within supports. To fully realize this innovative approach, it is necessary to model and understand the design parameters necessary to optimize support structures applicable to an electrochemical etching process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of block additive manufacturing support parameters on key process outcomes of the dissolution of 316 stainless steel support structures. The parameters investigated included hatch spacing and perforation, and the outcomes of interests included time required for completion, surface roughness, and effectiveness of the etching process. Electrical current was also evaluated as an indicator of process completion. Analysis of the electrical current throughout the etching process showed that the dissolution is diffusion limited to varying degrees, and is dependent on support structure parameters. Activation and passivation behavior was observed during current leveling, and appeared to be more pronounced in non-perforated samples with less dense hatch spacing. The correlation between electrical current and completion of the etching process was unclear, as the support structures became mechanically removable well before the current leveled. The etching process was shown to improve surface finish on unsupported surfaces, but support was shown to negatively impact surface finish. Tighter hatch spacing was shown to correlate to larger variation in surface finish, due to ridges left behind by the support structures. In future studies, it is recommended current be more closely correlated to process completion and more roughness data be collected to identify a trend between hatch spacing and surface roughness.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Automated Process Planning for Multi-material Manufacturing

Description

Multi-material manufacturing combines multiple fabrication processes to produce individual parts that can be made up of several different materials. These processes can include both additive and subtractive manufacturing methods as well as embedding other components during manufacturing. This

Multi-material manufacturing combines multiple fabrication processes to produce individual parts that can be made up of several different materials. These processes can include both additive and subtractive manufacturing methods as well as embedding other components during manufacturing. This yields opportunities for creating single parts that can take the place of an assembly of parts produced using conventional techniques. Some example applications of multi-material manufacturing include parts that are produced using one process then machined to tolerance using another, parts with integrated flexible joints, or parts that contain discrete embedded components such as reinforcing materials or electronics.

Multi-material manufacturing has applications in robotics because, with it, mechanisms can be built into a design without adding additional moving parts. This allows for robot designs that are both robust and low cost, making it a particularly attractive method for education or research. 3D printing is of particular interest in this area because it is low cost, readily available, and capable of easily producing complicated part geometries. Some machines are also capable of depositing multiple materials during a single process. However, up to this point, planning the steps to create a part using multi-material manufacturing has been done manually, requiring specialized knowledge of the tools used. The difficulty of this planning procedure can prevent many students and researchers from using multi-material manufacturing.

This project studied methods of automating the planning of multi-material manufacturing processes through the development of a computational framework for processing 3D models and automatically generating viable manufacturing sequences. This framework includes solid operations and algorithms which assist the designer in computing manufacturing steps for multi-material models. This research is informing the development of a software planning tool which will simplify the planning needed by multi-material fabrication, making it more accessible for use in education or research.

In our paper, Voxel-Based Cad Framework for Planning Functionally Graded and Multi-Step Rapid Fabrication Processes, we present a new framework for representing and computing functionally-graded materials for use in rapid prototyping applications. We introduce the material description itself, low-level operations which can be used to combine one or more geometries together, and algorithms which assist the designer in computing manufacturing-compatible sequences. We then apply these techniques to several example scenarios. First, we demonstrate the use of a Gaussian blur to add graded material transitions to a model which can then be produced using a multi-material 3D printing process. Our second example highlights our solution to the problem of inserting a discrete, off-the-shelf part into a 3D printed model during the printing sequence. Finally, we implement this second example and manufacture two example components.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-05

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Modeling 3D-Printed Composite Honeycomb Structures with the Representative Lattice Element Method

Description

The goal of our research was to develop and validate a method for predicting the mechanical behavior of Additively Manufactured multi-material honeycomb structures. Multiple approaches already exist in the field for modeling the behavior of cellular materials, including the bulk

The goal of our research was to develop and validate a method for predicting the mechanical behavior of Additively Manufactured multi-material honeycomb structures. Multiple approaches already exist in the field for modeling the behavior of cellular materials, including the bulk property assumption, homogenization and strut level characterization [1]. With the bulk property approach, the structure is assumed to behave according to what is known about the material in its bulk formulation, without regard to its geometry or scale. With the homogenization technique, the specimen that is being tested is treated as a solid material within the simulation environment even if the physical specimen is not. Then, reduced mechanical properties are assigned to the specimen to account for any voids that exist within the physical specimen. This approach to mechanical behavior prediction in cellular materials is shape dependent. In other words, the same model cannot be used from one specimen to the next if the cell shapes of those lattices differ in any way. When using the strut level characterization approach, a single strut (the connecting member between nodes constituting a cellular material) is isolated and tested. With this approach, there tends to be a significant deviation in the experimental data due to the small size of the isolated struts. Yet it has the advantage of not being shape sensitive, at least in principle. The method that we developed, and chose to test lies within the latter category, and is what we have coined as the Representative Lattice Element (RLE) Method. This method is modeled after the well-established Representative Volume Element (RVE) method [2]. We define the RLE as the smallest unit over which mechanical tests can be conducted that will provide results which are representative of the larger lattice structure. In other words, the theory is that a single member (or beam in this case) of a honeycomb structure can be taken, tests can be conducted on this member to determine the mechanical properties of the representative lattice element and the results will be representative of the mechanical behavior whole structure. To investigate this theory, we designed specimens, conducted various tensile and compression tests, analyzed the recorded data, conducted a micromechanics study, and performed structural simulation work using commercial Finite Element Analysis software.

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Created

Date Created
2018-05

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A Study of Metal Additive Manufacturing: DMLS Design for Optimizing Automobile Components

Description

Automobiles can advance greatly with the introduction of metal additive manufactured components. Additive tooling is slowly becoming additive manufacturing and someday the technology will be advanced enough that high volume can be supported. This research was conducted in order to

Automobiles can advance greatly with the introduction of metal additive manufactured components. Additive tooling is slowly becoming additive manufacturing and someday the technology will be advanced enough that high volume can be supported. This research was conducted in order to show the advantages metal additive manufacturing has in the automobile industry. One large advantage to metal additive manufacturing is mass reduction. Components can be designed for production with different geometries than other manufacturing methods. The change in geometry can significantly reduce the product volume and therefore mass. Overall, mass reduction in the automotive industry is beneficial. Mass reduction can increase performance and fuel economy of the car. Once metal additive manufacturing becomes capable of higher production, metal additive manufacturing will play a major role in automobile manufacturing. Research was conducted to design and produce an optimized AC compressor bracket. The bracket was designed to the specifications of the OEM component, and the mass was reduced by more than half.

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Date Created
2017-05

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Analysis of FDM-Enabled Thermoplastics as Hybrid Rocket Fuel

Description

In this analysis, materials capable of being 3D printed such as acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene (ABS), polyethylene terephthalate-glycol (PETG), and polylactic acid (PLA) were analyzed mathematically to determine their potential application as a fuel source for a hybrid rocket engine currently being

In this analysis, materials capable of being 3D printed such as acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene (ABS), polyethylene terephthalate-glycol (PETG), and polylactic acid (PLA) were analyzed mathematically to determine their potential application as a fuel source for a hybrid rocket engine currently being developed by Daedalus Astronautics. By developing a 3D printed fuel option, new fuel grain geometries can be manufactured and tested that have the potential to greatly improve regression and flow characteristics of hybrid rockets. In addition, 3D printed grains have been shown to greatly reduce manufacturing time while improving grain-to-grain consistency. In the end, it was found that ABS, although the most difficult material to work with, would likely provide the best results as compared to an HTPB baseline. This is because after conducting a heat conservation analysis similar to that employed by NASA's chemical equilibrium with applications code (CEA), ABS was shown to operate at similarly high levels of specific impulse at approximately the same oxidizer-to-fuel ratio, meaning the current Daedalus test setup for HTPB would be applicable to ABS. In addition, PLA was found to require a far lower oxidizer-to-fuel ratio to achieve peak specific impulse than any of the other fuels analyzed leading to the conclusion that in a flight-ready engine it would likely require less oxidizer and pressurization mass, and therefore, less overall system mass, to achieve thrust levels similar to ABS and HTPB. By improving the thrust-to-weight ratio in this way a more efficient engine could be developed. Following these results, future works will include the hot-fire testing of the four fuel options to verify the analysis method used. Additionally, the ground work has been set for future analysis and development of complex fuel port geometries which have been shown to further improve flight characteristics.

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Date Created
2017-05

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3D Printed Robotic Arm

Description

For those interested in the field of robotics, there are not many options to get your hands on a physical robot without paying a steep price. This is why the folks at BCN3D Technologies decided to design a fully open-source

For those interested in the field of robotics, there are not many options to get your hands on a physical robot without paying a steep price. This is why the folks at BCN3D Technologies decided to design a fully open-source 3D-printable robotic arm. Their goal was to reduce the barrier to entry for the field of robotics and make it exponentially more accessible for people around the world. For our honors thesis, we chose to take the design from BCN3D and attempt to build their robot, to see how accessible the design truly is. Although their designs were not perfect and we were forced to make some adjustments to the 3D files, overall the work put forth by the people at BCN3D was extremely useful in successfully building a robotic arm that is programmed with ease.

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Date Created
2017-12

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Engineering Patient Specific Implants for Laryngeal Cancer Treatment

Description

The Larynx plays a pivotal role in our ability to breathe and to speak. It is in our best interest to continue improving the status of tissue regeneration concerning the larynx so that patient voice quality of life can be

The Larynx plays a pivotal role in our ability to breathe and to speak. It is in our best interest to continue improving the status of tissue regeneration concerning the larynx so that patient voice quality of life can be less hindered in the face of laryngeal cancers and diseases. Modern technology can allow us to use CT scans for both diagnosis and treatment. This medical imaging can be converted into three-dimensional patient specific models that are actualized through 3D printing. These implants improve upon the current state of the art because they can be produced in a timely manner, are developed with materials and methods ensuring their biocompatibility, and follow architectures and geometries best suited for the patient to improve their voice quality of life. Additionally they should be able to allow patient speech in the case of partial laryngectomies where the arytenoid has been removed by acting as a permanent vocal fold This treatment process for laryngectomies aligns itself with personalized medicine by targeting its geometry based on that of the patient. Technologies and manufacturing processes utilized to produce them are accessible and could all be used within the clinical space. The life-saving implant required for the laryngectomy healing and recovery process can be ready to implant for the patient within a few days of imaging them.

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Date Created
2015-05

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CT Image Reconstruction of Vocal Folds for Personalized Medicine

Description

A much anticipated outcome of the rapidly emerging field of personalized medicine is a significant increase in the standard of care afforded to patients. However, before the full potential of personalized medicine can be realized, key enabling technologies must be

A much anticipated outcome of the rapidly emerging field of personalized medicine is a significant increase in the standard of care afforded to patients. However, before the full potential of personalized medicine can be realized, key enabling technologies must be further developed. The purpose of this study was to use enabling technologies such as medical imaging, image reconstruction, and rapid prototyping to create a model of an implant for use in vocal fold repair surgery. Vocal fold repair surgery is performed for patients with great difficulty in phonation, breathing, and swallowing as a result of vocal fold damage caused by age, disease, cancer, scarring, or paralysis. This damage greatly hinders patients' social, personal, and professional lives due to difficulty in efficient communication. In this project, the image reconstruction of a subject's vocal fold in 3D is demonstrated utilizing NIH-funded advanced image processing software known as ITK-SNAP, which uniquely allows both semi-automatic and manual image segmentation. The hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, arytenoid cartilage, and empty airway of the larynx were isolated using active contouring for use as anatomical benchmarks. Then, the vocal fold mold, including the vocal fold, a superior extension along the thyroid cartilage, and an inferior extension along the airway, was modeled with manual segmentation. The configured, isolated, and edited vocal fold model was converted into an STL file. This STL file can be imported to a 3D printer to fabricate a mold for reconstruction of a patient specific vocal fold biocompatible implant. This feasibility study serves as a basis to allow ENT surgeons at the Mayo Clinic to dramatically improve reparative surgery outcomes for patients. This work embodies the strategic importance of multidisciplinary teams working at the interface of technology and medicine to optimize patient outcomes.

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Date Created
2016-05