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Exoskeletal Hand Fixture for use with Tool Balancing arm for Packing/Warehouse Applications

Description

Many industries require workers in warehouse and stockroom environments to perform frequent lifting tasks. Over time these repeated tasks can lead to excess strain on the worker's body and reduced productivity. This project seeks to develop an exoskeletal wrist fixture

Many industries require workers in warehouse and stockroom environments to perform frequent lifting tasks. Over time these repeated tasks can lead to excess strain on the worker's body and reduced productivity. This project seeks to develop an exoskeletal wrist fixture to be used in conjunction with a powered exoskeleton arm to aid workers performing box lifting types of tasks. Existing products aimed at improving worker comfort and productivity typically employ either fully powered exoskeleton suits or utilize minimally powered spring arms and/or fixtures. These designs either reduce stress to the user's body through powered arms and grippers operated via handheld controls which have limited functionality, or they use a more minimal setup that reduces some load, but exposes the user's hands and wrists to injury by directing support to the forearm. The design proposed here seeks to strike a balance between size, weight, and power requirements and also proposes a novel wrist exoskeleton design which minimizes stress on the user's wrists by directly interfacing with the object to be picked up. The design of the wrist exoskeleton was approached through initially selecting degrees of freedom and a ROM (range of motion) to accommodate. Feel and functionality were improved through an iterative prototyping process which yielded two primary designs. A novel "clip-in" method was proposed to allow the user to easily attach and detach from the exoskeleton. Designs utilized a contact surface intended to be used with dry fibrillary adhesives to maximize exoskeleton grip. Two final designs, which used two pivots in opposite kinematic order, were constructed and tested to determine the best kinematic layout. The best design had two prototypes created to be worn with passive test arms that attached to the user though a specially designed belt.

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Date Created
2016-12

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Three dimensional printing and computational visualization for surgical planning and medical education

Description

The advent of medical imaging has enabled significant advances in pre-procedural planning, allowing cardiovascular anatomy to be visualized noninvasively before a procedure. However, absolute scale and tactile information are not conveyed in traditional pre-procedural planning based on images alone. This

The advent of medical imaging has enabled significant advances in pre-procedural planning, allowing cardiovascular anatomy to be visualized noninvasively before a procedure. However, absolute scale and tactile information are not conveyed in traditional pre-procedural planning based on images alone. This information deficit fails to completely prepare clinicians for complex heart repair, where surgeons must consider the varied presentations of cardiac morphology and malformations. Three-dimensional (3D) visualization and 3D printing provide a mechanism to construct patient-specific, scale models of cardiovascular anatomy that surgeons and interventionalists can examine prior to a procedure. In addition, the same patient-specific models provide a valuable resource for educating future medical professionals. Instead of looking at idealized images on a computer screen or pages from medical textbooks, medical students can review a life-like model of patient anatomy.

In cases where surgical repair is insufficient to return the heart to normal function, a patient may proceed to advanced heart failure, and a heart transplant may be required. Unfortunately, a finite number of available donor hearts are available. A mechanical circulatory support (MCS) device can be used to bridge the time between heart failure and reception of a donor heart. These MCS devices are typically constructed for the adult population. Accordingly, the size associated to the device is a limiting factor for small adults or pediatric patients who often have smaller thoracic measurements. While current eligibility criteria are based on correlative measurements, the aforementioned 3D visualization capabilities can be leveraged to accomplish patient-specific fit analysis.

The main objectives of the work presented in this dissertation were 1) to develop and evaluate an optimized process for 3D printing cardiovascular anatomy for surgical planning and medical education and 2) to develop and evaluate computational tools to assess MCS device fit in specific patients. The evaluations for objectives 1 and 2 were completed with a collection of qualitative and quantitative validations. These validations include case studies to illustrate meaningful, qualitative results as well as quantitative results from surgical outcomes. The latter results present the first quantitative supporting evidence, beyond anecdotal case studies, regarding the efficacy of 3D printing for pre-procedural planning; this data is suitable as pilot data for clinical trials. The products of this work were used to plan 200 cardiovascular procedures (including 79 cardiothoracic surgeries at Phoenix Children's Hospital), via 3D printed heart models and assess MCS device fit in 29 patients across 6 countries.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

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Microstructure Development in Direct Metal Laser Sintered Inconel Alloy 718

Description

The microstructure development of Inconel alloy 718 (IN718) during conventional processing has been extensively studied and much has been discovered as to the mechanisms behind the exceptional creep resistance that the alloy exhibits. More recently with the development of large

The microstructure development of Inconel alloy 718 (IN718) during conventional processing has been extensively studied and much has been discovered as to the mechanisms behind the exceptional creep resistance that the alloy exhibits. More recently with the development of large scale 3D printing of alloys such as IN718 a new dimension of complexity has emerged in the understanding of alloy microstructure development, hence, potential alloy development opportunity for IN718.

This study is a broad stroke at discovering possible alternate microstructures developing in Direct-Metal-Laser-Sintering (DMLS) processed IN718 compared to those in conventional wrought IN718. The main inspiration for this study came from creep test results from several DMLS IN718 samples at Honeywell that showed a significant

improvement in creep capabilities for DMLS718 compared to cast and wrought IN718 (Honeywell).

From this data the steady-state creep rates were evaluated and fitted to current creep models in order to identify active creep mechanisms in conventional and DMLS IN718 and illuminate the potential factors responsible for the improved creep behavior in DMSL processed IN718.

Because rapid heating and cooling can introduce high internal stress and impact microstructural development, such as gamma double prime formations (Oblak et al.), leading to differences in material behavior, DMLS and conventional IN718 materials are studied using SEM and TEM characterization to investigate sub-micron and/or nano-scale

microstructural differences developed in the DMLS samples as a result of their complex thermal history and internal stress.

The preliminary analysis presented in this body of work is an attempt to better understand the effect of DMLS processing in quest for development of optimization techniques for DMLS as a whole. A historical sketch of nickel alloys and the development of IN718 is given. A literature review detailing the microstructure of IN718 is presented. Creep data analysis and identification of active creep mechanisms are evaluated. High-resolution microstructural characterization of DMLS and wrought IN718 are discussed in detail throughout various chapters of this thesis. Finally, an initial effort in developing a processing model that would allow for parameter optimization is presented.

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Agent

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Date Created
2017

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3D Printed Heat Exchangers: An Experimental Study

Description

As additive manufacturing grows as a cost-effective method of manufacturing, lighter, stronger and more efficient designs emerge. Heat exchangers are one of the most critical thermal devices in the thermal industry. Additive manufacturing brings us a design freedom no other

As additive manufacturing grows as a cost-effective method of manufacturing, lighter, stronger and more efficient designs emerge. Heat exchangers are one of the most critical thermal devices in the thermal industry. Additive manufacturing brings us a design freedom no other manufacturing technology offers. Advancements in 3D printing lets us reimagine and optimize the performance of the heat exchangers with an incredible design flexibility previously unexplored due to manufacturing constraints.

In this research, the additive manufacturing technology and the heat exchanger design are explored to find a unique solution to improve the efficiency of heat exchangers. This includes creating a Triply Periodic Minimal Surface (TPMS) geometry, Schwarz-D in this case, using Mathematica with a flexibility to control the cell size of the models generated. This model is then encased in a closed cubical surface with manifolds for fluid inlets and outlets before 3D printed using the polymer nylon for thermal evaluation.

In the extent of this study, the heat exchanger developed is experimentally evaluated. The data obtained are used to derive a relationship between the heat transfer effectiveness and the Number of Transfer Units (NTU).The pressure loss across a fluid channel of the Schwarz D geometry is also studied.

The data presented in this study are part of initial experimental evaluation of 3D printed TPMS heat exchangers.Among heat exchangers with similar performance, the Schwarz D geometry is 32% smaller compared to a shell-and-tube heat exchanger.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

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Utilization of thermoplastic mounting studs for simple performance testing on hot mix asphalt

Description

The objective of the research is to test the use of 3D printed thermoplastic to produce fixtures which affix instrumentation to asphalt concrete samples used for Simple Performance Testing (SPT). The testing is done as part of materials characterization to

The objective of the research is to test the use of 3D printed thermoplastic to produce fixtures which affix instrumentation to asphalt concrete samples used for Simple Performance Testing (SPT). The testing is done as part of materials characterization to obtain properties that will help in future pavement designs. Currently, these fixtures (mounting studs) are made of expensive brass and cumbersome to clean with or without chemicals.

Three types of thermoplastics were utilized to assess the effect of temperature and applied stress on the performance of the 3D printed studs. Asphalt concrete samples fitted with thermoplastic studs were tested according to AASHTO & ASTM standards. The thermoplastics tested are: Polylactic acid (PLA), the most common 3D printing material; Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), a typical 3D printing material which is less rigid than PLA and has a higher melting temperature; Polycarbonate (PC), a strong, high temperature 3D printing material.

A high traffic volume Marshal mix design from the City of Phoenix was obtained and adapted to a Superpave mix design methodology. The mix design is dense-graded with nominal maximum aggregate size of ¾” inch and a PG 70-10 binder. Samples were fabricated and the following tests were performed: Dynamic Modulus |E*| conducted at five temperatures and six frequencies; Flow Number conducted at a high temperature of 50°C, and axial cyclic fatigue test at a moderate temperature of 18°C.

The results from SPT for each 3D printed material were compared to results using brass mounting studs. Validation or rejection of the concept was determined from statistical analysis on the mean and variance of collected SPT test data.

The concept of using 3D printed thermoplastic for mounting stud fabrication is a promising option; however, the concept should be verified with more extensive research using a variety of asphalt mixes and operators to ensure no bias in the repeatability and reproducibility of test results. The Polycarbonate (PC) had a stronger layer bonding than ABS and PLA while printing. It was recommended for follow up studies.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

Sample delivery enabled by 3D printing for reduced sample consumption and mix-and-inject serial crystallography at x-ray free electron lasers

Description

Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) with X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) has enabled the determination of damage-free protein structures at ambient temperatures and of reaction intermediate species with time resolution on the order of hundreds of femtoseconds. However, currently available XFEL

Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) with X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) has enabled the determination of damage-free protein structures at ambient temperatures and of reaction intermediate species with time resolution on the order of hundreds of femtoseconds. However, currently available XFEL facility X-ray pulse structures waste the majority of continuously injected crystal sample, requiring a large quantity (up to grams) of crystal sample to solve a protein structure. Furthermore, mix-and-inject serial crystallography (MISC) at XFEL facilities requires fast mixing for short (millisecond) reaction time points (𝑡"), and current sample delivery methods have complex fabrication and assembly requirements.

To reduce sample consumption during SFX, a 3D printed T-junction for generating segmented aqueous-in-oil droplets was developed. The device surface properties were characterized both with and without a surface coating for improved droplet generation stability. Additionally, the droplet generation frequency was characterized. The 3D printed device interfaced with gas dynamic virtual nozzles (GDVNs) at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and a relationship between the aqueous phase volume and the resulting crystal hit rate was developed. Furthermore, at the European XFEL (EuXFEL) a similar quantity and quality of diffraction data was collected for segmented sample delivery using ~60% less sample volume than continuous injection, and a structure of 3-deoxy-D-manno- octulosonate 8-phosphate synthase (KDO8PS) delivered by segmented injection was solved that revealed new structural details to a resolution of 2.8 Å.

For MISC, a 3D printed hydrodynamic focusing mixer for fast mixing by diffusion was developed to automate device fabrication and simplify device assembly. The mixer was characterized with numerical models and fluorescence microscopy. A variety of devices were developed to reach reaction intermediate time points, 𝑡", on the order of 100 – 103 ms. These devices include 3D printed mixers coupled to glass or 3D printed GDVNs and two designs of mixers with GDVNs integrated into the one device. A 3D printed mixer coupled to a glass GDVN was utilized at LCLS to study the oxidation of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), and a structure of the CcO Pr intermediate was determined at 𝑡" = 8 s.

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Date Created
2019

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A study on the use of kilohertz acoustic energy for aluminum shaping and mass transport in ambient condition metal 3D printing

Description

This research work demonstrates the process feasibility of Ultrasonic Filament Modeling process as a metal additive manufacturing process. Additive manufacturing (or 3d printing) is the method to manufacture 3d objects layer by layer. Current direct or indirect metal additive manufacturing

This research work demonstrates the process feasibility of Ultrasonic Filament Modeling process as a metal additive manufacturing process. Additive manufacturing (or 3d printing) is the method to manufacture 3d objects layer by layer. Current direct or indirect metal additive manufacturing processes either require a high power heat source like a laser or an electron beam, or require some kind of a post processing operation to produce net-shape fully-dense 3D components. The novel process of Ultrasonic Filament Modeling uses ultrasonic energy to achieve voxel deformation and inter-layer and intra-layer mass transport between voxels causing metallurgical bonding between the voxels. This enables the process to build net-shape 3D components at room temperature and ambient conditions. Two parallel mechanisms, ultrasonic softening and enhanced mass transport due to ultrasonic irradiation enable the voxel shaping and bonding respectively. This work investigates ultrasonic softening and the mass transport across voxels. Microstructural changes in aluminium during the voxel shaping have also been investigated. The temperature evolution during the process has been analyzed and presented in this work.

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Date Created
2016

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Corrosion and Sensitized Microstructure Evolution of 3D Printed Stainless Steel 316 and Inconel 718 Dissolvable Supports

Description

Additive manufacturing (AM) describes an array of methods used to create a 3D object layer by layer. The increasing popularity of AM in the past decade has been due to its demonstrated potential to increase design flexibility, produce rapid

Additive manufacturing (AM) describes an array of methods used to create a 3D object layer by layer. The increasing popularity of AM in the past decade has been due to its demonstrated potential to increase design flexibility, produce rapid prototypes, and decrease material waste. Temporary supports are an inconvenient necessity in many metal AM parts. These sacrificial structures are used to fabricate large overhangs, anchor the part to the build substrate, and provide a heat pathway to avoid warping. Polymers AM has addressed this issue by using support material that is soluble in an electrolyte that the base material is not. In contrast, metals AM has traditionally approached support removal using time consuming, costly methods such as electrical discharge machining or a dremel.

This work introduces dissolvable supports to single- and multi-material metals AM. The multi-material approach uses material choice to design a functionally graded material where corrosion is the functionality being varied. The single-material approach is the primary focus of this thesis, leveraging already common post-print heat treatments to locally alter the microstructure near the surface. By including a sensitizing agent in the ageing heat treatment, carbon is diffused into the part decreasing the corrosion resistance to a depth equal to at least half the support thickness. In a properly chosen electrolyte, this layer is easily chemically, or electrochemically removed. Stainless steel 316 (SS316) and Inconel 718 are both investigated to study this process using two popular alloys. The microstructure evolution and corrosion properties are investigated for both. For SS316, the effect of applied electrochemical potential is investigated to describe the varying corrosion phenomena induced, and the effect of potential choice on resultant roughness. In summary, a new approach to remove supports from metal AM parts is introduced to decrease costs and further the field of metals AM by expanding the design space.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

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Miniaturized Passive Hydrogel Check Valves for the Treatment of Hydrocephalic Fluid Retention

Description

BioMEMS has the potential to provide many future tools for life sciences, combined with microfabrication technologies and biomaterials. Especially due to the recent corona 19 epidemic, interest in BioMEMS technology has increased significantly, and the related research has also grown

BioMEMS has the potential to provide many future tools for life sciences, combined with microfabrication technologies and biomaterials. Especially due to the recent corona 19 epidemic, interest in BioMEMS technology has increased significantly, and the related research has also grown significantly. The field with the highest demand for BioMEMS devices is in the medical field. In particular, the implantable device field is the largest sector where cutting-edge BioMEMS technology is applied along with nanotechnology, artificial intelligence, genetic engineering, etc. However, implantable devices used for brain diseases are still very limited because unlike other parts of human organs, the brain is still unknow area which cannot be completely replaceable.To date, the most commercially used, almost only, implantable device for the brain is a shunt system for the treatment of hydrocephalus. The current cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt treatment yields high failure rates: ~40% within first 2 years and 98% within 10 years. These failures lead to high hospital admission rates and repeated invasive surgical procedures, along with reduced quality of life. New treatments are needed to improve the disease burden associated with hydrocephalus. In this research, the proposed catheter-free, completely-passive miniaturized valve is designed to alleviate hydrocephalus at the originating site of the disorder and diminish failure mechanisms associated with current treatment methods. The valve is composed of hydrogel diaphragm structure and polymer or glass outer frame which are 100% bio-compatible material. The valve aims to be implanted between the sub-arachnoid space and the superior sagittal sinus to regulate the CSF flow substituting for the obstructed arachnoid granulations.
A cardiac pacemaker is one of the longest and most widely used implantable devices and the wireless technology is the most widely used with it for easy acquisition of vital signs and rapid disease diagnosis without clinical surgery. But the conventional pacemakers with some wireless technology face some essential complications associated with finite battery life, ultra-vein pacing leads, and risk of infection from device pockets and leads. To solve these problems, wireless cardiac pacemaker operating in fully-passive modality is proposed and demonstrates the promising potential by realizing a prototype and functional evaluating.

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Agent

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Date Created
2020

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Topology Optimization of 3D Printed Flexural Elements

Description

Investigation into research literature was conducted in order to understand the impacts of traditional concrete construction and explore recent advancements in 3D printing technologies and methodologies. The research project focuses on the relationship between computer modeling, testing, and verification to

Investigation into research literature was conducted in order to understand the impacts of traditional concrete construction and explore recent advancements in 3D printing technologies and methodologies. The research project focuses on the relationship between computer modeling, testing, and verification to reduce concrete usage in flexural elements. The project features small-scale and large-scale printing applications modelled by finite element analysis software and printed for laboratory testing. The laboratory testing included mortar cylinder testing, digital image correlation (DIC), and four pointbending tests. Results demonstrated comparable performance between casted, printed solid, and printed optimized flexural elements. Results additionally mimicked finite element models regarding failure regions.

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Agent

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Date Created
2020