Matching Items (7)

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Design of Indraft Supersonic Wind Tunnel

Description

The objective of this project is to design an indraft supersonic wind tunnel that is safe and comparatively simple to construct. The processes and methodology of design are discussed. As with every supersonic wind tunnel, the critical components are the

The objective of this project is to design an indraft supersonic wind tunnel that is safe and comparatively simple to construct. The processes and methodology of design are discussed. As with every supersonic wind tunnel, the critical components are the nozzle, diffuser, and the means of achieving the pressure differential which drives the flow. The nozzle was designed using method of characteristics (MOC) and a boundary layer analysis experimental proven on supersonic wind tunnels [5]. The diffuser was designed using the unique design features of this wind tunnel in combination with equations from Pope [7]. The pressure differential is achieved via a vacuum chamber behind the diffuser creating a pressure differential between the ambient air and the low pressure in the tank. The run time of the wind tunnel depends on the initial pressure of the vacuum tank and the volume. However, the volume of the tank has a greater influence on the run time. The volume of the tank is not specified as the largest tank feasible should be used to allow the longest run time. The run time for different volumes is given. Another method of extending the run duration is added vacuum pumps to the vacuum chamber. If these pumps can move a sufficient mass out of the vacuum chamber, the run time can be significantly extended. The mounting design addresses the loading requirements which is closely related to the accuracy of the data. The mounting mechanism is attached to the rear of the model to minimize shockwave interference and maximize the structural integrity along the direction with the highest loading. This mechanism is then mounted to the bottom of the wind tunnel for structural rigidity and ease of access.

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Date Created
2020-05

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Challenging the versatility of the Tesla turbine: working fluid variations and turbine performance

Description

Tesla turbo-machinery offers a robust, easily manufactured, extremely versatile prime mover with inherent capabilities making it perhaps the best, if not the only, solution for certain niche applications. The goal of this thesis is not to optimize the performance of

Tesla turbo-machinery offers a robust, easily manufactured, extremely versatile prime mover with inherent capabilities making it perhaps the best, if not the only, solution for certain niche applications. The goal of this thesis is not to optimize the performance of the Tesla turbine, but to compare its performance with various working fluids. Theoretical and experimental analyses of a turbine-generator assembly utilizing compressed air, saturated steam and water as the working fluids were performed and are presented in this work. A brief background and explanation of the technology is provided along with potential applications. A theoretical thermodynamic analysis is outlined, resulting in turbine and rotor efficiencies, power outputs and Reynolds numbers calculated for the turbine for various combinations of working fluids and inlet nozzles. The results indicate the turbine is capable of achieving a turbine efficiency of 31.17 ± 3.61% and an estimated rotor efficiency 95 ± 9.32%. These efficiencies are promising considering the numerous losses still present in the current design. Calculation of the Reynolds number provided some capability to determine the flow behavior and how that behavior impacts the performance and efficiency of the Tesla turbine. It was determined that turbulence in the flow is essential to achieving high power outputs and high efficiency. Although the efficiency, after peaking, begins to slightly taper off as the flow becomes increasingly turbulent, the power output maintains a steady linear increase.

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Date Created
2012

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Euler-Lagrange modeling of vortex interaction with a particle-laden turbulent boundary layer

Description

Rotorcraft operation in austere environments can result in difficult operating conditions, particularly in the vicinity of sandy areas. The uplift of sediment by rotorcraft downwash, a phenomenon known as brownout, hinders pilot visual cues and may result in a potentially

Rotorcraft operation in austere environments can result in difficult operating conditions, particularly in the vicinity of sandy areas. The uplift of sediment by rotorcraft downwash, a phenomenon known as brownout, hinders pilot visual cues and may result in a potentially dangerous situation. Brownout is a complex multiphase flow problem that is not unique and depends on both the characteristics of the rotorcraft and the sediment. The lack of fundamental understanding constrains models and limits development of technologies that could mitigate the adverse effects of brownout. This provides the over-arching motivation of the current work focusing on models of particle-laden sediment beds. The particular focus of the current investigations is numerical modeling of near-surface fluid-particle interactions in turbulent boundary layers with and without coherent vortices superimposed on the background flow, that model rotorcraft downwash. The simulations are performed with two groups of particles having different densities both of which display strong vortex-particle interaction close to the source location. The simulations include cases with inter-particle collisions and gravitational settling. Particle effects on the fluid are ignored. The numerical simulations are performed using an Euler- Lagrange method in which a fractional-step approach is used for the fluid and with the particulate phase advanced using Discrete Particle Simulation. The objectives are to gain insight into the fluid-particle dynamics that influence transport near the bed by analyzing the competing effects of the vortices, inter-particle collisions, and gravity. Following the introduction of coherent vortices into the domain, the structures convect downstream, dissipate, and then recover to an equilibrium state with the boundary layer. The particle phase displays an analogous return to an equilibrium state as the vortices dissipate and the boundary layer recovers, though this recovery is slower than for the fluid and is sensitive to the particle response time. The effects of inter-particle collisions are relatively strong and apparent throughout the flow, being most effective in the boundary layer. Gravitational settling increases the particle concentration near the wall and consequently increase inter-particle collisions.

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Date Created
2011

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Structure and proper orthogonal decomposition in simulations of wall-bounded turbulent shear flows with canonical geometries

Description

Structural features of canonical wall-bounded turbulent flows are described using several techniques, including proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The canonical wall-bounded turbulent flows of channels, pipes, and flat-plate boundary layers include physics important to a wide variety of practical fluid flows

Structural features of canonical wall-bounded turbulent flows are described using several techniques, including proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The canonical wall-bounded turbulent flows of channels, pipes, and flat-plate boundary layers include physics important to a wide variety of practical fluid flows with a minimum of geometric complications. Yet, significant questions remain for their turbulent motions' form, organization to compose very long motions, and relationship to vortical structures. POD extracts highly energetic structures from flow fields and is one tool to further understand the turbulence physics. A variety of direct numerical simulations provide velocity fields suitable for detailed analysis. Since POD modes require significant interpretation, this study begins with wall-normal, one-dimensional POD for a set of turbulent channel flows. Important features of the modes and their scaling are interpreted in light of flow physics, also leading to a method of synthesizing one-dimensional POD modes. Properties of a pipe flow simulation are then studied via several methods. The presence of very long streamwise motions is assessed using a number of statistical quantities, including energy spectra, which are compared to experiments. Further properties of energy spectra, including their relation to fictitious forces associated with mean Reynolds stress, are considered in depth. After reviewing salient features of turbulent structures previously observed in relevant experiments, structures in the pipe flow are examined in greater detail. A variety of methods reveal organization patterns of structures in instantaneous fields and their associated vortical structures. Properties of POD modes for a boundary layer flow are considered. Finally, very wide modes that occur when computing POD modes in all three canonical flows are compared. The results demonstrate that POD extracts structures relevant to characterizing wall-bounded turbulent flows. However, significant care is necessary in interpreting POD results, for which modes can be categorized according to their self-similarity. Additional analysis techniques reveal the organization of smaller motions in characteristic patterns to compose very long motions in pipe flows. The very large scale motions are observed to contribute large fractions of turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress. The associated vortical structures possess characteristics of hairpins, but are commonly distorted from pristine hairpin geometries.

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Date Created
2012

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Dynamics of vortices in numerically simulated turbulent channel flow

Description

The evolution of single hairpin vortices and multiple interacting hairpin vortices are studied in direct numerical simulations of channel flow at Re-tau=395. The purpose of this study is to observe the effects of increased Reynolds number and varying initial conditions

The evolution of single hairpin vortices and multiple interacting hairpin vortices are studied in direct numerical simulations of channel flow at Re-tau=395. The purpose of this study is to observe the effects of increased Reynolds number and varying initial conditions on the growth of hairpins and the conditions under which single hairpins autogenerate hairpin packets. The hairpin vortices are believed to provide a unified picture of wall turbulence and play an important role in the production of Reynolds shear stress which is directly related to turbulent drag. The structures of the initial three-dimensional vortices are extracted from the two-point spatial correlation of the fully turbulent direct numerical simulation of the velocity field by linear stochastic estimation and embedded in a mean flow having the profile of the fully turbulent flow. The Reynolds number of the present simulation is more than twice that of the Re-tau=180 flow from earlier literature and the conditional events used to define the stochastically estimated single vortex initial conditions include a number of new types of events such as quasi-streamwise vorticity and Q4 events. The effects of parameters like strength, asymmetry and position are evaluated and compared with existing results in the literature. This study then attempts to answer questions concerning how vortex mergers produce larger scale structures, a process that may contribute to the growth of length scale with increasing distance from the wall in turbulent wall flows. Multiple vortex interactions are studied in detail.

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Date Created
2011

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Effects of Vortex Generation on the Fuel Efficiency and Engine Load of a Common Car

Description

This experiment investigated the effects of different vortex generator sizes and configurations on the induced drag of a 2006 Honda Accord, with comparisons to a control test. Tuft tests were carried out prior to any data collection. The tufts were

This experiment investigated the effects of different vortex generator sizes and configurations on the induced drag of a 2006 Honda Accord, with comparisons to a control test. Tuft tests were carried out prior to any data collection. The tufts were placed along the roof and rear window of the vehicle for each of the five vortex generator types. Video was taken of the tufts for each set of vortex generators, allowing a visual comparison of the flow characteristics with comparison to the control. Out of the four vortex generators tested, the two that yielded the most substantial change in the flow characteristics were utilized. The data collection was conducted utilizing the two sets of vortex generators, one large and one small, placed in three different locations along the roof of the vehicle. Over a course of four trials of data collection, each vortex generator size and configuration was tested two times along a stretch of Interstate 60, with each data set consisting of five minutes heading east, followed by five minutes heading west. Several experimental parameters were collected using an OBD II Bluetooth Adaptor, which were logged using the software compatible with the adaptor. This data was parsed and analyzed in Microsoft Excel and MATLAB. Utilizing an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) analytical scheme, the data was generalized to account for terrain changes, steady state speed fluctuations, and weather changes per night. Overall, upon analysis of the data, the vortex generators showed little-to-no benefit to either the fuel efficiency or engine load experienced by the vehicle during the duration of the experiment. This result, while unexpected, is substantial as it shows that the expenditure of purchasing these vortex generators for this make and model of vehicle, and potentially other similar vehicles, is unnecessary as it produces no meaningful benefit.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2022-05

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Effects of Vortex Generation on the Fuel Efficiency and Engine Load of a Common Car

Description

This experiment investigated the effects of different vortex generator sizes and configurations on the induced drag of a 2006 Honda Accord, with comparisons to a control test. Tuft tests were carried out prior to any data collection. The tufts were

This experiment investigated the effects of different vortex generator sizes and configurations on the induced drag of a 2006 Honda Accord, with comparisons to a control test. Tuft tests were carried out prior to any data collection. The tufts were placed along the roof and rear window of the vehicle for each of the five vortex generator types. Video was taken of the tufts for each set of vortex generators, allowing a visual comparison of the flow characteristics with comparison to the control. Out of the four vortex generators tested, the two that yielded the most substantial change in the flow characteristics were utilized. The data collection was conducted utilizing the two sets of vortex generators, one large and one small, placed in three different locations along the roof of the vehicle. Over a course of four trials of data collection, each vortex generator size and configuration was tested two times along a stretch of Interstate 60, with each data set consisting of five minutes heading east, followed by five minutes heading west. Several experimental parameters were collected using an OBD II Bluetooth Adaptor, which were logged using the software compatible with the adaptor. This data was parsed and analyzed in Microsoft Excel and MATLAB. Utilizing an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) analytical scheme, the data was generalized to account for terrain changes, steady state speed fluctuations, and weather changes per night. Overall, upon analysis of the data, the vortex generators showed little-to-no benefit to either the fuel efficiency or engine load experienced by the vehicle during the duration of the experiment. This result, while unexpected, is substantial as it shows that the expenditure of purchasing these vortex generators for this make and model of vehicle, and potentially other similar vehicles, is unnecessary as it produces no meaningful benefit.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2022-05