Matching Items (7)

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How Privilege and Opportunity Are Associated with Psychological Well-being

Description

Ethnic groups experience different societal and economic circumstances that contribute to their well-being. Life satisfaction and happiness are commonly used as a measure of well-being; but they are not often

Ethnic groups experience different societal and economic circumstances that contribute to their well-being. Life satisfaction and happiness are commonly used as a measure of well-being; but they are not often used to evaluate well-being in lower income countries. This study focuses on the self-reported life satisfaction and happiness of members of ethnic groups from low- and middle-income countries and its correlation with ethnic privilege, gender opportunity, and income. Using two self-reported measures of well-being—life satisfaction and happiness—among 110,391 women in 27 countries (ages 15-49) surveyed in Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, this study examines how country-level indicators of gender opportunity, ethnic-level indicators of privilege and household-level measures of wealth are associated with well-being. Our findings indicate a significant relationship between ethnic privilege, gender opportunity and income on life satisfaction. The results from this study provide valuable data and implications for lower income countries to identify and reduce modifiable risk factors that affect a population’s well-being.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Craving Community: Lessons on Quality of Life From a Semester in Spain

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“¡No hay problemas en España! (There are no problems in Spain!) My professor exclaimed, grinning at his American students’ first day jitters. I arrived in Granada, Spain on January 7,

“¡No hay problemas en España! (There are no problems in Spain!) My professor exclaimed, grinning at his American students’ first day jitters. I arrived in Granada, Spain on January 7, 2012 and instantly noticed a dramatic shift in priorities; the term “quality of life” took on an entirely new identity. Quality of life studies have become increasingly popular, and many researchers have realized there are more meaningful ways to measure the wellbeing of a community that transcends gross domestic product. Instead of merely measuring financial progress, quality of life studies emphasize that communities rich in health and happiness may be more valuable to its residents and the world than those only concerned with financial wealth. The United Nations Development program takes life expectancy into account, but not the quality of the years lived (Schimmel, 2009). As long as it is a formal economic interaction, gross domestic product accounts for it, including negative aspects of a community like natural disasters and divorce (McKibben, 2007). “Under the current system... the most ‘economically productive citizen’ is a cancer patient who totals his car on his way to meet with his divorce lawyer” (McKibben, 2007, p. 28). If the polluted air causes higher rates of cancer in a population, the costs paid into the economy for medical treatment transfer right into our GDP. GDP does not distinguish between the economic transactions that improve our lives and those that hurt them. The graph below displays the false yet passively accepted idea that an increase in economic development necessarily leads to a higher sense of wellbeing. Although GDP per capita in the United States has risen threefold since 1960, happiness levels have not changed (Helliwell, Layard, & Sachs, 2012), and as the ultimate goal of human beings (Bergheim, 2006), we should be dedicating more research to accomplishing happiness, rather than a higher income. In fact, money only correlates with happiness up to a certain point, and depending on which researcher you ask, that number is between $10,000 per capita income (McKibben, 2007) and $50,000 per capita income (Shadyac, Shimizu, & Belic, 2011). Individuals included in Forbes magazine’s wealthiest Americans list have the same happiness as the Amish in Pennsylvania, and only slightly higher happiness than Swedes, as well as Masai tribesmen (McKibben, 2007). This phenomenon is worldwide, as Costa Ricans are happier than the Japanese and the French are equally satisfied as the Venezuelans (McKibben, 2007).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012-12

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Graduate school stress, dyadic coping, and well-being in asymmetrical graduate student couples

Description

The demands and expectations of graduate school can be stressful for any student. Graduate students in a romantic relationship, in particular, contend with both individual and dyadic effects of graduate

The demands and expectations of graduate school can be stressful for any student. Graduate students in a romantic relationship, in particular, contend with both individual and dyadic effects of graduate school stress, as stress has been found to be negatively associated with both individual and relational well-being. Asymmetrical graduate student couples, wherein one partner is in graduate school and the other is not, may be particularly vulnerable to relationship strain because of differences in their experience of graduate school. However, non-student partners can help the graduate student cope with stress through dyadic coping. This study sought to examine whether: a) there were associations between graduate school stress on individual (life satisfaction) and relational (relationship satisfaction) well-being, and b) whether these associations were moderated by positive and negative dyadic coping behaviors. Cross-sectional data from 62 asymmetrical graduate student couples were gathered using an online survey. Data were analyzed using Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook 2006). Separate models were conducted to examine overall associations between graduate stress and well-being, and additional analyses were conducted to examine potential moderation effects of perceptions of partner dyadic coping (actor effects) and partner self-reported dyadic coping (partner effects) on the overall associations between stress and life- and relationship satisfaction mentioned above. Results for the overall model suggested that graduate stress is associated with both individual- and relational well-being. Surprisingly, and against prior literature, positive dyadic coping did not buffer the negative association between graduate stress and well-being, and negative dyadic coping did not exacerbate the association. Implications of the findings for future research and for mental health counselors are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Life satisfaction in adulthood among those who experienced trauma in early childhood [electronic resource]: a qualitative study

Description

ABSTRACT The present study examined the relationship between the experience of trauma during childhood (ages birth -12 years) and life satisfaction in adulthood (ages of 30-45) in a sample of

ABSTRACT The present study examined the relationship between the experience of trauma during childhood (ages birth -12 years) and life satisfaction in adulthood (ages of 30-45) in a sample of convenience consisting of eight (8) adults, six (6) women and two (2) men, who volunteered to participate in this qualitative study, and self-identified as having experienced trauma between birth and age 12 years. Participants were asked to describe the trauma(s) they experienced in childhood and to discuss their thoughts and feelings about present circumstances in their lives, and how their lives have been impacted by the trauma they experienced. Data were collected via in-person interviews that were audio-taped and transcribed. The data were analyzed using a process of thematic coding. Nine (9) emotional themes were identified: aggression, anger, fear, frustration, helplessness, insecurity, irritability, loneliness and sadness. Participants reported a variety of traumas experienced, and their responses to difficult experiences were varied. Participants reported being impacted differently in eight domains of life that were examined in the study: mood related problems, self-care, social support, primary partner relationship, career, decision to have children, parenting and adult life satisfaction. All participants stated they had been impacted by early life trauma, and all stated that early-experienced trauma(s) had an impact on their life satisfaction in adulthood. Inter-coder reliability for emotional thematic codes and domains of life impacted by early trauma was .82.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Social support and problem-solving coping as moderators of the relation between stress and life satisfaction

Description

Numerous psychosocial and health factors contribute to perceived stress, social support, and problem-solving coping relating to overall well-being and life satisfaction in older adults. The effect of social support

Numerous psychosocial and health factors contribute to perceived stress, social support, and problem-solving coping relating to overall well-being and life satisfaction in older adults. The effect of social support and problem-solving coping, however, remains largely untested as potential moderators. The present study was conducted to test whether social support and problem- solving coping would moderate the relation between perceived stress and life satisfaction in older adults. First, I anticipated that stress will be negatively related to life satisfaction at low levels of social support, while at high social support; stress will be unrelated to life satisfaction. Second, I expected that with low problem- solving coping, stress will be negatively related to life satisfaction, whereas, at levels of high problem- solving coping, stress will be unrelated to life satisfaction. Using an experimental survey and interview design with hierarchical regression analyses, I found no support that social support would moderate the relation between stress and life satisfaction. I found support that problem-solving coping moderated the relation between stress and life satisfaction. For individuals who engage in higher levels of problem- solving coping, higher levels of stress predicted lower levels of life satisfaction. On the other hand, at lower levels of problem-solving coping, more stress predicted lower levels of life satisfaction.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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The influence of religiosity on psychological well-being and life satisfaction in an elderly population

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ABSTRACT The major hypothesis tested in this research is that the psychological well-being and life satisfaction of elderly adult individuals can be predicted from religiosity (organizational and non-organizational religious beliefs

ABSTRACT The major hypothesis tested in this research is that the psychological well-being and life satisfaction of elderly adult individuals can be predicted from religiosity (organizational and non-organizational religious beliefs and behaviors). The sample consisted of 142 adults between the ages of 65-90, with the majority in the 65-70 age group (48%) (SD = 1.176). The entire sample resides in the state of Arizona, in both urban and rural communities. Participants were administered a questionnaire which requested demographic information, and three instruments: the Duke University Religion Index (the DUREL), and the Affect Balance Scale and the Life Satisfaction Index - Z (LSIZ). Correlational and Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relation between these adults' psychological well-being, life satisfaction and their religiosity. Independent t-tests were also used to examine possible sex, ethnic and religiosity effects on psychological well-being and life satisfaction. Findings revealed that psychological well-being and life satisfaction are higher when religiosity is higher, regardless of sex or ethnicity. These findings are consistent with those of previous research in this field.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Domain control as a predictor of life satisfaction within people with and without physical disabilities

Description

Life satisfaction in people with physical disabilities is on average lower than people without disabilities. This reduction in life satisfaction may be due to a reduction in domain control. This

Life satisfaction in people with physical disabilities is on average lower than people without disabilities. This reduction in life satisfaction may be due to a reduction in domain control. This study examines how domain control predicts life satisfaction when added to a model of other salient life satisfaction predictors. Using email survey methodology, five separate scales where used on two separate populations; people with (n= 44) and without (n= 43) a physical disability to determine each groups life satisfaction. It was found that when domain control is added to the bottom-up theory of life satisfaction, the independent direct relationships of domain control, domain importance, positive affect, and negative affect are eliminated from a stepwise multiple regression equation with domain satisfaction being the only significant predictor (â = 4.38, p< .001 for people with a physical disabilities and â = 5.48, p< .001 for people without a physical disability) of life satisfaction. The study results demonstrate that life satisfaction is predicted the same way for people with and without disabilities.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010