Matching Items (9)

Cyclic Initiation and Propagation Fracture Properties of Seamless and Stitch Bonded Composite Pipes

Description

This paper presents the methods and materials used to investigate the fatigue fracture properties of i) seamless twill weave carbon fiber and ii) stitch bonded biaxial carbon fiber polymer matrix

This paper presents the methods and materials used to investigate the fatigue fracture properties of i) seamless twill weave carbon fiber and ii) stitch bonded biaxial carbon fiber polymer matrix composite. Additionally, the effect of notch tip placement relative to longitudinal fiber toes is investigated. The process for observing and characterizing fatigue crack damage propagation is presented. The fatigue fracture behavior is compared with data acquired from compact tension samples subjected to static tension tests in order to develop damage tolerant design guidelines for tube structures under fatigue loading.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

Design of Experiment to Measure Temperature-Dependent Fracture Properties of Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA)

Description

This paper discusses the design of experimental setup and procedures to characterize polymethyl methylate (PMMA) at its glass transition temperature by studying its strain fields, process zone, and crack speed

This paper discusses the design of experimental setup and procedures to characterize polymethyl methylate (PMMA) at its glass transition temperature by studying its strain fields, process zone, and crack speed under different loading conditions. These loading conditions are different steady-state temperatures and initial crack lengths. Steady-state temperature testing uses a temperature control loop. Crack speed / resistivity testing is set up using a voltage drop method. From initial steady-state temperature testing, it was confirmed that the behavior of a PMMA sample becomes more ductile at higher temperatures, and that it is plausible for a crack process zone to be measured using DIC as temperature increases. From finite element simulations, it was validated that the crack speed is not constant relative to an initial crack length.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The effect of UV-treated plastic reinforcement in cement-based materials

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The preceding paper analyzes the effects of UV radiation in plastic reinforcement and its effects on the fracture properties of cement-based materials. Three point tests were performed on notched beams,

The preceding paper analyzes the effects of UV radiation in plastic reinforcement and its effects on the fracture properties of cement-based materials. Three point tests were performed on notched beams, which called for the consideration of the Type II Size Effect. A comparison of the ductility of beams with and without polyethylene plastic powder reinforcement was done through the calculation of the fracture parameters Gf and cf, which represent the initial fracture energy and the characteristic length respectively. Although there was an observed increase in ductile behavior and properties in beams with polyethylene reinforcement, there did not seem to be a significant effect caused by the UV radiation. The hydrophilicity of the polyethylene powder was successfully increased through UV radiation and validated through water retention tests, which showed that the UV-treated polyethylene was retaining more water than the non-treated polyethylene, yet there was no extra increase in ductility of the cement beams compared to using non-treated polyethylene. The Type II Size Effect analysis was performed and compared to the stress analysis results of the experiment. For future research, it is recommended that a higher volume of polyethylene per 1000 grams of cement powder be used, as well as increasing the strength of the UV chamber to achieve a larger increase in the hydrophilicity of the polyethylene. Also, perhaps using more precise equipment to cut the notches in the beams would be helpful in ensuring that all specimens are identical and there is no error in notch depth caused by inaccurate use of the hacksaw or radial saw. Further experiments will be conducted.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Efficient extended finite element algorithms for strongly and weakly discontinuous entities with complex internal geometries

Description

The objective of this research is to develop robust, accurate, and adaptive algorithms in the framework of the extended finite element method (XFEM) for fracture analysis of highly heterogeneous materials

The objective of this research is to develop robust, accurate, and adaptive algorithms in the framework of the extended finite element method (XFEM) for fracture analysis of highly heterogeneous materials with complex internal geometries. A key contribution of this work is the creation of novel methods designed to automate the incorporation of high-resolution data, e.g. from X-ray tomography, that can be used to better interpret the enormous volume of data generated in modern in-situ experimental testing. Thus new algorithms were developed for automating analysis of complex microstructures characterized by segmented tomographic images.

A centrality-based geometry segmentation algorithm was developed to accurately identify discrete inclusions and particles in composite materials where limitations in imaging resolution leads to spurious connections between particles in close contact.To allow for this algorithm to successfully segment geometry independently of particle size and shape, a relative centrality metric was defined to allow for a threshold centrality criterion for removal of voxels that spuriously connect distinct geometries.

To automate incorporation of microstructural information from high-resolution images, two methods were developed that initialize signed distance fields on adaptively-refined finite element meshes. The first method utilizes a level set evolution equation that is directly solved on the finite element mesh through Galerkins method. The evolution equation is formulated to produce a signed distance field that matches geometry defined by a set of voxels segmented from tomographic images. The method achieves optimal convergence for the order of elements used. In a second approach, the fast marching method is employed to initialize a distance field on a uniform grid which is then projected by least squares onto a finite element mesh. This latter approach is shown to be superior in speed and accuracy.

Lastly, extended finite element method simulations are performed for the analysis of particle fracture in metal matrix composites with realistic particle geometries initialized from X-ray tomographic data. In the simulations, particles fracture probabilistically through a Weibull strength distribution. The model is verified through comparisons with the experimentally-measured stress-strain response of the material as well as analysis of the fracture. Further, simulations are then performed to analyze the effect of mesh sensitivity, the effect of fracture of particles on their neighbors, and the role of a particles shape on its fracture probability.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Subcycle fatigue crack growth formulation for constant and variable amplitude loading

Description

A previously developed small time scale fatigue crack growth model is improved, modified and extended with an emphasis on creating the simplest models that maintain the desired level of accuracy

A previously developed small time scale fatigue crack growth model is improved, modified and extended with an emphasis on creating the simplest models that maintain the desired level of accuracy for a variety of materials. The model provides a means of estimating load sequence effects by continuously updating the crack opening stress every cycle, in a simplified manner. One of the significant phenomena of the crack opening stress under negative stress ratio is the residual tensile stress induced by the applied compressive stress. A modified coefficient is introduced to determine the extent to which residual stress impact the crack closure and is observed to vary for different materials. Several other literature models for crack closure under constant loading are also reviewed and compared with the proposed model. The modified model is then shown to predict several sets of published test results under constant loading for a variety of materials.

The crack opening stress is formalized as a function of the plastic zone sizes at the crack tip and the current crack length, which provided a means of approximation, accounting for both acceleration and retardation effects in a simplified manner. A sensitivity parameter is introduced to modify the enlarged plastic zone due to overload, to better fit the delay cycles with the test data and is observed to vary for different materials. Furthermore, the interaction effect induced by the combination of overload and underload sequence is modeled by depleting the compressive plastic zone due to an overload with the tensile plastic zone due to an underload. A qualitative analysis showed the simulation capacity of the small time scale model under different load types. A good agreement between prediction and test data for several irregular load types proved the applicability of the small time scale model under variable amplitude loading.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Effect of foreign object damage on fatigue of inconel 718 at elevated temperature (1050 °C)

Description

The use of solar energy to produce power has increased substantially in the past few decades. In an attempt to provide uninterrupted solar power, production plants may find themselves having

The use of solar energy to produce power has increased substantially in the past few decades. In an attempt to provide uninterrupted solar power, production plants may find themselves having to operate the systems at temperatures higher than the operational capacity of the materials used in many of their components, which affects the microstructural and mechanical properties of those materials. Failures in components that have been exposed to these excessive temperatures have been observed during operations in the turbine used by AORA Solar Ltd. A particular component of interest was made of a material similar to the Ni-based superalloy Inconel 718 (IN 718), which was observed to have damage that is believed to have been initiated by Foreign Object Damage (FOD) and worsened by the high temperatures in the turbine. The potential links among the observed failure, FOD and the high temperatures of operation are investigated in this study.

IN718 is a precipitation hardened nickel superalloy with resistance to oxidation and ability to withstand high stresses over a wide range of temperatures. Several studies have been conducted to understand IN 718 tensile and fatigue properties at elevated temperatures (600- 950°C). However, this study focuses on understanding the behavior of IN718 with FOD induced by a stream of 50 μm Alumina particles at a velocity of 200 m/s. under high cycle fatigue at an elevated temperature of 1050 °C. Tensile tests were conducted for both as-received and heat treated (1050 °C in air for 8hrs) samples at room and high temperature. Fatigue tests were performed at heat treated samples at 1050 °C for samples with and without ablation. The test conditions were as similar as possible to the conditions in the AORA turbine. The results of the study provide an insight into tensile properties, fatigue properties and FOD. The results indicated a reduction in fatigue life for the samples with ablation damage, where crack nucleation occurred either at the edge or inside the ablation region and multisite cracking was observed under far field stresses that were the same than for pristine samples, which showed single cracks. Fracture surfaces indicate intergranular fracture, with the presence of secondary cracks and a lack of typical fatigue features, e.g., beach marks which was attributed to environmental effects and creep.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Estimation of J-integral for a non-local particle model using atomistic finite element method and coupling between non-local particle and finite element methods

Description

In this paper, at first, analytical formulation of J-integral for a non-local particle model (VCPM) using atomic scale finite element method is proposed for fracture analysis of 2D solids. A

In this paper, at first, analytical formulation of J-integral for a non-local particle model (VCPM) using atomic scale finite element method is proposed for fracture analysis of 2D solids. A brief review of classical continuum-based J-integral and anon-local lattice particle method is given first. Following this, detailed derivation for the J-integral in discrete particle system is given using the energy equivalence and stress-tensor mapping between the continuum mechanics and lattice-particle system.With the help of atomistic finite element method, the J-integral is expressed as a summation of the corresponding terms in the particle system.

Secondly, a coupling algorithm between a non-local particle method (VCPM) and the classical finite element method (FEM) is discussed to gain the advantages of both methods for fracture analysis in large structures. In this algorithm, the discrete VCPM particle and the continuum FEM domains are solved within a unified theoretical framework. A transitional element technology is developed to smoothly link the 10-particles element with the traditional FEM elements to guaranty the continuity and consistency at the coupling interface. An explicit algorithm for static simulation is developed.

Finally, numerical examples are illustrated for the accuracy, convergence, and path-independence of the derived J-integral formulation. Discussions on the comparison with alternative estimation methods and potential application for fracture simulation are given. The accuracy and efficiency of the coupling algorithm are tested by several benchmark problems such as static crack simulation.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Fracture of nanoporous gold

Description

This research examines several critical aspects of the so-called "film induced cleavage" model of stress corrosion cracking using silver-gold alloys as the parent-phase material. The model hypothesizes that the corrosion

This research examines several critical aspects of the so-called "film induced cleavage" model of stress corrosion cracking using silver-gold alloys as the parent-phase material. The model hypothesizes that the corrosion generates a brittle nanoporous film, which subsequently fractures forming a high-speed crack that is injected into the uncorroded parent-phase alloy. This high speed crack owing to its kinetic energy can penetrate beyond the corroded layer into the parent phase and thus effectively reducing strength of the parent phase. Silver-gold alloys provide an ideal system to study this effect, as hydrogen effect can be ruled out on thermodynamic basis. During corrosion of the silver-gold alloy, the less noble metal i.e. silver is removed from the system leaving behind a nanoporous gold (NPG) layer. In the case of polycrystalline material, this corrosion process proceeds deeper along the grain boundary than the matrix grain. All of the cracks with apparent penetration beyond the corroded (dealloyed) layer are intergranular. Our aim was to study the crack penetration depth along the grain boundary to ascertain whether the penetration occurs past the grain-boundary dealloyed depth. EDS and imaging in high-resolution aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) have been used to evaluate the grain boundary corrosion depth.

The mechanical properties of monolithic NPG are also studied. The motivation behind this is two-fold. The crack injection depth depends on the speed of the crack formed in the nanoporous layer, which in turn depends on the mechanical properties of the NPG. Also NPG has potential applications in actuation, sensing and catalysis. The measured value of the Young's modulus of NPG with 40 nm ligament size and 28% density was ~ 2.5 GPa and the Poisson's ratio was ~ 0.20. The fracture stress was observed to be ~ 11-13 MPa. There was no significant change observed between these mechanical properties on oxidation of NPG at 1.4 V. The fracture toughness value for the NPG was ~ 10 J/m2. Also dynamic fracture tests showed that the NPG is capable of supporting crack velocities ~ 100 - 180 m/s.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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A novel nonlocal lattice particle framework for modeling of solids

Description

Fracture phenomena have been extensively studied in the last several decades. Continuum mechanics-based approaches, such as finite element methods and extended finite element methods, are widely used for fracture simulation.

Fracture phenomena have been extensively studied in the last several decades. Continuum mechanics-based approaches, such as finite element methods and extended finite element methods, are widely used for fracture simulation. One well-known issue of these approaches is the stress singularity resulted from the spatial discontinuity at the crack tip/front. The requirement of guiding criteria for various cracking behaviors, such as initiation, propagation, and branching, also poses some challenges. Comparing to the continuum based formulation, the discrete approaches, such as lattice spring method, discrete element method, and peridynamics, have certain advantages when modeling various fracture problems due to their intrinsic characteristics in modeling discontinuities.

A novel, alternative, and systematic framework based on a nonlocal lattice particle model is proposed in this study. The uniqueness of the proposed model is the inclusion of both pair-wise local and multi-body nonlocal potentials in the formulation. First, the basic ideas of the proposed framework for 2D isotropic solid are presented. Derivations for triangular and square lattice structure are discussed in detail. Both mechanical deformation and fracture process are simulated and model verification and validation are performed with existing analytical solutions and experimental observations. Following this, the extension to general 3D isotropic solids based on the proposed local and nonlocal potentials is given. Three cubic lattice structures are discussed in detail. Failure predictions using the 3D simulation are compared with experimental testing results and very good agreement is observed. Next, a lattice rotation scheme is proposed to account for the material orientation in modeling anisotropic solids. The consistency and difference compared to the classical material tangent stiffness transformation method are discussed in detail. The implicit and explicit solution methods for the proposed lattice particle model are also discussed. Finally, some conclusions and discussions based on the current study are drawn at the end.

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Date Created
  • 2015