Matching Items (30)

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Effectiveness of Flipped Classroom for Mechanics of Materials

Description

The flipped classroom is a teaching method that flips the activities done in and out of class, i.e., concepts are learned out of class and problems are worked in class

The flipped classroom is a teaching method that flips the activities done in and out of class, i.e., concepts are learned out of class and problems are worked in class under the supervision of the instructor. Studies have indicated several benefits of the FC, including improved performance and engagement. In the past years, further studies have investigated the benefits of FC in statics, dynamics, and mechanics of materials courses and indicate similar performance benefits. However, these studies address a need for additional studies to validate their results due to the short length of their research or small classroom size. In addition, many of these studies do not measure student attitudes, such as self-efficacy, or the difference in time spent out of class on coursework. The objective of this research is to determine the effectiveness of the flipped classroom system (FC) in comparison to the traditional classroom system (TC) in a large mechanics of materials course. Specifically, it aims to measure student performance, student self-efficacy, student attitudes on lecture quality, motivation, attendance, hours spent out of class, practice, and support, and difference in impact between high, middle, and low achieving students. In order to accomplish this, three undergraduate mechanics of materials courses were analyzed during the spring 2015 semester. One FC section served as the experimental group (92 students), while the two TC sections served as the control group (125 students). To analyze student self-efficacy and attitudes, a survey instrument was designed to measure 18 variables and was administered at the end of the semester. Standardized core outcomes were compared between groups to analyze performance. This paper presents the specific course framework used in this FC, detailed results of the quantitative and qualitative analysis, and discussion of strengths and weaknesses. Overall, an overwhelming majority of students were satisfied with FC and would like more of their classes taught using FC. Strengths of this teaching method include greater confidence, better focus, higher satisfaction with practice in class and assistance received from instructors and peers, more freedom to express ideas and questions in class, and less time required outside of class for coursework. Results also suggest that this method has a greater positive impact on high and low achieving students and leads to higher performance. The criticisms made by students focused on lecture videos to have more worked examples. Overall, results suggest that FC is more effective than TC in a large mechanics of materials course.

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  • 2016-05

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Physical Aids for the Mechanics Project

Description

As a student and then an Undergraduate Teaching Assistant (UGTA), I have had the opportunity to personally witness the learning process of both myself and approximately 75 additional incoming Civil

As a student and then an Undergraduate Teaching Assistant (UGTA), I have had the opportunity to personally witness the learning process of both myself and approximately 75 additional incoming Civil Engineering students taking the Mechanics courses after me. While watching the student learning process as an UGTA, I realized that there were consistent points of confusion amongst the students that the teaching staff could not efficiently communicate with the electronic or physical classroom materials available. As a physical learner, I am able to learn more comprehensively if I have a physical model to manipulate, and often found myself in the position of wanting to be able to physically represent and manipulate the systems being studied in class.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

Trebuchet Mechanics: Modeling and Optimization of the Trebuchet

Description

Abstract A study was conducted on three models of the medieval siege engine, the trebuchet. The three models analyzed were the "see-saw", the hinged, and the floating arm trebuchet. Of

Abstract A study was conducted on three models of the medieval siege engine, the trebuchet. The three models analyzed were the "see-saw", the hinged, and the floating arm trebuchet. Of these models, the mathematical model of each was determined. With his model, the most efficient model was determined to be the floating arm trebuchet, with a range efficiency of 0.8275 and an energy efficiency of 0.8526. The hinged trebuchet achieved efficiencies of 0.8065 for both range and energy efficiency and the "see-saw" with efficiencies of only 0.567 and 0.570, respectively. Then, the floating arm trebuchet's arm length ratio and sling length were then optimized. It was determined that the optimal arm length ratio was approximately 1:2, where the short arm is 1.7 feet and the long arm is 3.3 feet. The optimized sling length was 4.45 feet. Finally, the mathematical models were compared to full scale models. These ranges of the full scale models were surprisingly accurate with what was predicted. The hinged trebuchet model had the largest percentage error at 8.4%.

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  • 2013-05

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Supplemental Multimedia Content to Support Effective Engineering Education

Description

Educational institutions are in a unique position to take advantage of computers and software in new, innovative ways. The Mechanics Project at Arizona State University has done an exceptional job

Educational institutions are in a unique position to take advantage of computers and software in new, innovative ways. The Mechanics Project at Arizona State University has done an exceptional job integrating many new ways of engaging students and providing resources that can help them learn course material in a way that they can understand. However, there is still very little research on how to best compose multimedia content for student use.

This project aims to determine what students struggle with in these courses and develop multimedia content to support their education in Dynamics specifically.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Multiresolution Coarse-Grained Modeling of the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Polyurea Elastomer

Description

Polyurea is a highly versatile material used in coatings and armor systems to protect against extreme conditions such as ballistic impact, cavitation erosion, and blast loading. However, the relationships between

Polyurea is a highly versatile material used in coatings and armor systems to protect against extreme conditions such as ballistic impact, cavitation erosion, and blast loading. However, the relationships between microstructurally-dependent deformation mechanisms and the mechanical properties of polyurea are not yet fully understood, especially under extreme conditions. In this work, multi-scale coarse-grained models are developed to probe molecular dynamics across the wide range of time and length scales that these fundamental deformation mechanisms operate. In the first of these models, a high-resolution coarse-grained model of polyurea is developed, where similar to united-atom models, hydrogen atoms are modeled implicitly. This model was trained using a modified iterative Boltzmann inversion method that dramatically reduces the number of iterations required. Coarse-grained simulations using this model demonstrate that multiblock systems evolve to form a more interconnected hard phase, compared to the more interrupted hard phase composed of distinct ribbon-shaped domains found in diblock systems. Next, a reactive coarse-grained model is developed to simulate the influence of the difference in time scales for step-growth polymerization and phase segregation in polyurea. Analysis of the simulated cured polyurea systems reveals that more rapid reaction rates produce a smaller diameter ligaments in the gyroidal hard phase as well as increased covalent bonding connecting the hard domain ligaments as evidenced by a larger fraction of bridging segments and larger mean radius of gyration of the copolymer chains. The effect that these processing-induced structural variations have on the mechanical properties of the polymer was tested by simulating uniaxial compression, which revealed that the higher degree of hard domain connectivity leads to a 20% increase in the flow stress. A hierarchical multiresolution framework is proposed to fully link coarse-grained molecular simulations across a broader range of time scales, in which a family of coarse-grained models are developed. The models are connected using an incremental reverse–mapping scheme allowing for long time scale dynamics simulated at a highly coarsened resolution to be passed all the way to an atomistic representation.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Mechanics of cancer cells in 3D microenvironments

Description

Mechanical properties (e.g. deformability or stiffness) are critical to a cancer cell's ability to maneuver through and exert forces upon the extracellular matrix, and thus affect its ability to metastasize.

Mechanical properties (e.g. deformability or stiffness) are critical to a cancer cell's ability to maneuver through and exert forces upon the extracellular matrix, and thus affect its ability to metastasize. §3.1 introduces the experimental method combining atomic force microscope (AFM) based indentation and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). §3.2 presents a method combining AFM and confocal microscopy (AFM stiffness nanotomography), and results on normal and pre-cancerous esophageal cells which indicate that even in the earliest stages, cancer cells exhibit increased deformability. §3.3 presents experimental results on weakly metastatic breast cancer cells that compare well with values obtained from other experimental methods and demonstrates that the mechanical response of cells to sharp and mesoscale probes differ significantly. §3.4 presents experimental results indicating that metastatic breast cancer cells are more deformable than normal counterparts, and demonstrates that indentation measurements with sharp probes are capable of identifying mechanical differences between cytoplasmic, nuclear and nucleolar regions of the cell. §3.5 presents results on weakly metastatic breast cancer cells sensitive and resistant to tamoxifen (an estrogen antagonist), and demonstrate that estrogen has a significant effect on cell stiffness. §3.6 applies stiffness nanotomography to study metastatic breast cancer cells allowed to invade 3D collagen gels, demonstrating the ability to use AFM indentation on heterogeneous samples, and shows that cell stiffness increases during the invasion process for partially and fully embedded metastatic breast cancer cells.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Non-local finite element model for rigid origami

Description

Origami is an art transforming a flat sheet of paper into a sculpture. Among various types of origami, the focus is on a particular class called the `Rigid Origami' ("RO").

Origami is an art transforming a flat sheet of paper into a sculpture. Among various types of origami, the focus is on a particular class called the `Rigid Origami' ("RO"). A Rigid Origami, unlike other forms, is not intended to be folded into fancy shapes. On the contrary, an RO has a simple and a geometrically well-defined crease pattern and does not have curved/smudged faces. The folds can be carried out by a continuous motion in which, at each step, each face of the origami is completely flat. As a result, these planar faces experience very minimal strain due to loading. This property allows it to be used to fold surfaces made of rigid materials. Tapping into the geometrical properties of RO will open a new field of research with great practical utility. Analyzing each new RO pattern will require generating numerous prototypes; this is practically impossible to do, as it consumes a lot of time and material. The advantages of Finite Element Analysis
umerical modeling become very clear in this scenario. A new design concept may be modeled to determine its real world behavior under various load environments and may, therefore, be refined prior to the creation of drawings, when changes are inexpensive. Since an RO undergoes a non-local deformation when subjected to a disturbance, the usage of conventional FEA will not produce accurate results. A non-local element model was developed which can be used in conjunction with the finite element package ABAQUS, via its user-defined element (UEL). This model was tested on two RO patterns, namely Miura-Ori and Ron Resch, by carrying out basic simulations. There are many other interesting origami patterns, exhibiting different meta-material properties, yet to be explored. This Finite Element Approach equips researchers with necessary tools to study those options in great detail.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Efficient extended finite element algorithms for strongly and weakly discontinuous entities with complex internal geometries

Description

The objective of this research is to develop robust, accurate, and adaptive algorithms in the framework of the extended finite element method (XFEM) for fracture analysis of highly heterogeneous materials

The objective of this research is to develop robust, accurate, and adaptive algorithms in the framework of the extended finite element method (XFEM) for fracture analysis of highly heterogeneous materials with complex internal geometries. A key contribution of this work is the creation of novel methods designed to automate the incorporation of high-resolution data, e.g. from X-ray tomography, that can be used to better interpret the enormous volume of data generated in modern in-situ experimental testing. Thus new algorithms were developed for automating analysis of complex microstructures characterized by segmented tomographic images.

A centrality-based geometry segmentation algorithm was developed to accurately identify discrete inclusions and particles in composite materials where limitations in imaging resolution leads to spurious connections between particles in close contact.To allow for this algorithm to successfully segment geometry independently of particle size and shape, a relative centrality metric was defined to allow for a threshold centrality criterion for removal of voxels that spuriously connect distinct geometries.

To automate incorporation of microstructural information from high-resolution images, two methods were developed that initialize signed distance fields on adaptively-refined finite element meshes. The first method utilizes a level set evolution equation that is directly solved on the finite element mesh through Galerkins method. The evolution equation is formulated to produce a signed distance field that matches geometry defined by a set of voxels segmented from tomographic images. The method achieves optimal convergence for the order of elements used. In a second approach, the fast marching method is employed to initialize a distance field on a uniform grid which is then projected by least squares onto a finite element mesh. This latter approach is shown to be superior in speed and accuracy.

Lastly, extended finite element method simulations are performed for the analysis of particle fracture in metal matrix composites with realistic particle geometries initialized from X-ray tomographic data. In the simulations, particles fracture probabilistically through a Weibull strength distribution. The model is verified through comparisons with the experimentally-measured stress-strain response of the material as well as analysis of the fracture. Further, simulations are then performed to analyze the effect of mesh sensitivity, the effect of fracture of particles on their neighbors, and the role of a particles shape on its fracture probability.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Subcycle fatigue crack growth formulation for constant and variable amplitude loading

Description

A previously developed small time scale fatigue crack growth model is improved, modified and extended with an emphasis on creating the simplest models that maintain the desired level of accuracy

A previously developed small time scale fatigue crack growth model is improved, modified and extended with an emphasis on creating the simplest models that maintain the desired level of accuracy for a variety of materials. The model provides a means of estimating load sequence effects by continuously updating the crack opening stress every cycle, in a simplified manner. One of the significant phenomena of the crack opening stress under negative stress ratio is the residual tensile stress induced by the applied compressive stress. A modified coefficient is introduced to determine the extent to which residual stress impact the crack closure and is observed to vary for different materials. Several other literature models for crack closure under constant loading are also reviewed and compared with the proposed model. The modified model is then shown to predict several sets of published test results under constant loading for a variety of materials.

The crack opening stress is formalized as a function of the plastic zone sizes at the crack tip and the current crack length, which provided a means of approximation, accounting for both acceleration and retardation effects in a simplified manner. A sensitivity parameter is introduced to modify the enlarged plastic zone due to overload, to better fit the delay cycles with the test data and is observed to vary for different materials. Furthermore, the interaction effect induced by the combination of overload and underload sequence is modeled by depleting the compressive plastic zone due to an overload with the tensile plastic zone due to an underload. A qualitative analysis showed the simulation capacity of the small time scale model under different load types. A good agreement between prediction and test data for several irregular load types proved the applicability of the small time scale model under variable amplitude loading.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016