Matching Items (33)

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Clinical Implications of Stigma in HIV/AIDS and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections

Description

This study sought to identify stigma differences between HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Interviewees from Alabama, USA (n=537) rated two types of stigma (damage to social reputation and

This study sought to identify stigma differences between HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Interviewees from Alabama, USA (n=537) rated two types of stigma (damage to social reputation and “moral weakness”) for seven infections ranging from “nuisance” conditions (e.g., pubic lice) to life-threatening disease (e.g., HIV/AIDS). When asked which of the seven STIs would be most damaging to reputation, 74.8% of respondents chose HIV/AIDS. However, when asked to choose which STI represented moral weakness in infected persons, HIV/AIDS was rated as significantly lower than the other STIs, which suggests that HIV/AIDS is perceived differently than non-HIV STIs. This study addresses the possibility that advances in public awareness of HIV/AIDS have not necessarily been extrapolated into awareness of other STIs. Clinicians should be aware of these high levels of stigma as potential barriers to treatment for all STIs. Public health officials should consider the impact of undifferentiated stigma on STI prevention messages.

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  • 2010

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Exposing Women's Experiences with Von Willebrand Disease: A Case Study of Online Support Groups

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This research explores the unique and complicated experiences of women living with Von Willebrand Disease (VWD). VWD occurs with quantitative or qualitative deficiencies in Von Willebrand Factor—a key protein involved

This research explores the unique and complicated experiences of women living with Von Willebrand Disease (VWD). VWD occurs with quantitative or qualitative deficiencies in Von Willebrand Factor—a key protein involved in blood clotting. While VWD affects men and women, women often suffer harsher complications because of menstruation, childbirth, and other women’s health issues. Using online VWD support groups, this research recognizes and attempts to understand the common experiences of women with VWD. Availability of Care, Motherhood, Community and Sisterhood, Girlhood, Sexual Health and Reproductive Health, and Stigma were the six common themes found within these online support groups. Women in these groups corroborate the current understandings of women-specific experiences with VWD: particularly, heavy menstruation, postpartum hemorrhaging, diagnostic difficulties, treatment complications, and implications of an overall lower quality of life. However, these women also report VWD-induced complications with sexual health, mental health, care when trying to conceive, misinterpretations of bruising, constraints on healthcare availability, and the stigma associated with heavy menstruation. These findings address gaps in the literature and identify new areas for further research. Ideally, these conclusions will provide educational materials for healthcare professionals, government legislatures, and families to better support women and girls with VWD.
Keywords: Von Willebrand disease, women’s health, sexual health, mental health, reproductive health, phenomenology, and stigma

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  • 2016-12

HIV Stigma: A Research and Art Investigation

Description

In the years following the HIV epidemic, much has changed in the way of public health, the social epidemic of stigma has remained. It is the assertion of the authors

In the years following the HIV epidemic, much has changed in the way of public health, the social epidemic of stigma has remained. It is the assertion of the authors that stigma can be combatted through the propagation of accurate education and exposure to the lasting negative impacts of social stigma on persons living with HIV in the United States at present. Although individuals who are not apart of this community cannot truly understand the impacts of HIV-related stigma on those directly impacted by it, a sense of understanding and compassion may be elicited through the breakdown of social stigma into comprehensible components and the provision of stigma-inspired artwork. In addition to providing a background on the scientific basis of Human immunodeficiency virus and its spread, the authors have elected to utilize public engagement by means of an anonymous survey as well as personal interactions with HIV advocates to synthesize paintings. Responses were collected from approximately 300 survey participants via social media with no demographic information collected. It was the hope of the authors that the lack of identifying questions may prompt participants to answer freely and honestly to improve overall understanding of social perceptions of HIV and its related stigma. These paintings and resources deemed appropriate based on the results of the aforementioned survey are to be displayed on a webpage for easier access and engagement with a broader audience.Moreover, this webpage is intended to be maintained and utilized beyond the timeframe of this Undergraduate Honors Thesis for the intended purpose of promoting stigma-free HIV advocacy and education.

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  • 2018-05

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Portrayal of HIV+ Characters in Entertainment: Effects on Stigma and Implications for Future Representation

Description

Since the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) crisis began in the early 1980s, there has been a significant amount of stigma attached to the disease and the virus that causes

Since the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) crisis began in the early 1980s, there has been a significant amount of stigma attached to the disease and the virus that causes it, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). At the time, HIV/AIDS was viewed as a death sentence. A large part of the stigma came from the fact that in the early days of the crisis, AIDS patients were predominantly part of the LGBTQ+ community. With the discovery of effective antiretroviral therapies, today HIV can be thought of as a preventable, yet manageable, chronic illness, although it remains a huge public health concern (About HIV/AIDS, 2018). While the virus is now rarely viewed as a death sentence, there is still considerable stigma that surrounds people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Research shows that the shows and movies people watch can affect their attitudes on a variety of issues, and HIV is no exception. Because HIV is such a big threat to public health, and because people often adopt views they see in media, analyzing the ways shows and movies portray PLWHA is an important aspect in understanding where stigma surrounding HIV/AIDS comes from. The writers behind today's HIV+ characters on television and in movies all seemingly made an effort to decrease stigma, but they went about it in different ways, and with varying amounts of success. A common method to dispel stigma was to use the entertainment-education method (Singhal & Rogers, 1999), which in these cases means characters had discussions about topics like safe sex, Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), and the importance of getting tested. A few shows showed serodiscordant couples, which was also effective at fighting stigma. In contrast, by trying to be representative of PLWHA, some shows actually contributed to the stereotypes behind the stigma, or had characters be openly stigmatizing towards PLWHA. After analyzing what I found the shows and movies did well and what they did poorly, I'll analyze why it is important that shows maintained historical accuracy, and how doing so appeared to fight the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS. I will also evaluate what's missing \u2014 such as which high-risk groups are not represented. Ultimately, this thesis will argue that shows and movies made in the last 12 years all aimed to decrease stigma, through a variety of techniques.

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  • 2018-12

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Stigma and The Mental Health Court

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This thesis explores the connection between how the stigmatization of mental illness may be perpetuated by health care workers and the effect this has on individuals using mental health care

This thesis explores the connection between how the stigmatization of mental illness may be perpetuated by health care workers and the effect this has on individuals using mental health care services, focusing on how it negatively impacts the outcome of treatment. Much research and studies have been done on the topic of stigma, but few have surveyed how mental health care service users are directly impacted by stigma, specifically from members of the health care community. The Tempe Mental Health Court, a local alternative program for individuals who have diagnosed serious mental health issues and have committed misdemeanor offenses, is an exemplar of a treatment program that may be impacted by this stigma. Literature research collected for this paper analyzed how stigmatization is perpetuated through actions and words, and how this negatively impacts the stigmatized. Additionally, research was also gathered on how mental health care workers may play a part in the stigmatization of mental illness. A survey based off of The Stigma Scale developed by Michael King and his associates was administered at the Mental Health Court to be taken by participants of the program (2007). The survey aimed to figure out whether stigma was present at the court, if so, how it was being presented, and what role health care professionals and other members of the court had in perpetuating it. The survey was administered online and totaled 30 questions. Afterwards, survey data was compared and analyzed to the information gathered through literature research. Solutions for intervening in the stigma were derived from the survey as well as outside research. Based on these survey results as well as the outside research conducted, proposals for further research were suggested at the end of this paper.

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  • 2020-05

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The Elephant in the Room: Stigma and Mental Illness

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The stigma associated with mental illness has been and continues to be a considerable issue of concern in the care of persons with mental illness. Stigma affects not only those

The stigma associated with mental illness has been and continues to be a considerable issue of concern in the care of persons with mental illness. Stigma affects not only those with mental illness, but also their families, healthcare personnel, the social community, and policy formation. Common themes of stigma associated with mental illness are fear, social rejection, stereotyping, negative impact, and a lack of knowledge and awareness of mental illness. Despite a more accurate understanding of mental illness, stigma still exists. Interventions to help reverse the stigma associated with mental illness include education, awareness and an environment of inclusion. Toward this end, a PowerPoint presentation will be gifted to Arizona State University College of Nursing to be shown during the psychiatric mental health rotation outlining mental illness and stigma, and what nurses and future nurses can do to combat this stigma.

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  • 2014-12

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Mental Health of Sikh American Adolescents: A Thematic Literature Review

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The purpose of the current research is to synthesize and analyze the available literature on the mental health of Sikh American adolescents, addressing gaps and proposing areas of further research.

The purpose of the current research is to synthesize and analyze the available literature on the mental health of Sikh American adolescents, addressing gaps and proposing areas of further research. It assesses and compares perceptions of mental health in both Asian Indian and Sikh demographics, as the majority of Sikhs are ethnically Asian Indian. The research is also intended to supplement the current understanding of mental health in the Sikh community with a discussion on the culturally-based risk and protective factors for mental health and Western mental health care access.

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  • 2021-05

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Differences in the Symptom Profile of Depression in South Asians

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The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) are highly valid depressive testing tools used to measure the symptom profile of depression globally and in

The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) are highly valid depressive testing tools used to measure the symptom profile of depression globally and in South Asia, respectively (Steer et al., 1998; Kroenke et al, 2001). Even though the South Asian population comprises only 23% of the world’s population, it represents one-fifth of the world’s mental health disorders (Ogbo et al., 2018). Although this population is highly affected by mental disorders, there is a lack of culturally relevant research on specific subsections of the South Asian population.<br/><br/>As such, the goal of this study is to investigate the differences in the symptom profile of depression in native and immigrant South Asian populations. We investigated the role of collective self-esteem and perceived discrimination on mental health. <br/><br/>For the purpose of this study, participants were asked a series of questions about their depressive symptoms, self-esteem and perceived discrimination using various depressive screening measures, a self-esteem scale, and a perceived discrimination scale.<br/><br/>We found that immigrants demonstrated higher depressive symptoms than Native South Asians as immigration was viewed as a stressor. First-generation and second-generation South Asian immigrants identified equally with somatic and psychological symptoms. These symptoms were positively correlated with perceived discrimination, and collective self-esteem was shown to increase the likelihood of these symptoms.<br/><br/>This being said, the results from this study may be generalized only to South Asian immigrants who come from highly educated and high-income households. Since seeking professional help and being aware of one’s mental health is vital for wellbeing, the results from this study may spark the interest in an open communication about mental health within the South Asian immigrant community as well as aid in the restructuring of a highly reliable and valid measurement to be specific to a culture.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Physician and Veterinarian Suicide: A Comparative Literature Review

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Suicide is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and statistical analysis of suicide by profession reveals that physicians and veterinarians experience abnormally high suicide rates. This paper seeks

Suicide is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and statistical analysis of suicide by profession reveals that physicians and veterinarians experience abnormally high suicide rates. This paper seeks to provide a comprehensive literature review over what some general theories of suicide are, why these professions exhibit high suicide rates, what assistance is currently being provided, and where do these assistance efforts succeed or fail. Moreover, this paper addresses what advancements may be made within these fields to further combat suicide in physicians and veterinarians. To achieve this, general theories behind suicide, risk factors unique to or heavily prevalent in these professions, and current assistance efforts are read, organized, and summarized.<br/><br/>A summary of these risk factors includes stress and mental health disorders accumulated through school and work, personal and professional isolation, access to lethal substances, suicide contagion, exposure to euthanasia, and the role of perfectionism. There are several assistance efforts in place with the most successful ones being highly personalized, but many are still underutilized. Moreover, the stigma of suicide pervades these professions and is addressed by several researchers as something to combat or prevent. Going forward, it is hopeful that not only will more assistance efforts will be created and provided for physicians and veterinarians suffering from suicidal tendencies, but efforts to reduce the stigma of suicide be implemented and utilized as soon as possible.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

It's Okay Not to Be Okay: Mental Health in the Latinx Community

Description

The Latinx community faces several barriers that keep them from seeking mental health treatment. One of those barriers is the stigma experienced in the community. The purpose of this project

The Latinx community faces several barriers that keep them from seeking mental health treatment. One of those barriers is the stigma experienced in the community. The purpose of this project is to create a culturally tailored animation to address the stigma associated with mental health in the Latinx community. The first part of the project, written about in this paper, focuses on gathering data from the community about their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors regarding mental health, as well as the stigma they have witnessed and experienced. Information was gathered through a series of group and one-on-one interviews with Generation Z men and women that identified as Latinx. The preliminary results revealed that all participants agreed with the statement that mental health is stigmatized in their community and offered several reasons as to why this is the case. The majority of them also agreed that education is the best way to reduce the stigma, which is what we hope to achieve through an animation that will be created using the information provided by the community and the literature.

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  • 2021-05