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Dosage effects of highly selective D2 antagonist SV293 on drug-seeking behavior and locomotor activity

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Within the field of psychopharmacology, there has been difficultly with studying the functional effects of dopamine at the D2 receptor apart from other dopamine receptors due to the lack of

Within the field of psychopharmacology, there has been difficultly with studying the functional effects of dopamine at the D2 receptor apart from other dopamine receptors due to the lack of drugs that are selective for the D2 receptor. The purpose of this study was to observe the motivational and locomotor effects of using three varying doses (1.0, 3.0, and 5.6 mg/kg) of a new, highly selective D2 antagonist, SV293. These doses were tested across five different conditions that explore the effects of controls, SV293 by itself, and in combination with cocaine. These tests are designed to separately assess the effects of the antagonist between drug-seeking behaviors and locomotor activity. The cue tests showed that SV293 reduced drug-seeking and increased response latency at the high dose, suggesting a decrease in motivational effects of cocaine-related cues. SV293 alone also reduced drug-seeking and increased response latency at the high dose, suggesting a decrease in motivation for cocaine. Cocaine in combination with SV293 did not produce any significant effects on drug-seeking behavior, suggesting that SV293 did not alter the motivational effects of cocaine itself. Spontaneous locomotor activity tests with SV293 alone showed no reduction in locomotor activity; however, the addition of cocaine showed a significant decrease in locomotor activity at the high dose of SV293. Overall, the 5.6 mg/kg dose of SV293 decreases drug-seeking behavior elicited by cocaine-related cues and environmental stimuli, as well as cocaine-induced locomotor activity. This selective D2 antagonism could ultimately help elucidate the mechanisms of other dopamine receptors with particular emphasis on their involvement with drug addiction. Key words: cocaine, SV293, D2, antagonists, dopamine

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  • 2014-05

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Effects of SWR-5 on cocaine self-administration and D3-mediated behavior

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The epidemic of drug addiction continues to grow at an alarming rate and cocaine-related overdoses have increased by more than 33% over the last decade. Cocaine targets the mesolimbic reward

The epidemic of drug addiction continues to grow at an alarming rate and cocaine-related overdoses have increased by more than 33% over the last decade. Cocaine targets the mesolimbic reward system in the brain to produce the “high” felt when taking cocaine. There is currently no single cure for psychostimulant abuse, but researchers continue to find viable therapeutic options. Dopamine receptors have been a recent target for researchers. We tested a novel D3R-antagonist, SWR-5, with 905-fold D3/D2 selectivity, on addiction using a rat self- administration model and hypothesized that it would reduce motivation for cocaine. SWR-5 significantly reduced cocaine intake on a high-effort PR schedule at a dose of 10 mg/kg but did not affect sucrose intake. Also, SWR-5 did not affect either spontaneous or cocaine-induced locomotion. From our results, we concluded that SWR-5 affects motivation for cocaine, not sucrose, and does not produce adverse locomotor effects. Further research would include taking a behavioral economics approach to determine the cost/benefit ratio of taking the drug, as well as performing cue reinstatement tests to solidify whether SWR-5 plays a role in cocaine-seeking behavior.

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  • 2020-05

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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling in the mesolimbic dopamine system: social defeat stress-induced cross-sensitization to psychostimulants and escalation of cocaine intake

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Intermittent social defeat stress induces cross-sensitization to psychostimulants and escalation of drug self-administration. These behaviors could result from the stress-induced neuroadaptation in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine circuit. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)

Intermittent social defeat stress induces cross-sensitization to psychostimulants and escalation of drug self-administration. These behaviors could result from the stress-induced neuroadaptation in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine circuit. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is persistently elevated after social defeat stress, and may contribute to the stress-induced neuroadaptation in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine circuit. BDNF modulates synaptic plasticity, and facilitates stress- and drug-induced neuroadaptations in the mesocorticolimbic system. The present research examined the role of mesolimbic BDNF signaling in social defeat stress-induced cross-sensitization to psychostimulants and the escalation of cocaine self-administration in rats. We measured drug taking behavior with the acquisition, progressive ratio, and binge paradigms during self-administration. With BDNF overexpression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), single social defeat stress-induced cross-sensitization to amphetamine (AMPH) was significantly potentiated. VTA-BDNF overexpression also facilitates acquisition of cocaine self-administration, and a positive correlation between the level of VTA BDNF and drug intake during 12 hour binge was observed. We also found significant increase of DeltaFosB expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), the projection area of the VTA, in rats received intra-VTA BDNF overexpression. We therefore examined whether BDNF signaling in the NAc is important for social defeat stress-induced cross-sensitization by knockdown of the receptor of BDNF (neurotrophin tyrosine kinase receptor type 2, TrkB) there. NAc TrkB knockdown prevented social defeat stress-induced cross-sensitization to psychostimulant. Also social defeat stress-induced increase of DeltaFosB in the NAc was prevented by TrkB knockdown. Several other factors up-regulated by stress, such as the GluA1 subunit of Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor and BDNF in the VTA were also prevented. We conclude that BDNF signaling in the VTA increases social defeat stress-induced vulnerability to psychostimulants, manifested as potentiated cross-sensitization/sensitization to AMPH and escalation of cocaine self-administration. Also BDNF signaling in the NAc is necessary for the stress-induced neuroadaptation and behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants. Therefore, TrkB in the NAc could be a therapeutic target to prevent stress-induced vulnerability to drugs of abuse in the future. DeltaFosB in the NAc shell could be a neural substrate underlying persistent cross-sensitization and augmented cocaine self-administration induced by social defeat stress.

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Date Created
  • 2013

Cortical auditory functional activation by cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits

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ABSTRACT

Auditory hallucinations are a characteristic symptom of schizophrenia. Research has documented that the auditory cortex is metabolically activated when this process occurs, and that imbalances in the dopaminergic transmission

ABSTRACT

Auditory hallucinations are a characteristic symptom of schizophrenia. Research has documented that the auditory cortex is metabolically activated when this process occurs, and that imbalances in the dopaminergic transmission in the striatum contribute to its physiopathology. Most animal models have focused the effort on pharmacological approaches like non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists to produce activation of the auditory cortex, or dopamine antagonists to alleviate it. I hypothesize that these perceptual phenomena can be explained by an imbalance activation of spiny projecting neurons in the striatal pathways, whereby supersensitive postsynaptic D2-like receptor, signaling in the posterior caudatoputamen generates activation of the auditory cortex. Therefore, I characterized the neuroanatomical component involved in the activation of the auditory cortex. I evaluated the participation of dopamine D2-like receptor using selective dopamine antagonist manipulations and identified the circuits related to the auditory cortex by retrograde trans-synaptic tracing using pseudorabies virus (PRV-152). My results show that dopamine infused in the posterior caudatoputamen dose dependently increases the transcription of the immediate early gene, zif268 in the auditory cortex, predominantly in layers III and IV, but also in cortical columns, suggesting enhanced functional auditory activity. This indicates the participation of the posterior striatum in the modulation of the secondary auditory cortex. I was able to demonstrate also that a coinfusion of a selective dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, eticlopride and dopamine, attenuate the activation of the auditory cortex. Furthermore, using PRV-152 I delineate the distinctive circuit by axial mapping of the infected neurons. Thus, I found secondary projections from the posterior caudatoputamen that synapse in the thalamus before reaching the auditory cortex. These striatal projections correspond to the same brain region affected by dopamine during auditory cortical activation. My results further characterized a mechanism to generate intrinsic perception of sound that may be responsible for auditory hallucinations. I propose this paradigm may elucidate insight on the biological basis of psychotic behavior.

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Date Created
  • 2014