Small Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary Hypercalcemic Type (SCCOHT) is a rare and highly aggressive ovarian cancer that affects children and young women at a mean age of 24 years. Most SCCOHT patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage and do not respond to chemotherapy. As a result, more than 75% of patients succumb to their disease within 1-2 years. To provide insights into the biological, diagnostic, and therapeutic vulnerabilities of this deadly cancer, a comprehensive characterization of 22 SCCOHT cases and 2 SCCOHT cell lines using microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies was performed. Following histological examination, tumor DNA and RNA were extracted and used for array comparative genomic hybridization and gene expression microarray analyses. In agreement with previous reports, SCCOHT presented consistently diploid profiles with few copy number aberrations. Gene expression analysis showed SCCOHT tumors have a unique gene expression profile unlike that of most common epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Dysregulated cell cycle control, DNA repair, DNA damage-response, nucleosome assembly, neurogenesis and nervous system development were all characteristic of SCCOHT tumors. Sequencing of DNA from SCCOHT patients and cell lines revealed germline and somatic inactivating mutations in the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling gene SMARCA4 in 79% (19/24) of SCCOHT patients in addition to SMARCA4 protein loss in 84% (16/19) of SCCOHT tumors, but in only 0.4% (2/485) of other primary ovarian tumors. Ongoing studies are now focusing on identifying treatments for SCCOHT based on therapeutic vulnerabilities conferred by ubiquitous inactivating mutations in SMARCA4 in addition to gene and protein expression data. Our characterization of the molecular landscape of SCCOHT and the breakthrough identification of inactivating SMARCA4 mutations in almost all cases of SCCOHT offers the first significant insight into the molecular pathogenesis of this disease. The loss of SMARCA4 protein is a highly sensitive and specific marker of the disease, highlighting its potential role as a diagnostic marker, and offers the opportunity for genetic testing of family members at risk. Outstanding questions remain about the role of SMARCA4 loss in the biology, histogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of SCCOHT.