Matching Items (37)

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Effectiveness of Flipped Classroom for Mechanics of Materials

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The flipped classroom is a teaching method that flips the activities done in and out of class, i.e., concepts are learned out of class and problems are worked in class under the supervision of the instructor. Studies have indicated several

The flipped classroom is a teaching method that flips the activities done in and out of class, i.e., concepts are learned out of class and problems are worked in class under the supervision of the instructor. Studies have indicated several benefits of the FC, including improved performance and engagement. In the past years, further studies have investigated the benefits of FC in statics, dynamics, and mechanics of materials courses and indicate similar performance benefits. However, these studies address a need for additional studies to validate their results due to the short length of their research or small classroom size. In addition, many of these studies do not measure student attitudes, such as self-efficacy, or the difference in time spent out of class on coursework. The objective of this research is to determine the effectiveness of the flipped classroom system (FC) in comparison to the traditional classroom system (TC) in a large mechanics of materials course. Specifically, it aims to measure student performance, student self-efficacy, student attitudes on lecture quality, motivation, attendance, hours spent out of class, practice, and support, and difference in impact between high, middle, and low achieving students. In order to accomplish this, three undergraduate mechanics of materials courses were analyzed during the spring 2015 semester. One FC section served as the experimental group (92 students), while the two TC sections served as the control group (125 students). To analyze student self-efficacy and attitudes, a survey instrument was designed to measure 18 variables and was administered at the end of the semester. Standardized core outcomes were compared between groups to analyze performance. This paper presents the specific course framework used in this FC, detailed results of the quantitative and qualitative analysis, and discussion of strengths and weaknesses. Overall, an overwhelming majority of students were satisfied with FC and would like more of their classes taught using FC. Strengths of this teaching method include greater confidence, better focus, higher satisfaction with practice in class and assistance received from instructors and peers, more freedom to express ideas and questions in class, and less time required outside of class for coursework. Results also suggest that this method has a greater positive impact on high and low achieving students and leads to higher performance. The criticisms made by students focused on lecture videos to have more worked examples. Overall, results suggest that FC is more effective than TC in a large mechanics of materials course.

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2016-05

Trebuchet Mechanics: Modeling and Optimization of the Trebuchet

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Abstract A study was conducted on three models of the medieval siege engine, the trebuchet. The three models analyzed were the "see-saw", the hinged, and the floating arm trebuchet. Of these models, the mathematical model of each was determined. With

Abstract A study was conducted on three models of the medieval siege engine, the trebuchet. The three models analyzed were the "see-saw", the hinged, and the floating arm trebuchet. Of these models, the mathematical model of each was determined. With his model, the most efficient model was determined to be the floating arm trebuchet, with a range efficiency of 0.8275 and an energy efficiency of 0.8526. The hinged trebuchet achieved efficiencies of 0.8065 for both range and energy efficiency and the "see-saw" with efficiencies of only 0.567 and 0.570, respectively. Then, the floating arm trebuchet's arm length ratio and sling length were then optimized. It was determined that the optimal arm length ratio was approximately 1:2, where the short arm is 1.7 feet and the long arm is 3.3 feet. The optimized sling length was 4.45 feet. Finally, the mathematical models were compared to full scale models. These ranges of the full scale models were surprisingly accurate with what was predicted. The hinged trebuchet model had the largest percentage error at 8.4%.

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2013-05

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Mechanics of silicon electrodes in lithium ion batteries

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As one of the most promising materials for high capacity electrode in next generation of lithium ion batteries, silicon has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. Advanced characterization techniques and atomic simulations helped to depict that the

As one of the most promising materials for high capacity electrode in next generation of lithium ion batteries, silicon has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. Advanced characterization techniques and atomic simulations helped to depict that the lithiation/delithiation of silicon electrode involves processes including large volume change (anisotropic for the initial lithiation of crystal silicon), plastic flow or softening of material dependent on composition, electrochemically driven phase transformation between solid states, anisotropic or isotropic migration of atomic sharp interface, and mass diffusion of lithium atoms. Motivated by the promising prospect of the application and underlying interesting physics, mechanics coupled with multi-physics of silicon electrodes in lithium ion batteries is studied in this dissertation. For silicon electrodes with large size, diffusion controlled kinetics is assumed, and the coupled large deformation and mass transportation is studied. For crystal silicon with small size, interface controlled kinetics is assumed, and anisotropic interface reaction is studied, with a geometry design principle proposed. As a preliminary experimental validation, enhanced lithiation and fracture behavior of silicon pillars via atomic layer coatings and geometry design is studied, with results supporting the geometry design principle we proposed based on our simulations. Through the work documented here, a consistent description and understanding of the behavior of silicon electrode is given at continuum level and some insights for the future development of the silicon electrode are provided.

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2014

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Physical Aids for the Mechanics Project

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As a student and then an Undergraduate Teaching Assistant (UGTA), I have had the opportunity to personally witness the learning process of both myself and approximately 75 additional incoming Civil Engineering students taking the Mechanics courses after me. While watching

As a student and then an Undergraduate Teaching Assistant (UGTA), I have had the opportunity to personally witness the learning process of both myself and approximately 75 additional incoming Civil Engineering students taking the Mechanics courses after me. While watching the student learning process as an UGTA, I realized that there were consistent points of confusion amongst the students that the teaching staff could not efficiently communicate with the electronic or physical classroom materials available. As a physical learner, I am able to learn more comprehensively if I have a physical model to manipulate, and often found myself in the position of wanting to be able to physically represent and manipulate the systems being studied in class.

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2020-05

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Supplemental Multimedia Content to Support Effective Engineering Education

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Educational institutions are in a unique position to take advantage of computers and software in new, innovative ways. The Mechanics Project at Arizona State University has done an exceptional job integrating many new ways of engaging students and providing resources

Educational institutions are in a unique position to take advantage of computers and software in new, innovative ways. The Mechanics Project at Arizona State University has done an exceptional job integrating many new ways of engaging students and providing resources that can help them learn course material in a way that they can understand. However, there is still very little research on how to best compose multimedia content for student use.

This project aims to determine what students struggle with in these courses and develop multimedia content to support their education in Dynamics specifically.

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2019-05

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Role of defects interactions with embrittlement species in iron: a multiscale perspective

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Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a phenomenon that affects both the physical and chemical properties of several intrinsically ductile metals. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms behind HE has been of particular interest in both experimental and modeling research. Discrepancies between experimental observations

Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a phenomenon that affects both the physical and chemical properties of several intrinsically ductile metals. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms behind HE has been of particular interest in both experimental and modeling research. Discrepancies between experimental observations and modeling results have led to various proposals for HE mechanisms. Therefore, to gain insights into HE mechanisms in iron, this dissertation aims to investigate several key issues involving HE such as: a) the incipient crack tip events; b) the cohesive strength of grain boundaries (GBs); c) the dislocation-GB interactions and d) the dislocation mobility.

The crack tip, which presents a preferential trap site for hydrogen segregation, was examined using atomistic methods and the continuum based Rice-Thompson criterion as sufficient concentration of hydrogen can alter the crack tip deformation mechanism. Results suggest that there is a plausible co-existence of the adsorption induced dislocation emission and hydrogen enhanced decohesion mechanisms. In the case of GB-hydrogen interaction, we observed that the segregation of hydrogen along the interface leads to a reduction in cohesive strength resulting in intergranular failure. A methodology was further developed to quantify the role of the GB structure on this behavior.

GBs play a fundamental role in determining the strengthening mechanisms acting as an impediment to the dislocation motion; however, the presence of an unsurmountable barrier for a dislocation can generate slip localization that could further lead to intergranular crack initiation. It was found that the presence of hydrogen increases the strain energy stored within the GB which could lead to a transition in failure mode. Finally, in the case of body centered cubic metals, understanding the complex screw dislocation motion is critical to the development of an accurate continuum description of the plastic behavior. Further, the presence of hydrogen has been shown to drastically alter the plastic deformation, but the precise role of hydrogen is still unclear. Thus, the role of hydrogen on the dislocation mobility was examined using density functional theory and atomistic simulations. Overall, this dissertation provides a novel atomic-scale understanding of the HE mechanism and development of multiscale tools for future endeavors.

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2015

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A novel nonlocal lattice particle framework for modeling of solids

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Fracture phenomena have been extensively studied in the last several decades. Continuum mechanics-based approaches, such as finite element methods and extended finite element methods, are widely used for fracture simulation. One well-known issue of these approaches is the stress singularity

Fracture phenomena have been extensively studied in the last several decades. Continuum mechanics-based approaches, such as finite element methods and extended finite element methods, are widely used for fracture simulation. One well-known issue of these approaches is the stress singularity resulted from the spatial discontinuity at the crack tip/front. The requirement of guiding criteria for various cracking behaviors, such as initiation, propagation, and branching, also poses some challenges. Comparing to the continuum based formulation, the discrete approaches, such as lattice spring method, discrete element method, and peridynamics, have certain advantages when modeling various fracture problems due to their intrinsic characteristics in modeling discontinuities.

A novel, alternative, and systematic framework based on a nonlocal lattice particle model is proposed in this study. The uniqueness of the proposed model is the inclusion of both pair-wise local and multi-body nonlocal potentials in the formulation. First, the basic ideas of the proposed framework for 2D isotropic solid are presented. Derivations for triangular and square lattice structure are discussed in detail. Both mechanical deformation and fracture process are simulated and model verification and validation are performed with existing analytical solutions and experimental observations. Following this, the extension to general 3D isotropic solids based on the proposed local and nonlocal potentials is given. Three cubic lattice structures are discussed in detail. Failure predictions using the 3D simulation are compared with experimental testing results and very good agreement is observed. Next, a lattice rotation scheme is proposed to account for the material orientation in modeling anisotropic solids. The consistency and difference compared to the classical material tangent stiffness transformation method are discussed in detail. The implicit and explicit solution methods for the proposed lattice particle model are also discussed. Finally, some conclusions and discussions based on the current study are drawn at the end.

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2015

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Micromechanics based multiscale modeling of the inelastic response and failure of complex architecture composites

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Advanced composites are being widely used in aerospace applications due to their high stiffness, strength and energy absorption capabilities. However, the assurance of structural reliability is a critical issue because a damage event will compromise the integrity of composite structures

Advanced composites are being widely used in aerospace applications due to their high stiffness, strength and energy absorption capabilities. However, the assurance of structural reliability is a critical issue because a damage event will compromise the integrity of composite structures and lead to ultimate failure. In this dissertation a novel homogenization based multiscale modeling framework using semi-analytical micromechanics is presented to simulate the response of textile composites. The novelty of this approach lies in the three scale homogenization/localization framework bridging between the constituent (micro), the fiber tow scale (meso), weave scale (macro), and the global response. The multiscale framework, named Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells (MSGMC), continuously bridges between the micro to the global scale as opposed to approaches that are top-down and bottom-up. This framework is fully generalized and capable of modeling several different weave and braids without reformulation. Particular emphasis in this dissertation is placed on modeling the nonlinearity and failure of both polymer matrix and ceramic matrix composites.

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2011

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The evaluation of the numerical methods to study the buckling of stiff films on elastomeric substrates

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Ordered buckling of stiff films on elastomeric substrates has many applications in the field of stretchable electronics. Mechanics plays a very important role in such systems. A full three dimensional finite element analysis studying the pattern of wrinkles formed on

Ordered buckling of stiff films on elastomeric substrates has many applications in the field of stretchable electronics. Mechanics plays a very important role in such systems. A full three dimensional finite element analysis studying the pattern of wrinkles formed on a stiff film bonded to a compliant substrate under the action of a compressive force has been widely studied. For thin films, this wrinkling pattern is usually sinusoidal, and for wide films the pattern depends on loading conditions. The present study establishes a relationship between the effect of the load applied at an angle to the stiff film. A systematic experimental and analytical study of these systems has been presented in the present study. The study is performed for two different loading conditions, one with the compressive force applied parallel to the film and the other with an angle included between the application of the force and the alignment of the stiff film. A geometric model closely resembling the experimental specimen studied is created and a three dimensional finite element analysis is carried out using ABAQUS (Version 6.7). The objective of the finite element simulations is to validate the results of the experimental study to be corresponding to the minimum total energy of the system. It also helps to establish a relation between the parameters of the buckling profile and the parameters (elastic and dimensional parameters) of the system. Two methods of non-linear analysis namely, the Newton-Raphson method and Arc-Length method are used. It is found that the Arc-Length method is the most cost effective in terms of total simulation time for large models (higher number of elements).The convergence of the results is affected by a variety of factors like the dimensional parameters of the substrate, mesh density of the model, length of the substrate and the film, the angle included. For narrow silicon films the buckling profile is observed to be sinusoidal and perpendicular to the direction of the silicon film. As the angle increases in wider stiff films the buckling profile is seen to transit from being perpendicular to the direction of the film to being perpendicular to the direction of the application of the pre-stress. This study improves and expands the application of the stiff film buckling to an angled loading condition.

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2010

Finite element analysis of silicon thin films on soft substrates as anodes for lithium ion batteries

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The wide-scale use of green technologies such as electric vehicles has been slowed due to insufficient means of storing enough portable energy. Therefore it is critical that efficient storage mediums be developed in order to transform abundant renewable energy into

The wide-scale use of green technologies such as electric vehicles has been slowed due to insufficient means of storing enough portable energy. Therefore it is critical that efficient storage mediums be developed in order to transform abundant renewable energy into an on-demand source of power. Lithium (Li) ion batteries are seeing a stream of improvements as they are introduced into many consumer electronics, electric vehicles and aircraft, and medical devices. Li-ion batteries are well suited for portable applications because of their high energy-to-weight ratios, high energy densities, and reasonable life cycles. Current research into Li-ion batteries is focused on enhancing its energy density, and by changing the electrode materials, greater energy capacities can be realized. Silicon (Si) is a very attractive option because it has the highest known theoretical charge capacity. Current Si anodes, however, suffer from early capacity fading caused by pulverization from the stresses induced by large volumetric changes that occur during charging and discharging. An innovative system aimed at resolving this issue is being developed. This system incorporates a thin Si film bonded to an elastomeric substrate which is intended to provide the desired stress relief. Non-linear finite element simulations have shown that a significant amount of deformation can be accommodated until a critical threshold of Li concentration is reached; beyond which buckling is induced and a wavy structure appears. When compared to a similar system using rigid substrates where no buckling occurs, the stress is reduced by an order of magnitude, significantly prolonging the life of the Si anode. Thus the stress can be released at high Li-ion diffusion induced strains by buckling the Si thin film. Several aspects of this anode system have been analyzed including studying the effects of charge rate and thin film plasticity, and the results are compared with preliminary empirical measurements to show great promise. This study serves as the basis for a radical resolution to one of the few remaining barriers left in the development of high performing Si based electrodes for Li-ion batteries.

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2011