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Kicking the Habit: Reforming Mandatory Minimums for Drug Crimes

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Abstract Kicking the Habit: Reforming Mandatory Minimums for Drug Crimes Ashley Allen While mandatory minimum sentences apply to all drugs, in this paper, I primarily discuss them for marijuana, cocaine,

Abstract Kicking the Habit: Reforming Mandatory Minimums for Drug Crimes Ashley Allen While mandatory minimum sentences apply to all drugs, in this paper, I primarily discuss them for marijuana, cocaine, and opiates since these drugs are the most commonly used. My paper will include an exploration of the reasons behind the implementation of mandatory minimum sentences, an analysis of the problems involved with enforcing them, and a discussion about the harms such enforcement has on communities. While mandatory minimums were introduced to prevent discrimination in sentencing as people of color often faced much harsher sentences, the minimums have not been a lasting solution; rather these sentencing techniques have become a major component of the problems communities face associated with drug use. They enforce negative stereotypes and cycles of drug use, do not promote rehabilitation, and unnecessarily burden the judicial and prison systems. I will discuss both successful and failed attempts to reform these laws, and finally offer possible solutions for rethinking mandatory minimum laws, including harm reduction, sentencing restructuring, and the reform of federal laws.

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  • 2012-05

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A Comparative Analysis of Indoor and Greenhouse Cannabis Cultivation Systems

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In A Comparative Analysis of Indoor and Greenhouse Cannabis Cultivation Systems, the two most common systems for commercial cannabis cultivation are compared using an operational and capital expenditure model combined

In A Comparative Analysis of Indoor and Greenhouse Cannabis Cultivation Systems, the two most common systems for commercial cannabis cultivation are compared using an operational and capital expenditure model combined with a collection of relevant industry sources to ascertain conclusions about the two systems' relative competitiveness. The cannabis industry is one of the fastest growing nascent industries in the United States, and, as it evolves into a mature market, it will require more sophisticated considerations of resource deployment in order to maximize efficiency and maintain competitive advantage. Through drawing on leading assumptions by industry experts, we constructed a model of each system to demonstrate the dynamics of typical capital deployment and cost flow in each system. The systems are remarkably similar in many respects, with notable reductions in construction costs, electrical costs, and debt servicing for greenhouses. Although the differences are somewhat particular, they make up a large portion of the total costs and capital expenditures, causing a marked separation between the two systems in their attractiveness to operators. Besides financial efficiency, we examined quality control, security, and historical norms as relevant considerations for cannabis decision makers, using industry sources to reach conclusions about the validity of each of these concerns as a reason for resistance to implementation of greenhouse systems. In our opinion, these points of contention will become less pertinent with the technological and legislative changes surrounding market maturation. When taking into account the total mix of information, we conclude that the greenhouse system is positioned to become the preeminent method of production for future commercial cannabis cultivators.

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  • 2016-05

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Adolescent Predictors of Marijuana Cessation and Motivations for Quitting Marijuana in a Racially Balanced Adult Non-Treatment Sample

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Marijuana is currently the mostly widely used illicit drug in the U.S., and has been for multiple decades (Johnston et. al., 2016). Despite a growing belief that marijuana use is

Marijuana is currently the mostly widely used illicit drug in the U.S., and has been for multiple decades (Johnston et. al., 2016). Despite a growing belief that marijuana use is not harmful, over 4 million Americans have met criteria for marijuana use disorders in the past year alone (CBHSQ, 2015). According to marijuana trajectory studies, about a third of marijuana users will end up quitting later in life, but some \u2014 such as those who meet criteria for dependence \u2014 have a much greater difficultly quitting. Therefore, by looking at marijuana users who were successful in quitting, and comparing them to ongoing adult marijuana users, factors that may assist in helping an individual quit \u2014 such as certain motivations for quitting \u2014 may be identified. To study these issues, data was collected from 507 participants from the Pittsburgh Youth Study. It was found that adolescents who used marijuana weekly for at least one year were likely to be ongoing marijuana users in adulthood and that adolescents who had a warm relationship with their primary caretaker were likely to have quit marijuana by adulthood. It was also found that Black participants were more likely to have legal, monetary, and religious reasons for quitting than were White participants. Furthermore, participants who used regularly in adolescence were likely to list legal reasons, as well as a concern that marijuana use was needed to feel normal. Finally, it was found that not a single motivation for quitting marijuana was associated with a shorter period of abstinence. The implications of these findings for motivations to quit marijuana are the focus of the discussion.

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  • 2016-12

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An Analysis of the Recreational Marijuana Industry in Colorado

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Since 2014, the legal marijuana industry has flourished in Colorado, the first state to ever legalize its recreational use in the United States. It is necessary to fully understand the

Since 2014, the legal marijuana industry has flourished in Colorado, the first state to ever legalize its recreational use in the United States. It is necessary to fully understand the economic impact of the implementation of the recreational system as well as the characteristics of the market for lawmakers, business owners, and voters to make educated decisions on future legislation. This report will delve into these matters in an objective manner to provide all the stakeholders in any present or future recreational marijuana market (users, business owners, legislators) with accurate information on the current state of the industry. Starting with an introduction of the history of marijuana in the United States, as well as the factors that led to its illegality, offers insight into the past and current laws currently impacting the recreational marijuana market in Colorado, with special emphasis on the state regulatory framework in place at this time. The analysis will include an in-depth examination of the current market forces at play in the recreational marijuana market, including technological, sociological, and economic factors, with a look at current business-level strategies for marijuana businesses and the threats arising from alcohol and tobacco, the drug's main substitutes. This report will explain the tax framework in place in Colorado, and investigate trends in market sales and tax revenues, including detailed statistics on the distribution of tax revenue throughout the state. A comprehensive analysis of the legislative issues the market faces, both in Colorado and across the country, will thoroughly indicate the major problems the industry must overcome in the future, or whether it can do so at all. These will include difficulties in the banking, taxation, insurance, and bankruptcy systems that marijuana-related businesses currently face.

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  • 2018-05

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Generational Changes in Adolescent Alcohol and Marijuana Use

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Substance use during adolescence is a significant predictor of developing a later substance use disorder. An encouraging trend is that there have been recent declines in rates of adolescent substance

Substance use during adolescence is a significant predictor of developing a later substance use disorder. An encouraging trend is that there have been recent declines in rates of adolescent substance use, including alcohol and marijuana. However, these two substances may be decreasing differently from one another as a result of age, period, and cohort effects. Therefore, the overall trend of decreased substance use in more recent generations of adolescents may be greater for one substance than the other. The current study tested declines in adolescent alcohol and marijuana use across two generations measured in 1988-1990 and 2006-2012. Methodological strengths include controls for demographic characteristics and for parental alcohol disorder (as a proxy for genetic risk). Moreover, we tested whether findings would replicate using two methods—first comparing all assessed members of one generational cohort with all assessed members of the other generational cohort, and then comparing only matched parent-child pairs. Testing this second matched sample removes some potential demographic and risk confounds that might occur across cohorts in typical epidemiological studies. Results demonstrated that the younger cohort of adolescents used both substances less than the older cohort, and this effect was stronger for alcohol than for marijuana. These results were replicated in both samples over and above demographic variables. The parent-child sample showed that children used less alcohol and marijuana than did their parent during the same age period, suggesting that these trends cannot simply be due to changes in the demographics of the adolescent population over time. Taken together with epidemiological studies, these findings suggest encouraging declines in adolescent substance use rates but also indicate less decline in marijuana use compared to alcohol use. This prompts further surveillance to determine if marijuana use rates may start increasing among adolescents in the future.

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  • 2020-05

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The Importance of Language in Cannabis Research

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This study was designed to learn what students call various forms of cannabis. A survey was created with questions designed to understand students' knowledge of types of cannabis, methods of

This study was designed to learn what students call various forms of cannabis. A survey was created with questions designed to understand students' knowledge of types of cannabis, methods of use, and potency. An introduction and methods section of the research paper is included.

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  • 2021-05

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The United States of Cannabis: A Socioeconomic and Legal Analysis of the Cannabis Industry

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This paper analyzes the economic, legal, and social aspects of the legal cannabis industry in the United States. These analyses include the history, current status, and future of all three

This paper analyzes the economic, legal, and social aspects of the legal cannabis industry in the United States. These analyses include the history, current status, and future of all three components, all with an emphasis on reforming the existing systems in place in order to achieve the most beneficial cannabis industry possible. Many reformative legal implications are made, stressing the importance of decriminalizing cannabis, releasing nonviolent and cannabis-related criminals from prison, and expunging their criminal records. The paper places a heavy emphasis on the importance of designing the legal system to be fair and equal across all racial and ethnic groups, given that people of color have been hit the hardest in terms of cannabis-related issues. Economic components such as tax design and access to proper financial institutions are also included, as well as the social implications that have both gone into and are a product of the long-standing war on drugs. While there is no comprehensive solution for how to fix every aspect of the industry, this paper highlights key aspects to be aware of in the design stages of potential federal legalization.

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  • 2021-05

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The Importance of Diversity Within the Cannabis Industry and Expanding Minority-Owned Businesses as a Social Justice Imperative

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Change within the cannabis industry could lead to drastic improvements in social justice. Ever since marijuana was first regulated in the United States in the early 1900s, it has been

Change within the cannabis industry could lead to drastic improvements in social justice. Ever since marijuana was first regulated in the United States in the early 1900s, it has been used as the justification for the excessive incarceration and disenfranchisement of targeted groups, specifically, Black and Latino populations. Now, the growing popularity of marijuana, from both the recreational and entrepreneurial perspective, has led to the legalization of recreational cannabis in 15 states. <br/>Although this enterprise is highly profitable and alluring for consumers and business owners, the problem of underrepresentation of minority owned businesses within the industry still remains. This underrepresentation symbolizes the unjust ability for this enterprise to capitalize on those victimized by past drug regulations and on a larger scale, how it perpetuates institutionalized racism. The criminalization of marijuana not only allows for certain groups to remain successful in this booming billion-dollar operation, but also ensures that others remain unseen and left behind. <br/>This thesis aims to show the ways in which the legal cannabis industry can expand and encourage minority-owned businesses to venture into the sector. In this paper, I will attempt to outline the history of cannabis regulation and anti-drug campaigns, and illustrate the lack of diversity within the cannabis industry. I will also touch upon the remedies and reparations for racial inequality and how public policy can address entrepreneur’s demands in future policy considerations and industry practices.

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  • 2021-05

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Should Marijuana Be?

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Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States with over two million pounds seized annually and with a usage rate estimated at 19.8 million people in

Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States with over two million pounds seized annually and with a usage rate estimated at 19.8 million people in 2013 (SAMSHA, 2014). Currently there is a nationwide movement for the legalization of recreational marijuana via referendum at the state level. Three states and the District of Columbia have already adopted amendments legalizing marijuana and over a dozen more currently have pending ballots. This report explores what would be the impact of legalizing marijuana in Arizona through the examination of data from Colorado and other governmental sources. Using a benefit/cost analysis the data is used to determine what the effect the legalization of marijuana would have in Arizona. I next examined the moral arguments for legalization. Finally I propose a recommendation for how the issue of the legalization of recreational marijuana should be approached in Arizona.

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  • 2015-05

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Like, Share, Rinse, Retweet: How Millennials Are Using Technology to Accelerte Social Change

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In 2014, we are seeing change on social issues such as same-sex marriage and marijuana legalization at a rate that is visibly faster than major social issues of the past.

In 2014, we are seeing change on social issues such as same-sex marriage and marijuana legalization at a rate that is visibly faster than major social issues of the past. Statistics show that these issues are fan-favorites with the millennial generation, while also showing that this same group overwhelmingly dominates popular online platforms, a major tool that social issues of the past lacked. This study aims to examine whether or not there is a correlation between the online presence of millennials, the coverage by the media, and the policy-making decisions by legislators. With that idea in mind, perhaps we can prove that millennials have the ability to set the stage for social change. The instantaneous supply and demand of the Internet has created a climate where responses to our questions and ideas are expected faster than ever. By better understanding the dynamics of the relationships between these three groups, perhaps we can find solutions for creating change faster and more effectively.

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  • 2014-05