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Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) Did Not Improve Depression in Older Adults with Down Syndrome

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The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on depression in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). We predicted that older adults with Down Syndrome would see an improvement in their depressive symptoms

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on depression in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). We predicted that older adults with Down Syndrome would see an improvement in their depressive symptoms after ACT and Voluntary Cycling (VC). However, we predicted there would be a greater improvement in depressive symptoms after ACT in comparison to VC. Depression was measured using a modified version of the Children's Depression Inventory 2 (CDI 2) due to the low mental age of our participant population. Twenty-one older adults with DS were randomly assigned to one of three interventions, which took place over an eight-week period of time. Eleven older adults with DS completed the ACT intervention, which is stationary cycling on a recumbent bicycle with the assistance of a motor to maintain a cadence at least 35% greater than the rate of voluntary cycling. Nine participants completed the voluntary cycling intervention, where they cycled at a cadence of their choosing. One participant composed our no cycling control group. No intervention group reached results that achieved a conventional level of significance. However, there was a trend for depression to increase after 8 weeks throughout all three intervention groups. We did see a slightly slower regression of depression in the ACT group than the VC and control. Our results were discussed with respect to social and cognitive factors relevant to older adults with DS and the subjective nature of the CDI2. This study brings attention to the lack of accurate measures and standardized research methods created for populations with intellectual disabilities in regards to research.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Parent Survey of Exercise Preferences for Children with Down Syndrome

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There has been very little research conducted on the long-term effects of exercise on children with Down Syndrome (DS), however, there is some research on Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) in adolescents and adults with Down Syndrome and has found positive

There has been very little research conducted on the long-term effects of exercise on children with Down Syndrome (DS), however, there is some research on Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) in adolescents and adults with Down Syndrome and has found positive results on motor, cognitive and mental health measure. Therefore, a grant proposal was submitted to develop ACT Early, a pediatric version of the ACT bicycle, developed in conjunction with Theracycle, geared towards early intervention in children with DS rather than adults with DS. Once submitted, the reviewers sent back their comments of why they would not fund the development of ACT Early. The comments focused on what the parents/guardians would want for their children. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis was to create a questionnaire for parents/guardians so a new grant proposal can be created based on their input and to find the effects exercise and ACT has on children with Down Syndrome. After weeks of helping create the survey based on comments from reviewers of the previously submitted grant, I collected 70 questionnaires at several events in the community. Our results showed that the exercise regimen would be most appropriate for 7-9 year old’s for 2 days a week and 30-45 min per day. The type of exercise would be light intensity on an ACT Theracycle, and it will be done in a fitness/clinical setting. Other options that were suggested were to add music or a buddy to exercise with. Additionally, straps will be used on the Theracycle to ensure maximum safety and the results will be disseminated via emails, websites, in person and through journals. In conclusion, the hope is that the changes made to the study based on this survey of parent/guardian input will help fund the development of the ACT Early Theracycle for children. This is important because early intervention in children with neurological disorders can achieve their best quality of life as soon as possible and become independent, happy, and productive in our society.

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2020-05

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Stationary cycling did not improve reaction time in older adults with Down Syndrome

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The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on information processing measured by simple reaction time in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to one of three interventions

The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on information processing measured by simple reaction time in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to one of three interventions over eight weeks. 1) Eleven older adults with Down Syndrome completed the ACT intervention, which is stationary cycling with the assistance of a motor to maintain a cadence at least 35% greater than voluntary cycling. 2) Eight older adults with Down Syndrome completed the voluntary cycling (VC) intervention and 3) two older adults with Down Syndrome were in our no cycling (NC) intervention. Both exercise groups participated in the eight-week, supervised exercise protocol for at least three, 30-minute sessions per week. None of our results reached conventional levels of significance. However, the greatest improvements in reaction time occurred following the voluntary cycling (VC) intervention. Our results are discussed with respect to physiological differences in older adults with DS that may limit improvements in executive function following exercise. These physiological differences and limitations include muscle atrophy and reduced perceptions, age related latency between motor cortex activation and onset of muscle activity, as well as general age related slowing in reaction time. Although it may be difficult to improve executive function in older adults with DS, we suggest other benefits to exercise which include improving social communication, gross motor skills, and exercise perception. Future research should continue to investigate the effects of exercise on multiple areas in older adults with DS with the hopes of improving quality of life.

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2018-05

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Assisted Cycling Therapy Improves Self-Efficacy and Exercise Perception in Older Adults with Down Syndrome

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The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on self-efficacy and exercise perception in older adults with Down syndrome (DS) after a three times a week for 8 weeks intervention. Thirteen participants were

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on self-efficacy and exercise perception in older adults with Down syndrome (DS) after a three times a week for 8 weeks intervention. Thirteen participants were in the ACT group in which a motor assisted their cycling to be performed at least 30% faster than voluntary cycling (VC), 11 participants were in the voluntary cycling group and two participants were in the no cycling (NC) group. The results showed that both exercise groups (i.e., ACT and VC) improved in their self-efficacy after the 8 week intervention. In addition, exercise perception improved following ACT and not VC or NC. Our results are discussed with respect to their future implications for exercise in the DS population. It might be that the yielded results were due to differences in effort required by each intervention group as well as the neurotrophic factors that occur when muscle contractions create synaptic connections resulting in improvement in cognition and feelings of satisfaction. In the future, research should focus on the psychological factors such as social accountability and peer interaction as they relate to ACT and physical activity in person's with DS.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Assisted Cycling Therapy Improves Self-Efficacy in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

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This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on self-efficacy (SE) in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty-nine participants were randomly divided into a voluntary cycling group (VC) (i.e., self-selected cadence), an assisted cycling group (ACT) (i.e., at

This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on self-efficacy (SE) in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty-nine participants were randomly divided into a voluntary cycling group (VC) (i.e., self-selected cadence), an assisted cycling group (ACT) (i.e., at least 30% faster than self-selected cadence accomplished by a motor), or a no exercise group (NC). In each cycling intervention the participant completed 30 minute cycling sessions, three times per week for a total of eight weeks. Two subsets of the Physical Activity and Self Efficacy Survey were administered prior to cycling (i.e., pretest) and after the eight week intervention (i.e., post-test). The results were consistent with the hypothesis that self-efficacy would improve after ACT, however there was not improvement after the VC condition as hypothesized. It was also hypothesized that exercise perception would improve following the ACT intervention; execise perception showed a trend of improvement after ACT, but the data did not reach significance. Limitations include the wide variability of the DS population. This limitation is responsible for the variation in mental age seen in the intervention groups and could be responsible for the non-significance of the exercise perception data. To generalize our results for parents, therapists, teachers, etc., our recommendation is for persons with DS to participate in physical activity that is easy for them at first \u2014 a simplified sport or active game, assisted cycling, brisk walking \u2014 so that they have a positive experience with exercise. Showing individuals with DS that they can be proficient exercisers will likely improve their self-efficacy and motivate them to engage in more PA over time. In conclusion, eight weeks of moderate ACT exercise demonstrated a significant trend for improved self-efficacy in adolescents with DS.

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Date Created
2015-12

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The Effects of Acute Resistance Training (RT) and Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on Executive Functioning in Adults with Down Syndrome

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The influence of exercise on cognitive function is an important topic. This study examines the effects of different interventions on executive functioning, specifically on cognitive planning, which is a sub-category of executive function, in adults with Down syndrome. Research has

The influence of exercise on cognitive function is an important topic. This study examines the effects of different interventions on executive functioning, specifically on cognitive planning, which is a sub-category of executive function, in adults with Down syndrome. Research has shown that an acute bout of Assisted Cycle Therapy improved manual motor functioning, cognitive planning, and information processing in adolescents with Down syndrome but there is a lack of research when it comes to resistance training. Fourteen adults with Down syndrome completed acute sessions of Assisted Cycle Therapy, Resistance Training, and No Training. Cognitive planning was measured by the Tower of London test. The results show that cognitive planning can be improved following Assisted Cycle Therapy. An increase in cognitive planning was also present in the No Training group which may be a result of cognitive stimulating games that were played. In conclusion, this study suggests that teachers, therapists, etc. that work with adults with DS, should be sure to include a cognitive component in all activities.

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Created

Date Created
2021-05

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The Acute Effects of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) and Resistance Training on Self-Efficacy and Exercise Perception of Adults with Down syndrome

Description

This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on self-efficacy (SE) and exercise perception (EP) in adults with Down syndrome (DS). Thirteen participants attended four sessions: a baseline assessment, an Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) session, a resistance training

This study examines the effectiveness of two modes of exercise on self-efficacy (SE) and exercise perception (EP) in adults with Down syndrome (DS). Thirteen participants attended four sessions: a baseline assessment, an Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) session, a resistance training (RT) session, and a session of no training (NT). In the baseline assessment, 1-repetition max (1RM) measurements and voluntary pedal rate measurements were taken. In the cycling intervention, the participant completed 30 minutes of assisted cycling at 35 percent greater than their voluntary pedaling rate. In the resistance training session, 2 sets of 8-12 repetitions of the leg press, chest press, seated row, leg curl, shoulder press, and latissimus pulldown were performed. During the session of no training, participants played board games with student researchers for 35 minutes.Two subsets of the Physical Activity and Self Efficacy Survey were administered prior to each session (i.e., pretest) and after the intervention (i.e., post-test). The results were consistent with the hypothesis that ACT would lead to higher SE than RT or NT. However, ACT did not lead to higher EP than RT or NT as hypothesized. Additionally, it was hypothesized that RT would lead to higher SE and EP than NT, but the results did not support this. In conclusion, an acute session of ACT demonstrated a significant trend for improved self-efficacy in adults with DS.

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Created

Date Created
2020-05

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The Effect of Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on Fine Motor Control in Older Adults with Down syndrome

Description

Down syndrome (DS), which is determined by an extra 21 chromosome, is one of the most common developmental disabilities across all races and societies. One of the hallmarks of people with DS is that they have deficits in cognitive control

Down syndrome (DS), which is determined by an extra 21 chromosome, is one of the most common developmental disabilities across all races and societies. One of the hallmarks of people with DS is that they have deficits in cognitive control compared with their peers. In addition to broad cognitive impairment, persons with DS have physical characteristics which limit their ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) including deficits in fine motor control needed for handling money, self-care, eating, etc. As the relative prevalence of DS at birth lessens, and as life expectancy increases, DS will be most commonly represented amongst the elderly. Thus, intervention is needed in older adults with DS to improve their manual dexterity to sustain their independence and quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) compared to voluntary cycling (VC) and no cycling (NC) on fine motor control in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). Twenty-five older adults with DS were randomly assigned to one of three, 30 minute interventions, which took place over an eight-week period of time. 1) Thirteen older adults with DS completed the ACT intervention, which is stationary cycling with the assistance of a motor to maintain a cadence at least 35% greater than voluntary cycling. 2) Ten older adults with DS completed voluntary cycling (VC) and 3) Two older adults with DS were in our no cycling (NC) intervention. Fine motor control was measured with the Purdue Pegboard placing pegs in small holes in 30 s with the right hand alone, the left hand alone, and bimanually pre and post 8 weeks of intervention. Our results showed that bimanual and total score (i.e., right, left and bimanually) fine motor control improved following both ACT and VC cycling exercise but not NC. This suggests that 30 minutes of exercise over 8 weeks has some positive effects on manual dexterity. Different mechanisms for this improvement will be discussed. This information is important to the independence and quality of life of older adults with DS.

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Created

Date Created
2020-05