Matching Items (7)

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Random Simulations of Braess's Paradox

Description

This paper uses network theory to simulate Nash equilibria for selfish travel within a traffic network. Specifically, it examines the phenomenon of Braess's Paradox, the counterintuitive occurrence in which adding

This paper uses network theory to simulate Nash equilibria for selfish travel within a traffic network. Specifically, it examines the phenomenon of Braess's Paradox, the counterintuitive occurrence in which adding capacity to a traffic network increases the social costs paid by travelers in a new Nash equilibrium. It also employs the measure of the price of anarchy, a ratio between the social cost of the Nash equilibrium flow through a network and the socially optimal cost of travel. These concepts are the basis of the theory behind undesirable selfish routing to identify problematic links and roads in existing metropolitan traffic networks (Youn et al., 2008), suggesting applicative potential behind the theoretical questions this paper attempts to answer. New topologies of networks which generate Braess's Paradox are found. In addition, the relationship between the number of nodes in a network and the number of occurrences of Braess's Paradox, and the relationship between the number of nodes in a network and a network's price of anarchy distribution are studied.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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A Strategy for Improved Traffic Flow

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Commuting is a significant cost in time and in travel expenses for working individuals and a major contributor to emissions in the United States. This project focuses on increasing the

Commuting is a significant cost in time and in travel expenses for working individuals and a major contributor to emissions in the United States. This project focuses on increasing the efficiency of an intersection through the use of "light metering." Light metering involves a series of lights leading up to an intersection forcing cars to stop further away from the final intersection in smaller queues instead of congregating in a large queue before the final intersection. The simulation software package AnyLogic was used to model a simple two-lane intersection with and without light metering. It was found that light metering almost eliminates start-up delay by preventing a long queue to form in front of the modeled intersection. Shorter queue lengths and reduction in the start-up delays prevents cycle failure and significantly reduces the overall delay for the intersection. However, frequent deceleration and acceleration for a few of the cars occurs before each light meter. This solution significantly reduces the traffic density before the intersection and the overall delay but does not appear to be a better emission alternative due to an increase in acceleration. Further research would need to quantify the difference in emissions for this model compared to a standard intersection.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Analyzing Potential Solutions for Traffic Congestion on the Intersection of Forest and 89A in Sedona, AZ using Traffic Modeling Softwares

Description

Gathering the necessary information required to tackle traffic congestion problems is generally time consuming and challenging but is an important part of city planners’ work. The purpose of this paper

Gathering the necessary information required to tackle traffic congestion problems is generally time consuming and challenging but is an important part of city planners’ work. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology used when analyzing potential solutions for the Arizona State Route 89A and Highway 179 roundabout in Sedona, Arizona; which is currently experiencing significant congestion. The oversaturated condition is typically applied to signalized intersections but its application to roundabouts requires further exploration for future management of similar transportation systems. The accompanying Quick Estimation and Simulation model (QESM) spreadsheet was calibrated using an iterative process to optimize its level of adaptability to various scenarios. This microsimulation modeling program can be used to predict the outcome of possible roadway improvements aimed at decreasing traffic congestion. The information provided in this paper helps users understand traffic system problems, as a primary to visual simulation programs.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

Interactive Traffic Simulation

Description

This document explains the design of a traffic simulator based on an integral-based state machine. This simulator is different from existing traffic simulators because it is driven by a flexible

This document explains the design of a traffic simulator based on an integral-based state machine. This simulator is different from existing traffic simulators because it is driven by a flexible model that supports many different light configurations and has a user-friendly interface.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Pedestrian Safety at Rural Road and Spence Avenue

Description

Recurring incidents between pedestrians, bicycles, and vehicles at the intersection of Rural Road and Spence Avenue led to a team of students conducting their own investigation into the current conditions

Recurring incidents between pedestrians, bicycles, and vehicles at the intersection of Rural Road and Spence Avenue led to a team of students conducting their own investigation into the current conditions and analyzing a handful of alternatives. An extension of an industry-standard technique was used to build a control case which alternatives would be compared to. Four alternatives were identified, and the two that could be modeled in simulation software were both found to be technically feasible in the preliminary analysis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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GeoSparkSim: A Scalable Microscopic Road Network Traffic Simulator Based on Apache Spark

Description

Researchers and practitioners have widely studied road network traffic data in different areas such as urban planning, traffic prediction and spatial-temporal databases. For instance, researchers use such data to evaluate

Researchers and practitioners have widely studied road network traffic data in different areas such as urban planning, traffic prediction and spatial-temporal databases. For instance, researchers use such data to evaluate the impact of road network changes. Unfortunately, collecting large-scale high-quality urban traffic data requires tremendous efforts because participating vehicles must install Global Positioning System(GPS) receivers and administrators must continuously monitor these devices. There have been some urban traffic simulators trying to generate such data with different features. However, they suffer from two critical issues (1) Scalability: most of them only offer single-machine solution which is not adequate to produce large-scale data. Some simulators can generate traffic in parallel but do not well balance the load among machines in a cluster. (2) Granularity: many simulators do not consider microscopic traffic situations including traffic lights, lane changing, car following. This paper proposed GeoSparkSim, a scalable traffic simulator which extends Apache Spark to generate large-scale road network traffic datasets with microscopic traffic simulation. The proposed system seamlessly integrates with a Spark-based spatial data management system, GeoSpark, to deliver a holistic approach that allows data scientists to simulate, analyze and visualize large-scale urban traffic data. To implement microscopic traffic models, GeoSparkSim employs a simulation-aware vehicle partitioning method to partition vehicles among different machines such that each machine has a balanced workload. The experimental analysis shows that GeoSparkSim can simulate the movements of 200 thousand cars over an extensive road network (250 thousand road junctions and 300 thousand road segments).

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Development of paint stripe testing protocol

Description

Nighttime visibility of pavement markings is provided by glass beads embedded into the striping surface. The glass beads take light from the vehicle headlamps and reflect it back to the

Nighttime visibility of pavement markings is provided by glass beads embedded into the striping surface. The glass beads take light from the vehicle headlamps and reflect it back to the driver. This phenomenon is known as retroreflection. Literature suggests that the amount of the bead embedded into the striping surface has a profound impact on the intensity of the retroreflected light. In order to gain insight into how the glass beads provide retroreflection, an experiment was carried out to produce paint stripes with glass beads and measure the retroreflection. Samples were created at various application rates and embedment depths, in an attempt to verify the optimal embedment and observe the effect of application rate on retroreflection. The experiment was conducted using large, airport quality beads and small, road quality beads. Image analysis was used to calculate the degree to which beads were embedded and in an attempt to quantify bead distribution on the stripe surface. The results from the large beads showed that retroreflection was maximized when the beads were embedded approximately seventy percent by bead volume. The results also showed that as the application rate increased, the retroreflection increased, up to a point and then decreased. A model was developed to estimate the retroreflectivity given the amount of beads, bead spacing, and distribution of bead embedment. Results from the small beads were less conclusive, but did demonstrate that the larger beads are better at providing retroreflection. Avenues for future work in this area were identified as the experiment was conducted.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014