Matching Items (5)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

137404-Thumbnail Image.png

Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes as Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A Pilot Gene Discovery Hypothesis Generating Study

Description

The diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is currently based on symptomatic criteria that exclude other conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract, such as celiac disease, food allergies, and infections. The

The diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is currently based on symptomatic criteria that exclude other conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract, such as celiac disease, food allergies, and infections. The absence of appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for IBS places a significant burden on the patient and the health care system due to direct and indirect costs of care. Limitations associated with the application of symptomatic criteria include inappropriate use and/or intrinsic limitations such as the population to which these criteria are applied. The lack of biomarkers specific for IBS, non-specific abdominal symptoms, and considerable variability in the disease course creates additional uncertainty during diagnosis. This project involved screening tissue samples from patients with verified IBS to identify gene expression-based biomarkers associated with IBS. Through validation of microarray gene chip data on the tissue samples using PCR, it was determined that a number of genes within the diseased IBS patient tissue samples were differentially expressed in comparison to the healthy subjects. These findings could potentially lead to the diagnosis of IBS on the basis of a genetic "fingerprint".

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

135639-Thumbnail Image.png

Disease and Signaling: The Role of Vitamin D in Healthful Aging

Description

Vitamin D, a bioactive lipid and essential nutrient, is obtained by humans through either endogenous synthesis in response to UV light exposure or via nutritional intake. Once activated to its

Vitamin D, a bioactive lipid and essential nutrient, is obtained by humans through either endogenous synthesis in response to UV light exposure or via nutritional intake. Once activated to its hormonal form, vitamin D binds to and activates the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR). Activation of VDR is known to modulate gene transcription in vitamin D target tissues such as kidney, colon, and bone; however, less is known about the ability of VDR to respond to "nutritional modulators". One such potential VDR modulator is resveratrol, a plant-derived polyphenol and potent antioxidant nutrient that also functions as a chemopreventative. Resveratrol is known to activate sirtuin-1, a deacetylase enzyme with potential anti-aging properties. This study explores the potential for resveratrol, an anticancer nutraceutical, to upregulate VDR activity through its effector protein, sirtuin-1. Furthermore, due to its putative interactions with several intracellular signaling pathways, klotho has been proposed as an anti-aging protein and tumor suppressor gene, while the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway drives enhanced cellular proliferation leading to numerous types of cancers, especially colorectal neoplasia. Thus, the ability of klotho to cooperate with vitamin D to inhibit oncogenic β-catenin signaling was also analyzed. The experiments and resultant data presented in this thesis explore the potential role of VDR as a physiologically relevant nutritional sensor in human cells. This novel study reveals the importance of nutrient modulation of the VDR system by vitamin D and resveratrol and how this might represent a molecular mechanism that is responsible for the putative anti-cancer actions of vitamin D. Furthermore, this study enhances our understanding of how vitamin D/VDR and resveratrol interact with klotho and how this interaction affects β-catenin signaling to mitigate oncogenic growth and differentiation. This works demonstrates that the vitamin D hormone serves as a likely chemopreventive agent for various types of cancers through control of anti-oxidation and cellular proliferation pathways via its nuclear receptor. Our results also indicate the potential for resveratrol, an anticancer nutraceutical, to upregulate VDR activity through SIRT1. Furthermore, the novel data presented in this work illustrate that klotho, an anti-aging protein, cooperates with vitamin D to synergistically inhibit oncogenic β-catenin signaling. Ultimately, this study enhances our understating of the molecular pathways that underpin nutritional chemoprevention, and how modulation of these pathways via dietary intervention may lead to advances in public health strategies to eventually curb carcinogenesis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

135580-Thumbnail Image.png

Vitamin D-mediated Regulation of Anti-Aging Klotho and FOXO Signaling

Description

Vitamin D, Klotho, and FOXO3 have all been linked to have anti-aging and anti-cancerous effects as separate pathways. Specifically, mice with knockout Klotho in their genes have displayed signs of

Vitamin D, Klotho, and FOXO3 have all been linked to have anti-aging and anti-cancerous effects as separate pathways. Specifically, mice with knockout Klotho in their genes have displayed signs of premature aging, humans who are vitamin D deficient have been shown to develop cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairments, and those who have displayed overexpression of FOXO3 have shown to have a longer lifespan. Here we took each pathway and attempted to formulate a feedback mechanism loop linking all three separate pathways. We propose that vitamin D levels modulate klotho activity, including the expression of the s-klotho and m-klotho isoforms. Moreover, the anti-oxidation transcription factor FOXO3 is also thought to participate in crosstalk with VDR signaling. Through the connection between 1,25D and Klotho, we probed at their interactions with FOXO3 signaling in kidney and colon cells, and proposed that vitamin D and klotho may reduce oxidative stress and suppress the onset of epithelial cancers through it effects on FOXO3. Results showed a strong support for the cooperation between FOXO3 and 1,25D to stimulate both superoxide dismutase (a FOXO3 response element) and XDR3/ROC (vitamin D response elements). This cooperation was mostly seen in embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and not in the colon cancer cells (HCT116), which has led to the conclusion that vitamin D and FOXO3 cooperation mainly occurs in kidney tissue and/or in tissue that is not yet been overtaken by cancer. Differences in the Klotho isoforms were seen when measuring FOXO3 and vitamin D activity, but experiments manipulating other components will need to be conducted to further understand the function of Klotho in maintaining reactive oxygenated species levels.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

134109-Thumbnail Image.png

Identification of Transcriptomic Biomarkers for use in Diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Description

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder that afflicts more than 20% of the population in the United States. Symptoms include mild to severe abdominal discomfort accompanied by

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder that afflicts more than 20% of the population in the United States. Symptoms include mild to severe abdominal discomfort accompanied by a change in stool character and form ranging from constipation to diarrhea. Additionally, IBS is associated with secondary effects including depression, anxiety, poor quality of life, insomnia and sexual dysfunction. Despite the known association of secondary effects, patients are often tested for potential illnesses that share similar pathological symptoms. This process can be costly and protracted and yet not deliver a completely accurate diagnosis. The aim of this research is to identify gene expression-based biological signatures and unique biomarkers for the detection of IBS. Through the use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), comparison of pooled samples of non-IBS patient-derived RNA were used to identify differentially expressed genes in patients with IBS. Data obtained from preliminary DNA microarray analysis demonstrated a degree of success in differentiating between IBS and asymptomatic patients. Additional comprehensive DNA microarray analyses have led to the identification of a series of 858 differentially expressed genes, including genes associated with serotonin metabolism, which may characterize the IBS pathological state. The microarray results were screened using a combination of gene ontological analysis and qPCR. Real-time PCR revealed repressed levels of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1), an enzyme involved in the rate- limiting step in serotonin biosynthesis, in IBS patients relative to controls. Lower concentrations of serum 25(OH)D were also observed among the IBS cohort relative to asymptomatic patients, especially among IBS-D subtype. Vitamin D was shown to modulate differentially expressed genes in IBS patients, suggesting that IBS pathophysiology may involve vitamin D insufficiency and/or an irregularity in serotonin metabolism. Additional qPCR analysis of 32 differentially expressed genes in IBS patients identified 7 putative genetic biomarkers proposed for a potential IBS diagnostic panel. Based on the quality of these results, we may be able to develop, test, and market a diagnostic kit for IBS.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

131432-Thumbnail Image.png

Analysis of Vitamin D and B12 Function in Drosophila melanogaster

Description

Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is an essential micronutrient that plays a key role in developmental growth and lifespan in mammals. However, few studies have shown how vitamin D3 plays its vital

Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is an essential micronutrient that plays a key role in developmental growth and lifespan in mammals. However, few studies have shown how vitamin D3 plays its vital functions in arthropods. Here, we examined the effects of full (13.3 IU/mL) and half dose (6.65 IU/mL) vitamin D3 on the growth and lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster. Vitamin B12 is another micronutrient that shows decreases absorption in elderly patients and might be linked to symptoms associated with aging rather than lifespan, but again, the effects of vitamin B12 supplementation in arthropods is poorly characterized. Results showed that both full and half doses of vitamin D3 and B12 do not significantly alter the timing of pupariation or adult eclosion. Similarly, the mortality rate of adult D. melanogaster exposed to vitamin B12 or higher doses of vitamin D3 was not significantly decreased or increased. However, a low dose of vitamin D3 did significantly lower the mortality rate of D. melanogaster. The genetic composition of Drosophila for vitamin B12 and D metabolism showed similarities in humans. However, there are no biological evidences if these genes are functional thus, this may explain the results of this study.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05