Matching Items (9)

134109-Thumbnail Image.png

Identification of Transcriptomic Biomarkers for use in Diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Description

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder that afflicts more than 20% of the population in the United States. Symptoms include mild to severe abdominal discomfort accompanied by

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder that afflicts more than 20% of the population in the United States. Symptoms include mild to severe abdominal discomfort accompanied by a change in stool character and form ranging from constipation to diarrhea. Additionally, IBS is associated with secondary effects including depression, anxiety, poor quality of life, insomnia and sexual dysfunction. Despite the known association of secondary effects, patients are often tested for potential illnesses that share similar pathological symptoms. This process can be costly and protracted and yet not deliver a completely accurate diagnosis. The aim of this research is to identify gene expression-based biological signatures and unique biomarkers for the detection of IBS. Through the use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), comparison of pooled samples of non-IBS patient-derived RNA were used to identify differentially expressed genes in patients with IBS. Data obtained from preliminary DNA microarray analysis demonstrated a degree of success in differentiating between IBS and asymptomatic patients. Additional comprehensive DNA microarray analyses have led to the identification of a series of 858 differentially expressed genes, including genes associated with serotonin metabolism, which may characterize the IBS pathological state. The microarray results were screened using a combination of gene ontological analysis and qPCR. Real-time PCR revealed repressed levels of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1), an enzyme involved in the rate- limiting step in serotonin biosynthesis, in IBS patients relative to controls. Lower concentrations of serum 25(OH)D were also observed among the IBS cohort relative to asymptomatic patients, especially among IBS-D subtype. Vitamin D was shown to modulate differentially expressed genes in IBS patients, suggesting that IBS pathophysiology may involve vitamin D insufficiency and/or an irregularity in serotonin metabolism. Additional qPCR analysis of 32 differentially expressed genes in IBS patients identified 7 putative genetic biomarkers proposed for a potential IBS diagnostic panel. Based on the quality of these results, we may be able to develop, test, and market a diagnostic kit for IBS.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

135926-Thumbnail Image.png

Modulation of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Signaling: Implications for Aging and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Description

The significance of hormonal vitamin D in the numerous facets of health stresses the importance of elucidating the molecular mechanism(s) associated with 1,25D-VDR signaling modulators (e.g., resveratrol and sirtuin-1). Resveratrol

The significance of hormonal vitamin D in the numerous facets of health stresses the importance of elucidating the molecular mechanism(s) associated with 1,25D-VDR signaling modulators (e.g., resveratrol and sirtuin-1). Resveratrol (Res), a natural antioxidant, is a potent activator of NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1), an enzyme associated with longevity in animal models. This present study employed mammalian 2-hybrid (M2H) and vitamin D responsive element (VDRE)-based transcriptional assays to investigate the potential effects of Res and SIRT-1 on VDR signal transduction. Results from VDRE-based assays indicate that Res and SIRT-1 potentiate 1,25D-VDR activity via cell-and-promoter-specific pathways. In addition, 1,25D displacement experiments revealed an increase in VDR-bound radiolabeled 1,25D in the presence of Res, suggesting that Res may potentiate VDR transactivation by stimulating 1,25D binding. M2H assays in HEK293 cells were then utilized to assess levels of interaction between VDR and VDR comodulators, including RXR, SRC-1, and DRIP-205. Both Res and SIRT-1 increased the ability of VDR to associate with RXR; however, SRC-1 and DRIP-205 interactions were not enhanced. The activity of a novel, non-acetylatable VDR mutant, K413R, was probed revealing that K413R possesses amplified transactivation capacity over wild-type VDR. A SIRT-1 inhibitor, EX-527, was used to suppress endogenous SIRT-1, resulting in significantly decreased VDR transactivation. Finally, qPCR results in HEK293 cells revealed that the 1,25D-mediated induction of CYP24A1, an endogenous VDR target gene, was enhanced (85%) by SIRT-1 while Res increased CYP24A1 expression by 294%. The combination of 1,25D, SIRT-1, and Res amplified CYP24A1 expression by 326% over 1,25D, although this effect did not reach statistical significance when compared to the Res only treated group. We conclude that acetylation of VDR comprises a negative feedback loop that attenuates 1,25D-VDR signaling. This loop is suppressed by resveratrol/SIRT-1-catalyzed deacetylation of VDR, restoring VDR activity. The two compounds, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D, vitamin D) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin), have been proposed to play a significant role in abnormal social behavior associated with psychological conditions including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and depression; however, the mechanism underlying these associations has yet to be elucidated. Deficiencies in 1,25D or 5-HT have been linked to the increased incidence of ASDs. Thus, examining the modulation of genes involved in 5-HT biosynthesis, reuptake, and degradation is fundamental in linking low 1,25D levels to the increased incidence of psychiatric disorders. We propose that 1,25D regulates tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2), the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of 5-HT. In order to evaluate the regulation of TPH2 in neuronal cells, three formulations of media were examined to optimize the cell culture conditions necessary for growth and morphology of embryonic rat medullary raphe (B14) serotonergic neurons. Next, quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR) was utilized to examine TPH2 expression in cultured human glioblastoma (U-87) cells and rat serotonergic neurons (B-14). Human TPH2 mRNA in U-87 cells was induced dose-dependently resulting in a 2.4-fold increase at 10 nM 1,25D. Strikingly, TPH2 mRNA in B-14 cells was observed to be 26- to 86-fold upregulated at 10 nM 1,25D; however, 1 nM and 100 nM 1,25D elicited significantly smaller inductions (8-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively).

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

131432-Thumbnail Image.png

Analysis of Vitamin D and B12 Function in Drosophila melanogaster

Description

Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is an essential micronutrient that plays a key role in developmental growth and lifespan in mammals. However, few studies have shown how vitamin D3 plays its vital

Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is an essential micronutrient that plays a key role in developmental growth and lifespan in mammals. However, few studies have shown how vitamin D3 plays its vital functions in arthropods. Here, we examined the effects of full (13.3 IU/mL) and half dose (6.65 IU/mL) vitamin D3 on the growth and lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster. Vitamin B12 is another micronutrient that shows decreases absorption in elderly patients and might be linked to symptoms associated with aging rather than lifespan, but again, the effects of vitamin B12 supplementation in arthropods is poorly characterized. Results showed that both full and half doses of vitamin D3 and B12 do not significantly alter the timing of pupariation or adult eclosion. Similarly, the mortality rate of adult D. melanogaster exposed to vitamin B12 or higher doses of vitamin D3 was not significantly decreased or increased. However, a low dose of vitamin D3 did significantly lower the mortality rate of D. melanogaster. The genetic composition of Drosophila for vitamin B12 and D metabolism showed similarities in humans. However, there are no biological evidences if these genes are functional thus, this may explain the results of this study.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

135580-Thumbnail Image.png

Vitamin D-mediated Regulation of Anti-Aging Klotho and FOXO Signaling

Description

Vitamin D, Klotho, and FOXO3 have all been linked to have anti-aging and anti-cancerous effects as separate pathways. Specifically, mice with knockout Klotho in their genes have displayed signs of

Vitamin D, Klotho, and FOXO3 have all been linked to have anti-aging and anti-cancerous effects as separate pathways. Specifically, mice with knockout Klotho in their genes have displayed signs of premature aging, humans who are vitamin D deficient have been shown to develop cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairments, and those who have displayed overexpression of FOXO3 have shown to have a longer lifespan. Here we took each pathway and attempted to formulate a feedback mechanism loop linking all three separate pathways. We propose that vitamin D levels modulate klotho activity, including the expression of the s-klotho and m-klotho isoforms. Moreover, the anti-oxidation transcription factor FOXO3 is also thought to participate in crosstalk with VDR signaling. Through the connection between 1,25D and Klotho, we probed at their interactions with FOXO3 signaling in kidney and colon cells, and proposed that vitamin D and klotho may reduce oxidative stress and suppress the onset of epithelial cancers through it effects on FOXO3. Results showed a strong support for the cooperation between FOXO3 and 1,25D to stimulate both superoxide dismutase (a FOXO3 response element) and XDR3/ROC (vitamin D response elements). This cooperation was mostly seen in embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and not in the colon cancer cells (HCT116), which has led to the conclusion that vitamin D and FOXO3 cooperation mainly occurs in kidney tissue and/or in tissue that is not yet been overtaken by cancer. Differences in the Klotho isoforms were seen when measuring FOXO3 and vitamin D activity, but experiments manipulating other components will need to be conducted to further understand the function of Klotho in maintaining reactive oxygenated species levels.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

135639-Thumbnail Image.png

Disease and Signaling: The Role of Vitamin D in Healthful Aging

Description

Vitamin D, a bioactive lipid and essential nutrient, is obtained by humans through either endogenous synthesis in response to UV light exposure or via nutritional intake. Once activated to its

Vitamin D, a bioactive lipid and essential nutrient, is obtained by humans through either endogenous synthesis in response to UV light exposure or via nutritional intake. Once activated to its hormonal form, vitamin D binds to and activates the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR). Activation of VDR is known to modulate gene transcription in vitamin D target tissues such as kidney, colon, and bone; however, less is known about the ability of VDR to respond to "nutritional modulators". One such potential VDR modulator is resveratrol, a plant-derived polyphenol and potent antioxidant nutrient that also functions as a chemopreventative. Resveratrol is known to activate sirtuin-1, a deacetylase enzyme with potential anti-aging properties. This study explores the potential for resveratrol, an anticancer nutraceutical, to upregulate VDR activity through its effector protein, sirtuin-1. Furthermore, due to its putative interactions with several intracellular signaling pathways, klotho has been proposed as an anti-aging protein and tumor suppressor gene, while the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway drives enhanced cellular proliferation leading to numerous types of cancers, especially colorectal neoplasia. Thus, the ability of klotho to cooperate with vitamin D to inhibit oncogenic β-catenin signaling was also analyzed. The experiments and resultant data presented in this thesis explore the potential role of VDR as a physiologically relevant nutritional sensor in human cells. This novel study reveals the importance of nutrient modulation of the VDR system by vitamin D and resveratrol and how this might represent a molecular mechanism that is responsible for the putative anti-cancer actions of vitamin D. Furthermore, this study enhances our understanding of how vitamin D/VDR and resveratrol interact with klotho and how this interaction affects β-catenin signaling to mitigate oncogenic growth and differentiation. This works demonstrates that the vitamin D hormone serves as a likely chemopreventive agent for various types of cancers through control of anti-oxidation and cellular proliferation pathways via its nuclear receptor. Our results also indicate the potential for resveratrol, an anticancer nutraceutical, to upregulate VDR activity through SIRT1. Furthermore, the novel data presented in this work illustrate that klotho, an anti-aging protein, cooperates with vitamin D to synergistically inhibit oncogenic β-catenin signaling. Ultimately, this study enhances our understating of the molecular pathways that underpin nutritional chemoprevention, and how modulation of these pathways via dietary intervention may lead to advances in public health strategies to eventually curb carcinogenesis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

135740-Thumbnail Image.png

Regulation Of Genes Involved In Skin Repair By Lipid Compounds With Implications For Psoriasis Treatment

Description

Psoriasis is a skin disease that affects millions of individuals. Genetic risk factors for psoriasis include a common deletion of two late cornified envelope (LCE) genes (LCE3B and LCE3C) located

Psoriasis is a skin disease that affects millions of individuals. Genetic risk factors for psoriasis include a common deletion of two late cornified envelope (LCE) genes (LCE3B and LCE3C) located within a cluster of genes expressed during epithelial differentiation and skin repair. It was previously discovered that treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) or analogs thereof can improve psoriasis symptoms in many patients, but the molecular mechanisms for this action are largely unknown. Our laboratory previously showed that 1,25D as well as low affinity ligands for the vitamin D receptor (VDR), such as delphinidin and cyanidin, are capable of upregulating the remaining LCE3A, -3D, and -3E genes to potentially compensate for the loss of LCE3B and -3C in promoting skin repair. In the current study, DHA and curcumin were tested and found to also upregulate LCE3 transcripts in a dose-dependent manner. To investigate other potential target genes for 1,25D and DHA, we tested JunB, for which low or absent expression has been reported to cause or be associated with psoriatic lesions. Our experiments showed a trend for an upregulation of JunB mRNA after DHA treatment, potentially providing benefit for psoriasis patients. Although our hypothesis is that DHA functions as a vitamin D receptor ligand to mediate upregulation of JunB and LCE3 genes, other investigators have assumed that DHA actions in skin are mediated via PPAR isoforms. We therefore utilized a selective ligand for PPAR delta (GW501516) to determine whether PPAR delta, the primary PPAR isoform in keratinocytes, is a mediator of DHA-induced LCE3 gene activation. Although a modest upregulation of LCE3 genes was seen after treatment with GW501516, our findings are still consistent with DHA acting primarily as a VDR ligand. Our results not only provide additional information about the ability of VDR ligands to upregulate specific skin genes with relevance for skin repair, but also may help provide a molecular basis for testing improved treatments for mild to moderate psoriasis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

137404-Thumbnail Image.png

Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes as Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A Pilot Gene Discovery Hypothesis Generating Study

Description

The diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is currently based on symptomatic criteria that exclude other conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract, such as celiac disease, food allergies, and infections. The

The diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is currently based on symptomatic criteria that exclude other conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract, such as celiac disease, food allergies, and infections. The absence of appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for IBS places a significant burden on the patient and the health care system due to direct and indirect costs of care. Limitations associated with the application of symptomatic criteria include inappropriate use and/or intrinsic limitations such as the population to which these criteria are applied. The lack of biomarkers specific for IBS, non-specific abdominal symptoms, and considerable variability in the disease course creates additional uncertainty during diagnosis. This project involved screening tissue samples from patients with verified IBS to identify gene expression-based biomarkers associated with IBS. Through validation of microarray gene chip data on the tissue samples using PCR, it was determined that a number of genes within the diseased IBS patient tissue samples were differentially expressed in comparison to the healthy subjects. These findings could potentially lead to the diagnosis of IBS on the basis of a genetic "fingerprint".

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

153965-Thumbnail Image.png

The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Plasma Aβ in an Older Population: A Randomized Control Trial

Description

Vitamin D deficiency has been previously associated with a higher Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk, a condition marked by dependent living and severe cognitive impairment. AD is histologically defined by the

Vitamin D deficiency has been previously associated with a higher Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk, a condition marked by dependent living and severe cognitive impairment. AD is histologically defined by the presence of brain amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Ways to enhance Aβ clearance have been examined in order to sustain cognition and delay AD onset. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that vitamin D might enhance brain Aβ transportation to the periphery by up-regulating P-glycoprotein production. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on plasma Aβ in an older population.

This study was a parallel-arm, double-blinded, randomized control trial. Participants consumed either a vitamin D supplement or placebo once a week for eight weeks (n=23). Only vitamin D insufficient (serum total 25-OH, D < 30 ng/mL) people were included in the study, and all participants were considered to be cognitively normal (MMSE scores > 27). Serum total 25-OH, D and plasma Aβ1-40 measurements were recorded before and after the eight-week trial. The plasma Aβ1-40 change was compared between the vitamin D group and control group.

The vitamin D group experienced a 45% greater change in plasma Aβ1-40 than the control group. The effect size was 0.228 when controlling for baseline plasma Aβ1-40 (p=0.045), 0.197 when controlling for baseline plasma Aβ1-40 and baseline physical activity (p=0.085), and 0.179 when controlling for baseline plasma Aβ1-40, baseline physical activity, and age (p=0.116). In conclusion, vitamin D supplementation might increase brain Aβ clearance in humans, but physical activity and age also appear to modulate Aβ metabolism.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

150842-Thumbnail Image.png

The effect of vitamin D supplementation on brachial artery flow mediated dilation in older adults with and without rheumatoid arthritis

Description

ABSTRACT Despite significant advancements in drug therapy, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death in the United States. Given this, research has begun to seek out alternative

ABSTRACT Despite significant advancements in drug therapy, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death in the United States. Given this, research has begun to seek out alternative approaches to reduce CVD risk. One of these alternative approaches is Vitamin D supplementation. Current research has shown a link between Vitamin D status and CVD risk in both healthy and diseased populations. Among the possible mechanisms is a positive effect of Vitamin D on vascular endothelial function, which can be measured with noninvasive techniques such as flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of conduit vessels using high-resolution ultrasound. This dissertation is comprised of two studies. The first examines whether Vitamin D supplementation can improve FMD in older adults within a time period (two weeks) associated with peak increases in plasma Vitamin D concentrations after a single-dose supplementation. The second examines the effect of Vitamin D supplementation in people with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The reason for looking at an RA population is that CVD is the leading cause of early mortality in people with RA. In the first study 29 Post-Menopausal Women received either 100,000 IU of Vitamin D3 or a Placebo. Their FMD was measured at baseline and 2 weeks after supplementation. After 2 weeks there was a significant increase in FMD in the Vitamin D group (6.19 + 4.87 % to 10.69 + 5.18 %) as compared to the Placebo group (p=.03). In the second study, 11 older adults with RA were given 100,000 IU of Vitamin D or a Placebo. At baseline and one month later their FMD was examined as well as plasma concentrations of Vitamin D and tumor necrosis factor-alpha; (TNF-alpha;). They also filled out a Quality of Life Questionnaire and underwent a submaximal exercise test on the treadmill for estimation of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). There was no significant change in FMD in Vitamin D group as compared to the Placebo group (p=.721). Additionally, there was no significant improvement in either plasma Vitamin D or TNF-alpha; in the Vitamin D group. There was however a significant improvement in predicted VO2max from the submaximal exercise test in the group receiving Vitamin D (p=.003). The results of these studies suggest that a single 100,000 IU dose of Vitamin D can enhance FMD within two week in older adults, but that a similar dose may not be sufficient to increase FMD or plasma Vitamin D levels in older adults with RA. A more aggressive supplementation regimen may be required in this patient population.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012