Matching Items (17)

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Seed Beetle Abundance and Diversity in Urban and Rural Sites

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The spread of urbanization leads to habitat fragmentation and deterioration and changes the composition of ecosystems for species all over the world. Different groups of organisms are impacted differently, and insects have experienced loss in diversity and abundance due to

The spread of urbanization leads to habitat fragmentation and deterioration and changes the composition of ecosystems for species all over the world. Different groups of organisms are impacted differently, and insects have experienced loss in diversity and abundance due to changing environmental factors. Here, I collected seed beetles across 12 urban and rural sites in Phoenix, Arizona, to analyze the effects of urbanization and habitat variation on beetle diversity and abundance. I found that urbanization, host tree origin, and environmental factors such as tree diversity and density had no impact on overall beetle diversity and abundance. Beetles were found to have higher density on hosts with a higher density of pods. In assessing individual beetle species, some beetles exhibited higher density in rural sites with native trees, and some were found more commonly on nonnative tree species. The observed differences in beetle density demonstrate the range of effects urbanization and environmental features can have on insect species. By studying ecosystem interactions alongside changing environments, we can better predict the role urbanization and human development can have on different organisms.

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2018-05

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Bridging the Rural-Urban Divide: Addressing Barriers to Health Services in the Rural USA and Mexico

Description

Due to unique barriers to access and quality of healthcare, rural Americans have, among many other poorer health outcomes, a worsening life expectancy than their urban counterparts: 76.8 years compared to 78.8 years. In addition to overall mortality, the burden

Due to unique barriers to access and quality of healthcare, rural Americans have, among many other poorer health outcomes, a worsening life expectancy than their urban counterparts: 76.8 years compared to 78.8 years. In addition to overall mortality, the burden of disease is greater in rural areas, as well as rates of physical injury. There are many intersecting influencing factors including, but not limited to, barriers to access needed healthcare, issues regarding the quality of healthcare provided, the ability to pay for healthcare and other socioeconomic considerations are both causes and consequences of poor health and healthcare access.
The health disparities between rural and urban communities in the United States are not uniquely American. This rural-urban divide in health outcomes is present across the world and, closer to home, across North America. In addition to reviewing the current literature surrounding barriers to health and healthcare access in the United States, we will also use southern neighbor Mexico’s history and their pursuit of rural equity (universally and in health/healthcare access) to contrast initiatives that the U.S. has attempted, with the intent of exploring new theories of rural healthcare provision. By combining the history of social medicine in Mexico with literature on barriers to healthcare access, I hope to highlight areas of innovation and improvement in the American health care delivery system.
The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature regarding health disparities among rural Americans, possible causes of such disparities and current strategies to improve health, healthcare access and healthcare quality in rural America in order to recommend the most effective, practical solutions to improve rural mortality, morbidity and quality of life.

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Date Created
2019-05

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The Rural Alaska Wellness Project

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The 284 residents of the rural community of Cooper Landing, Alaska are subject to many health risks. Cooper Landing is home to a large population of older adults whom suffer from a disproportionate physician to population ratio. Limited rural health

The 284 residents of the rural community of Cooper Landing, Alaska are subject to many health risks. Cooper Landing is home to a large population of older adults whom suffer from a disproportionate physician to population ratio. Limited rural health care infrastructure and poor physician to population ratios are not conducive to primary health care implementation. Limited access to primary health care is linked to vast health disparities in rural communities like Cooper Landing. Preventive care and healthy lifestyle incentives have been largely overlooked as viable alternatives to primary health care access. In Cooper Landing, implementation of such incentives has proved to be either underutilized or unsuccessful by the private, public, and nonprofit sectors. To remedy this, the Rural Alaska Wellness Project (RAWP), a nonprofit organization, carries out its mission to promote health and wellness by providing a community resource for preventive care in Cooper Landing, Alaska. RAWP intends to increase the availability of the Cooper Landing School's gymnasium for community use, donate fitness equipment, implement TeleHealth initiatives, and host annual health fairs through grant funding, generous donations, and fundraising activities.

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Date Created
2015-05

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The College Decision in Rural Arizona: How Can Educators Help?

Description

There are many factors that influence the college decision process, but rural students face a unique set of challenges because of the environment in which they make the decision. This is a qualitative study that combines a review of previous

There are many factors that influence the college decision process, but rural students face a unique set of challenges because of the environment in which they make the decision. This is a qualitative study that combines a review of previous literature on the subject with a survey of twelve students from the graduating class of 2011 in a rural area of Arizona. Results from the interviews found that the rural students consider the perception of importance of a college degree, parental influence, and self-discovery as important factors in the decision making process. In addition, not all non-college-going students felt that college was necessary for a better quality of living, but did express desire for more development opportunities while in high school. The findings resulted in the following recommendations for local educators to help students better navigate the college decision process: teach parents how to have more meaningful conversations, provide step-by-step assistance to students about the college application process, and provide more opportunities for self/educational/career development to students.

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Date Created
2015-05

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Factors Influencing Patient Satisfaction in the Dental Clinics of the Underserved Communities: A Systematic Literature Review

Description

The purpose of this study is to explore the possible factors that influence how patients rate their dentists in the underserved communities and how commonly each factors are mentioned in the articles found from the systematic review. PubMed was used

The purpose of this study is to explore the possible factors that influence how patients rate their dentists in the underserved communities and how commonly each factors are mentioned in the articles found from the systematic review. PubMed was used to search the articles with the keywords categorized into 5 different groups, they were: dental/oral, underserved, patient satisfaction, services provided and America. The search resulted in 123 articles and after critical appraisal and review, 19 full text articles were determined to be fully relevant to this project. A table of summarized results from the articles was created and factors of satisfaction from the articles were translated into a category which then was categorize into broader category based on relatedness. Sub-categories that were mentioned at least five times in the articles were cost, insurance acceptance, communication, interpersonal skills, number of treatments, fear/worry/anxiety and pain. According to the findings, quality in terms of interaction and interpersonal relationship between patients and the dentists was most mentioned compared to other factors when it comes to patient satisfaction. Other factors mentioned were external factors, pain, continuity, access, cost, technical qualities, efficiency, convenience, availability and environment. The purpose of this study has been met. The results in this project suggest that dentists in underserved communities could focus on changing the way they deliver their service if they want to improve patient retention and satisfaction.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Addressing Mental Health in Rural Indian Primary Schools Through Experiential Learning: A Viable Model?

Description

Social-emotional learning (SEL) methods are beginning to receive global attention in primary school education, yet the dominant emphasis on implementing these curricula is in high-income, urbanized areas. Consequently, the unique features of developing and integrating such methods in middle- or

Social-emotional learning (SEL) methods are beginning to receive global attention in primary school education, yet the dominant emphasis on implementing these curricula is in high-income, urbanized areas. Consequently, the unique features of developing and integrating such methods in middle- or low-income rural areas are unclear. Past studies suggest that students exposed to SEL programs show an increase in academic performance, improved ability to cope with stress, and better attitudes about themselves, others, and school, but these curricula are designed with an urban focus. The purpose of this study was to conduct a needs-based analysis to investigate components specific to a SEL curriculum contextualized to rural primary schools. A promising organization committed to rural educational development is Barefoot College, located in Tilonia, Rajasthan, India. In partnership with Barefoot, we designed an ethnographic study to identify and describe what teachers and school leaders consider the highest needs related to their students' social and emotional education. To do so, we interviewed 14 teachers and school leaders individually or in a focus group to explore their present understanding of “social-emotional learning” and the perception of their students’ social and emotional intelligence. Analysis of this data uncovered common themes among classroom behaviors and prevalent opportunities to address social and emotional well-being among students. These themes translated into the three overarching topics and eight sub-topics explored throughout the curriculum, and these opportunities guided the creation of the 21 modules within it. Through a design-based research methodology, we developed a 40-hour curriculum by implementing its various modules within seven Barefoot classrooms alongside continuous reiteration based on teacher feedback and participant observation. Through this process, we found that student engagement increased during contextualized SEL lessons as opposed to traditional methods. In addition, we found that teachers and students preferred and performed better with an activities-based approach. These findings suggest that rural educators must employ particular teaching strategies when addressing SEL, including localized content and an experiential-learning approach. Teachers reported that as their approach to SEL shifted, they began to unlock the potential to build self-aware, globally-minded students. This study concludes that social and emotional education cannot be treated in a generalized manner, as curriculum development is central to the teaching-learning process.

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2020-05

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Interrogating rusticism: extrapolitan collisions between rural and urban cultures in nineteenth-century literature

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Interrogating Rusticism utilizes concepts from postcolonial theory and studies in cosmopolitanism to examine the relationship between the country and the city in nineteenth-century Britain. The project considers the way in which rural people, places, and cultures were depicted in popular

Interrogating Rusticism utilizes concepts from postcolonial theory and studies in cosmopolitanism to examine the relationship between the country and the city in nineteenth-century Britain. The project considers the way in which rural people, places, and cultures were depicted in popular literature and introduces two new terms that help inform one’s understanding of rural and urban interaction. “Rusticism” refers to a discourse reminiscent of Orientalism that creates an “us and them” dichotomy through characterizations that essentialize rural experience and cast it as distinct from urban living. “Extrapolitanism” evokes a cultural practice similar to rooted cosmopolitanism that entails traveling back and forth between the country and the city, engaging in both urban and rural cultural practices, and not committing oneself solely to the social and political causes of either the country or the city. Because rusticist stereotypes regarding rural life, such as the notion that rural labourers possess an energy and love for their work but are also uneducated and backward, have persisted into the twenty-first century, studying the more nuanced, less-rusticist aspects of rural life in nineteenth-century Britain is an often overlooked, but still very important, endeavor. Interrogating Rusticism closely examines literature by authors known for imbuing their works with rusticist portrayals of country life, and seeks to illuminate how, in addition to perpetuating rusticist discourse, those authors also cultivate an extrapolitan type of mindset when they do depict more nuanced aspects of rural life.

Each chapter follows a similar methodological approach that involves looking at a specific rusticist notion, the binary distinctions that help construct it, the historical background that contributed to its rise, a critically overlooked work that informed the writing process of a commonly studied piece, and how the commonly studied piece challenges the rusticist notion by revealing that the binary distinctions actually inform one another. Chapter 1 focuses on the rusticist idea that rural communities are pastoral, pre-modern sites untouched by the effects of modernity, the repeal of the Corn Laws, which eventually led to rampant poverty in the countryside, George Eliot’s travel memoir “Recollections of Ilfracombe” (1856) that chronicles her visit to a rural, sea-side community, and her first novel, Adam Bede (1859). Chapter 2 turns to the comparison that was often made between rural workers and nonhuman animals, the negative connotations it carried, which became even more pronounced following the publication of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species in 1859, Charles Dickens and Wilkie Collins’s dramatized account of their 1857 walking tour of rural England, The Lazy Tour of Two Idle Apprentices, and Dickens’s Our Mutual Friend (1864-65). The final chapter examines the expectation for male rural workers to be hearty, highly masculine figures, which was emphasized by both the use of the derogatory term Hodge to refer to rural workers and the passing of the Representation of the People Act 1884, Richard Jefferies’s post-apocalyptic novel After London (1885), and Thomas Hardy’s Jude the Obscure (1895). Interrogating Rusticism helps elucidate often overlooked aspects of rural life in nineteenth-century Britain that can and should inform rural and urban interaction today as long-held stereotypes regarding rural life still persist and the world becomes increasingly more urban.

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Date Created
2016

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Renewable energy in rural southeastern Arizona: decision factors : a comparison of the consumer profiles of homeowners who purchased renewable energy systems with those who performed other home upgrades or remodeling projects

Description

Arizona has an abundant solar resource and technologically mature systems are available to capture it, but solar energy systems are still considered to be an innovative technology. Adoption rates for solar and wind energy systems rise and fall with the

Arizona has an abundant solar resource and technologically mature systems are available to capture it, but solar energy systems are still considered to be an innovative technology. Adoption rates for solar and wind energy systems rise and fall with the political tides, and are relatively low in most rural areas in Arizona. This thesis tests the hypothesis that a consumer profile developed to characterize the adopters of renewable energy technology (RET) systems in rural Arizona is the same as the profile of other area residents who performed renovations, upgrades or additions to their homes. Residents of Santa Cruz and Cochise Counties who had obtained building permits to either install a solar or wind energy system or to perform a substantial renovation or upgrade to their home were surveyed to gather demographic, psychographic and behavioristic data. The data from 133 survey responses (76 from RET adopters and 57 from non-adopters) provided insights about their decisions regarding whether or not to adopt a RET system. The results, which are statistically significant at the 99% level of confidence, indicate that RET adopters had smaller households, were older and had higher education levels and greater income levels than the non-adopters. The research also provides answers to three related questions: First, are the energy conservation habits of RET adopters the same as those of non-adopters? Second, what were the sources of information consulted and the most important factors that motivated the decision to purchase a solar or wind energy system? And finally, are any of the factors which influenced the decision to live in a rural area in southeastern Arizona related to the decision to purchase a renewable energy system? The answers are provided, along with a series of recommendations that are designed to inform marketers and other promoters of RETs about how to utilize these results to help achieve their goals.

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Date Created
2011

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A case study of two rural secondary schools in New Mexico: perspectives on leadership

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ABSTRACT The present study was designed to examine factors that led to the academic success of two rural secondary schools in New Mexico. The primary focus was on the characteristics and behaviors of leaders in two high-achieving rural schools and

ABSTRACT The present study was designed to examine factors that led to the academic success of two rural secondary schools in New Mexico. The primary focus was on the characteristics and behaviors of leaders in two high-achieving rural schools and how these factors might have contributed to achievement of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in school year 2009-10. The secondary focus of the study concentrated on the characteristics of the rural environment of the schools and what role, if any, school location might have contributed to AYP. Of the approximately 820 public schools in New Mexico, 42 (30%) of secondary schools designated as "rural" achieved AYP in 2009-10. 2 of the 42 secondary schools, were selected for the study. Tara High School and Twelve Oaks Middle School, located in separate New Mexico villages, were identified as achieving the AYP in the 2009-10 school year through demographic and statistical data collected primarily from the New Mexico Public Education Department. The location of the two rural secondary schools along with the willingness of their principals to participate met the research criteria for being a descriptive case study to define any causal relationships between leadership practices and rural settings that resulted in achieving the AYP for student achievement. The researcher conducted interviews regarding leadership with two rural school principals, twelve secondary teachers, and seven parents. There was no direct contact with students in the study. Additionally, the researcher conducted on-site observations of both schools and conducted an on-line leadership survey for principals of the two rural schools and an additional 8 principals for data purposes only. Among the 3 data sets, the researcher found that there was complete unanimity as to the common characteristics of high-achieving schools located in rural communities influencing student achievement: culture, motivation, instructional leadership, empowerment, school leadership, trust, and community involvement. The twelve teachers and seven parents were unanimous that the two principals maintained a positive demeanor, visibly demonstrated care, supported and openly dialogued with the teachers to make their own classroom decisions, maintained an open-door policy, and modeled professional behavior.

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Date Created
2012

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The incremental effects of ethnically matched animated agents in restructuring the irrational career beliefs of rural caucasian young women

Description

The Believe It! program developed and evaluated by Kovalski & Horan (1999) was the first interactive, multimedia, psychological-education intervention deployed on the Internet. In a controlled study, the authors reported that the ethnically diverse cartoon models were partially successful in

The Believe It! program developed and evaluated by Kovalski & Horan (1999) was the first interactive, multimedia, psychological-education intervention deployed on the Internet. In a controlled study, the authors reported that the ethnically diverse cartoon models were partially successful in using cognitive restructuring to promote more reasonable career beliefs among Caucasian middle-school young women. It was not clear if the program's lack of efficacy among minority young women was due to computer literacy factors affected by SES. Subsequently, three studies explored the role of matching or mismatching the ethnicity of animated agents in a graphically enhanced program with that of the young women receiving the cognitive restructuring treatment. Each of the studies used the same four outcome measures (Occupational Sex-Role Questionnaire, Believe It Measure, Career Beliefs Inventory, and the Career Myths Scale) before and after matched and mismatched participants received the Believe It! intervention. Webster (2010) analyzed data from African-American participants, Hardy (2011) Latinas, and Zhang (2013) Asian-Americans. The current study examined the matching hypothesis on a sample of ethnically isolated Caucasian young women in a rural setting. The results obtained in the three previous studies are consistent with similar research involving client and counselor dyads (e.g., Cabral & Smith, 2011). The Believe It! program had a clear impact on ethnically matched African-American young women, whereas pairings on ethnicity did not improve outcomes for either Latinas or Asian-Americans. A solitary effect on the Occupation Sex-Role Questionnaire in the current study suggests the hypothesis is worthy of further study.

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Date Created
2014