Matching Items (16)

132590-Thumbnail Image.png

Synthesis and Characterization of Laser Plasma that Produces Pseudocarbyne Using Laser Pulses

Description

Carbon allotropes are the basis for many exciting advancements in technology. While sp² and sp³ hybridizations are well understood, the sp¹ hybridized carbon has been elusive. However, with recent advances

Carbon allotropes are the basis for many exciting advancements in technology. While sp² and sp³ hybridizations are well understood, the sp¹ hybridized carbon has been elusive. However, with recent advances made using a pulsed laser ablation in liquid technique, sp¹ hybridized carbon allotropes have been created. The fabricated carbon chain is composed of sp¹ and sp³ hybridized bonds, but it also incorporates nanoparticles such as gold or possibly silver to stabilize the chain. The polyyne generated in this process is called pseudocarbyne due to its striking resemblance to the theoretical carbyne. The formation of these carbon chains is yet to be fully understood, but significant progress has been made in determining the temperature of the plasma in which the pseudocarbyne is formed. When a 532 nm pulsed laser with a pulsed energy of 250 mJ and pulse length of 10ns is used to ablate a gold target, a peak temperature of 13400 K is measured. When measured using Laser-Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) the average temperature of the neutral carbon plasma over one second was 4590±172 K. This temperature strongly suggests that the current theoretical model used to describe the temperature at which pseudocarbyne generates is accurate.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

136395-Thumbnail Image.png

Cold populations of flies evolved larger bodies and larger wings made of larger cells

Description

We examined the evolutionary morphological responses of Drosophila melanogaster that had evolved at constant cold (16°), constant hot (25°C), and fluctuating (16° and 25°C). Flies that were exposed to the

We examined the evolutionary morphological responses of Drosophila melanogaster that had evolved at constant cold (16°), constant hot (25°C), and fluctuating (16° and 25°C). Flies that were exposed to the constant low mean temperature developed larger thorax, wing, and cell sizes than those exposed to constant high mean temperatures. Males and females both responded similarly to thermal treatments in average wing and cell size. The resulting cell area for a given wing size in thermal fluctuating populations remains unclear and remains a subject for future research.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

131540-Thumbnail Image.png

Evaluating the Effects of Temperature on the Toxicity of Insecticides That Target Arbovirus Vectors in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

Description

Despite its well-documented preference for much more humid climates, the yellow fever mosquito, or Aedes aegypti, has inhabited Arizona since 1951. Their presence is of great concern as they can

Despite its well-documented preference for much more humid climates, the yellow fever mosquito, or Aedes aegypti, has inhabited Arizona since 1951. Their presence is of great concern as they can transmit many deadly diseases, including yellow fever, chikungunya, Zika, and dengue fever, putting the residents of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area at risk. Maricopa County Vector Control has made an extensive effort to reduce this risk mainly through the act of fogging insecticides during the night in areas where mosquito numbers exceed a threshold. However, given the well-known temperature-toxicity relationships in insect species, fogging at night may be less or more effective —depending on the relationship— due to the colder temperatures at these times. Additionally, insecticide resistance testing has always been performed at temperatures not usually experienced during fogging, adding to the uncertainty on how useful those test outcomes are. This study took the first steps in determining the effects of temperature on the toxicity of a commonly used insecticide, deltamethrin, on Aedes aegypti by developing a dose response curve on a lab strain at a standard lab temperature of 25°C by performing a CDC bottle bioassay. The diagnostic dose was found to be 50 μg/mL and the lethal dose, 50% (LD50, the dose required to kill half of the test mosquitoes) was found to be 9 μg/mL. Future testing would need to be completed to compare the deltamethrin dose response curve developed in this study with deltamethrin dose response curves at various different temperatures.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

133771-Thumbnail Image.png

The Effects of Extreme Urban Heat on Behavioral Syndromes of Juvenile Black Widow Spiders, Latrodectus hesperus

Description

Urbanization rapidly alters the environment, leading to a decrease in biodiversity in urban areas. A challenge associated with urbanized areas is the increased heat caused by the urban heat island

Urbanization rapidly alters the environment, leading to a decrease in biodiversity in urban areas. A challenge associated with urbanized areas is the increased heat caused by the urban heat island effect. Heat may have an important impact on arthropods particularly due to their status as ectotherms. Animal behavior reveals how individuals interact with their environment. A behavioral syndrome describes consistent individual differences in behaviors that are correlated across different behavioral contexts or situations. Understanding the Western Black Widow's behavioral responses to the urban heat island effect has important implications for the control of a pest species. In this study, the relationship between rising urban temperatures and voracity, web-building, and cannibalism behaviors of juvenile Western Black Widows was examined. Spiders raised in the urban temperature treatment were predicted to have more aggressive behavioral syndromes, characterized by shorter latencies to forage, greater web-building activity, and shorter latencies to cannibalize as compared to spiders raised in rural or intermediate temperature treatments. A correlation between the latency to attack the first fly and second fly was found, however there were no other correlations evidencing a behavioral syndrome. Temperature was found to affect foraging, web-building, and cannibalism behaviors where spiders in urban areas demonstrated increased activity in all behavioral contexts. The possession of behavioral plasticity rather than a behavioral syndrome is likely what allows Black Widows to be successful urban pests.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

132563-Thumbnail Image.png

Analog-to-Digital Converter Reliability Testing in Hostile Environments

Description

Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) are a critical component in modern circuit applications. ADCs are used in virtually every application in which a digital circuit is interacting with data from

Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) are a critical component in modern circuit applications. ADCs are used in virtually every application in which a digital circuit is interacting with data from the real world, ranging from commercial applications to crucial military and aerospace applications, and are especially important when interacting with sensors that observe environmental factors. Due to the critical nature of these converters, as well as the vast range of environments in which they are used, it is important that they accurately sample data regardless of environmental factors. These environmental factors range from input noise and power supply variations to temperature and radiation, and it is important to know how each may affect the accuracy of the resulting data when designing circuits that depend upon the data from these ADCs. These environmental factors are considered hostile environments, as they each generally have a negative effect on the operation of an ADC. This thesis seeks to investigate the effects of several of these hostile environmental variables on the performance of analog to digital converters. Three different analog to digital converters with similar specifications were selected and analyzed under common hostile environments. Data was collected on multiple copies of an ADC and averaged together to analyze the results using multiple characteristics of converter performance. Performance metrics were obtained across a range of frequencies, input noise, input signal offsets, power supply voltages, and temperatures. The obtained results showed a clear decrease in performance farther from a room temperature environment, but the results for several other environmental variables showed either no significant correlation or resulted in inconclusive data.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

155697-Thumbnail Image.png

Integrating spatial constraints and biotic interactions to assess the costs of thermoregulation by lizards

Description

Many animals thermoregulate to maximize performance. However, interactions with other animals, such as competitors or predators, limit access to preferred microclimates. For instance, an animal may thermoregulate poorly when fighting

Many animals thermoregulate to maximize performance. However, interactions with other animals, such as competitors or predators, limit access to preferred microclimates. For instance, an animal may thermoregulate poorly when fighting rivals or avoiding predators. However, the distribution of thermal resources should influence how animals perceive and respond to risk. When thermal resources are concentrated in space, individuals compete for access, which presumably reduces the thermoregulatory performance while making their location more predictable to predators. Conversely, when thermal resources are dispersed, several individuals can thermoregulate effectively without occupying the same area. Nevertheless, interactions with competitors or predators impose a potent stress, often resulting in both behavioral and physiological changes that influence thermoregulation. To assess the costs of intraspecific competition and predation risk during thermoregulation, I measured thermoregulation, movement, and hormones of male lizards (Sceloporus jarrovi) in experiment landscapes, with clumped to patchy distributions of microclimates. I found lizards aggressively competed for access to microclimates, with larger males gaining priority access when thermal resources were aggregated. Competition reduced thermoregulatory performance, increased movements, and elevated plasma corticosterone in large and small males. However, the magnitude of these responses decreased as the patchiness of the thermal environment increased. Similarly, under simulated predation risk, lizards reduced thermoregulatory performance, decreased movements, and elevated plasma corticosterone. Again, with the magnitude of these responses decreased with increasing thermal patchiness. Interestingly, even without competitors or predators, lizards in clumped arenas moved greater distances and circulated more corticosterone than did lizards in patchy arenas, indicating the thermal quality of the thermal landscape affected the energetic demands on lizards. Thus, biologists should consider species interactions and spatial structure when modeling impacts of climate change on thermoregulation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

155162-Thumbnail Image.png

Analysis of heat dissipation in AlGaN/GaN HEMT with GaN micropits at GaN-SiC interface

Description

Gallium Nitride (GaN) based microelectronics technology is a fast growing and most exciting semiconductor technology in the fields of high power and high frequency electronics. Excellent electrical properties of GaN

Gallium Nitride (GaN) based microelectronics technology is a fast growing and most exciting semiconductor technology in the fields of high power and high frequency electronics. Excellent electrical properties of GaN such as high carrier concentration and high carrier motility makes GaN based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) a preferred choice for RF applications. However, a very high temperature in the active region of the GaN HEMT leads to a significant degradation of the device performance by effecting carrier mobility and concentration. Thus, thermal management in GaN HEMT in an effective manner is key to this technology to reach its full potential.

In this thesis, an electro-thermal model of an AlGaN/GaN HEMT on a SiC substrate is simulated using Silvaco (Atlas) TCAD tools. Output characteristics, current density and heat flow at the GaN-SiC interface are key areas of analysis in this work. The electrical characteristics show a sharp drop in drain currents for higher drain voltages. Temperature profile across the device is observed. At the interface of GaN-SiC, there is a sharp drop in temperature indicating a thermal resistance at this interface. Adding to the existing heat in the device, this difference heat is reflected back into the device, further increasing the temperatures in the active region. Structural changes such as GaN micropits, were introduced at the GaN-SiC interface along the length of the device, to make the heat flow smooth rather than discontinuous. With changing dimensions of these micropits, various combinations were tried to reduce the temperature and enhance the device performance. These GaN micropits gave effective results by reducing heat in active region, by spreading out the heat on to the sides of the device rather than just concentrating right below the hot spot. It also helped by allowing a smooth flow of heat at the GaN-SiC interface. There was an increased peak current density in the active region of the device contributing to improved electrical characteristics. In the end, importance of thermal management in these high temperature devices is discussed along with future prospects and a conclusion of this thesis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

153438-Thumbnail Image.png

Analysis of cavitation-induced pressure loads on compliant polymer coatings

Description

Cavitation erosion is a significant cause of wear in marine components, such as impellers, propellers or rudders. While the erosion process has been widely studied on metals, the effect of

Cavitation erosion is a significant cause of wear in marine components, such as impellers, propellers or rudders. While the erosion process has been widely studied on metals, the effect of cavitation on polymers is not well-understood. The stress response in metals differs greatly from that of polymers, e.g. rate and temperature effects are far more important, thus damage and wear mechanisms of polymers under cavitating flows are significantly different. In this work, heat-driven failure caused by viscous dissipation and void nucleation resulting from tensile stresses arising from stress wave reflections are investigated as two possible material failure mechanisms.

As a first step in developing a fundamental understanding of the cavitation erosion process on polymer surfaces, simulations are performed of the collapse of individual bubbles against a compliant surface e.g. metallic substrates with polyurea coatings. The surface response of collapse-driven impact loads is represented by a idealized, time-dependent, Gaussian pressure distribution on the surface. A two-dimensional distribution of load radii and durations is considered corresponding to characteristic of cavitating flows accelerated erosion experiments. Finite element simulations are performed to fit a response curve that relates the loading parameters to the energy dissipated in the coating and integrated with collapse statistics to generate an expected heat input into the coating.

The impulsive pressure, which is generated due to bubble collapse, impacts the material and generates intense shock waves. The stress waves within the material reflects by interaction with the substrate. A transient region of high tensile stress is produced by the interaction of these waves. Simulations suggests that maximum hydrostatic tension which cause failure of polyurea layer is observed in thick coating. Also, the dissipated viscous energy and corresponding temperature rise in a polyurea is calculated, and it is concluded that temperature has influence on deformation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

153875-Thumbnail Image.png

Spatial temperature uniformity and statistical determination of dominant degradation modes in PV modules

Description

This is a two-part thesis.

Part 1 of this thesis investigates the influence of spatial temperature distribution on the accuracy of performance data of photovoltaic (PV) modules in outdoor conditions and

This is a two-part thesis.

Part 1 of this thesis investigates the influence of spatial temperature distribution on the accuracy of performance data of photovoltaic (PV) modules in outdoor conditions and provides physical approaches to improve the spatial temperature distribution of the test modules so an accurate performance data can be obtained in the field. Conventionally, during outdoor performance testing, a single thermocouple location is used on the backsheet or back glass of a test module. This study clearly indicates that there is a large spatial temperature difference between various thermocouple locations within a module. Two physical approaches or configurations were experimented to improve the spatial temperature uniformity: thermally insulating the inner and outer surface of the frame; backsheet and inner surface of the frame. All the data were compared with un-insulated conventional configuration. This study was performed in an array setup of six modules under two different preconditioning electrical configurations, Voc and MPPT over several clear sunny days. This investigation concludes that the best temperature uniformity and the most accurate I-V data can be obtained only by thermally insulating the inner and outer frame surfaces or by using the average of four thermocouple temperatures, as specified in IEC 61853-2, without any thermal insulation.

Part 2 of this thesis analyzes the field data obtained from old PV power plants using various statistical techniques to identify the most influential degradation modes on fielded PV modules in two different climates: hot-dry (Arizona); cold-dry (New York). Performance data and visual inspection data of 647 modules fielded in five different power plants were analyzed. Statistical tests including hypothesis testing were carried out to identify the I-V parameter(s) that are affected the most. The affected performance parameters (Isc, Voc, FF and Pmax) were then correlated with the defects to determine the most dominant defect affecting power degradation. Analysis indicates that the cell interconnect discoloration (or solder bond deterioration) is the dominant defect in hot-dry climate leading to series resistance increase and power loss, while encapsulant delamination is being the most dominant defect in cold-dry climate leading to cell mismatch and power loss.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

151819-Thumbnail Image.png

Getting older and getting colder: the impacts of temperature on health and comfort

Description

Research has demonstrated that temperature and relative humidity substantially influence overall perceptions of indoor air quality (Fang, Clausen, & Fanger, 1998). This finding places temperature quality as a high priority,

Research has demonstrated that temperature and relative humidity substantially influence overall perceptions of indoor air quality (Fang, Clausen, & Fanger, 1998). This finding places temperature quality as a high priority, especially for vulnerable adults over 60. Temperature extremes and fluctuation, as well as the perception of those conditions, affect physical performance, thermal comfort and health of older adults (Chatonnet & Cabanac, 1965, pp. 185-6; Fumiharu, Watanabe, Park, Shephard, & Aoyagi, 2005; Heijs & Stringer, 1988). The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) have developed thermal-comfort standards for working-age, healthy individuals. None of these standards address the physiological and psychological needs of older adults (ASHRAE Standard 55, 2010; ISO-7730, 2005). This dissertation investigates the impacts of thermal conditions on self-reported health and perceived comfort for older adults, hypothesizing that warmer and more-table indoor thermal conditions will increase the health and perceived comfort of these adults. To this end, a new set of thermal comfort metrics was designed and tested to address the thermal preferences of older adults. The SENIOR COMFORT Metrics 2013 outlined new thresholds for optimal indoor high and low temperatures and set limits on thermal variability over time based on the ASHRAE-55 2010 model. This study was conducted at Sunnyslope Manor, a multi-unit, public-housing complex in the North Phoenix. Nearly 60% (76 of 118) of the residents (aged 62-82) were interviewed using a 110-question, self-reporting survey in 73 apartment units. A total of 40 questions and 20 sub-questions addressing perceptions of comfort, pain, sleep patterns, injuries, and mood were extracted from this larger health condition survey to assess health and thermal comfort. Indoor environmental thermal measurements included temperature in three locations: kitchen, living area, and bedroom and data were recorded every 15 minutes over 5 full days and 448 points. Study results start to indicate that older adults for Sunnyslope Manor preferred temperatures between 76 and 82.5 degrees Fahrenheit and that lower temperatures as outlined by ASHRAE-55 2010 increases the rate of injuries and mood changes in older adults among other findings.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013