Matching Items (33)

149127-Thumbnail Image.png

2008 Beyond Conjecture: Learning About Ecosystem Management from the Glen Canyon Dam Experiment

Description

This brief article, written for a symposium on "Collaboration and the Colorado River," evaluates the U.S. Department of the Interior's Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program ("AMP"). The AMP has

This brief article, written for a symposium on "Collaboration and the Colorado River," evaluates the U.S. Department of the Interior's Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program ("AMP"). The AMP has been advanced as a pioneering collaborative and adaptive approach for both decreasing scientific uncertainty in support of regulatory decision-making and helping manage contentious resource disputes -- in this case, the increasingly thorny conflict over the Colorado River's finite natural resources. Though encouraging in some respects, the AMP serves as a valuable illustration of the flaws of existing regulatory processes purporting to incorporate collaboration and regulatory adaptation into the decision-making process. Born in the shadow of the law and improvised with too little thought as to its structure, the AMP demonstrates the need to attend to the design of the regulatory process and integrate mechanisms that compel systematic program evaluation and adaptation. As such, the AMP provides vital information on how future collaborative experiments might be modified to enhance their prospects of success.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2008-09-19

149142-Thumbnail Image.png

2010 Collaborative Planning and Adaptive Management in Glen Canyon: A Cautionary Tale

Description

The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP) has been identified as a model for natural resource management. We challenge that assertion, citing the lack of progress toward a long-term

The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP) has been identified as a model for natural resource management. We challenge that assertion, citing the lack of progress toward a long-term management plan for the dam, sustained extra-programmatic conflict, and a downriver ecology that is still in jeopardy, despite over ten years of meetings and an expensive research program. We have examined the primary and secondary sources available on the AMP’s design and operation in light of best practices identified in the literature on adaptive management and collaborative decision-making. We have identified six shortcomings: (1) an inadequate approach to identifying stakeholders; (2) a failure to provide clear goals and involve stakeholders in establishing the operating procedures that guide the collaborative process; (3) inappropriate use of professional neutrals and a failure to cultivate consensus; (4) a failure to establish and follow clear joint fact-finding procedures; (5) a failure to produce functional written agreements; and (6) a failure to manage the AMP adaptively and cultivate long-term problem-solving capacity.

Adaptive management can be an effective approach for addressing complex ecosystem-related processes like the operation of the Glen Canyon Dam, particularly in the face of substantial complexity, uncertainty, and political contentiousness. However, the Glen Canyon Dam AMP shows that a stated commitment to collaboration and adaptive management is insufficient. Effective management of natural resources can only be realized through careful attention to the collaborative design and implementation of appropriate problem-solving and adaptive-management procedures. It also requires the development of an appropriate organizational infrastructure that promotes stakeholder dialogue and agency learning. Though the experimental Glen Canyon Dam AMP is far from a success of collaborative adaptive management, the lessons from its shortcomings can foster more effective collaborative adaptive management in the future by Congress, federal agencies, and local and state authorities.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010-03-23

131407-Thumbnail Image.png

Codebook Development and a Text Analysis of the Effectiveness of Applied Collaborative Governance Strategies in Northern Arizona Forests

Description

There are two main sections of this thesis: Codebook development and case coding. Over the course of my two years of involvement with the collaborative governance lab with Drs. Schoon

There are two main sections of this thesis: Codebook development and case coding. Over the course of my two years of involvement with the collaborative governance lab with Drs. Schoon and Carr Kelman, I worked on helping to complete the coding manual built by the lab to test variables from the literature using case studies. My main deliverable was building a Qualtrics survey to collect case studies. Using this Qualtrics survey, the lab will be able to collect coded cases by distributing the survey link through research networks. My thesis project included building the interface for the survey, participating in testing the intercoder reliability of the codebook, and coding one case, the Four Forest Restoration Initiative (4FRI), to provide insight on the collaborative governance strategies of this collaboration. Coding 4FRI also acted as a preliminary test of the survey, helping to provide further information on how users of the codebook might interact with the survey, and allowing the lab to generate a test report of survey results.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

153210-Thumbnail Image.png

Measuring the sustainability of protected area-based tourism systems: a multimethod approach

Description

This research assessed the sustainability of protected area-based tourism systems in Nepal. The research was composed of three interrelated studies. The first study evaluated different approaches to protected area governance.

This research assessed the sustainability of protected area-based tourism systems in Nepal. The research was composed of three interrelated studies. The first study evaluated different approaches to protected area governance. This was a multiple-case study research involving three protected areas in Nepal: the Annapurna Conservation Area, Chitwan National Park, and the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area. Data were collected from various published and unpublished sources and supplemented with 55 face-to-face interviews. Results revealed that outcomes pertaining to biodiversity conservation, community livelihoods, and sustainable tourism vary across these protected areas. The study concluded that there is no institutional panacea for managing protected areas. The second study diagnosed the sustainability of tourism in two destination communities: Ghandruk and Sauraha, which are located within the Annapurna Conservation Area and Chitwan National Park, respectively. A systemic, holistic approach--the social-ecological system framework--was used to analyze the structures, processes, and outcomes of tourism development. Data collection involved 45 face-to-face semi-structured interviews and a review of published and unpublished documents. Results revealed that tourism has several positive and a few negative sociocultural, economic, and ecological outcomes in both communities. Overall, tourism has progressed towards sustainability in these destinations. The third study examined tourism stakeholders' perspectives regarding sustainable tourism outcomes in protected areas. The study compared the responses of residents with residents, as well as tourists with tourists, across the Annapurna Conservation Area and Chitwan National Park. Tourism sustainability was evaluated with six tourism impact subscales measuring negative and positive ecological, economic, and social impacts. Data were collected using the survey method. Respondents included 230 residents and 205 tourists in Annapurna, and 220 residents and 210 tourists in Chitwan. The findings revealed that the residents across these protected areas perceived positive and negative impacts differently, as did the tourists, suggesting that the form of tourism development affects the sustainability outcomes in protected areas. Overall, this research concluded that protected areas and tourism are intricately related, and sustainable management of a protected area-based tourism system requires a polycentric adaptive approach that warrants a broad participation of relevant stakeholders.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

152746-Thumbnail Image.png

A social-ecological evaluation of conservation markets for wildlife

Description

Many wildlife species that are essential to human livelihoods are targeted with the aim of extracting short-term benefits. Overexploitation, resulting from failed common-pool resource governance, has endangered the sustainability of

Many wildlife species that are essential to human livelihoods are targeted with the aim of extracting short-term benefits. Overexploitation, resulting from failed common-pool resource governance, has endangered the sustainability of large animal species, in particular. Rights-based approaches to wildlife conservation offer a possible path forward. In a wildlife market, property rights, or shares of an animal population, are allocated to resource users with interests in either harvest or preservation. Here, I apply the Social-Ecological Systems (SES) framework (Ostrom, 2009) to identify the conditions under which the ecological, social, and economic outcomes of a conservation market are improved compared to the status quo. I first consider three case studies (Bighorn sheep, white rhino, and Atlantic Bluefin tuna) all of which employ different market mechanisms. Based on the SES framework and these case studies, I then evaluate whether markets are a feasible management option for other socially and ecologically significant species, such as whales (and similar highly migratory species), and whether market instruments are capable of accommodating non-consumptive environmental values in natural resource decision making. My results suggest that spatial and temporal distribution, ethical and cultural relevance, and institutional histories compatible with commodification of wildlife are key SES subsystem variables. Successful conservation markets for cross-boundary marine species, such as whales, sea turtles, and sharks, will require intergovernmental agreements.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

152652-Thumbnail Image.png

Odocoileus hemionus (hemionus) on the North Rim of the Grand Canyon: a study of wildlife nutrition, metabolic response and interaction of the herd with the winter habitat on the north Kaibab Plateau

Description

A mule deer herd exists on the northern rim of the Grand Canyon, located on the North Kaibab Plateau. Historical references to this indigenous mule deer herd presented reports of

A mule deer herd exists on the northern rim of the Grand Canyon, located on the North Kaibab Plateau. Historical references to this indigenous mule deer herd presented reports of periodic population irruption and collapse. Partially funded by the Arizona Game and Fish Department and the Arizona Deer Association, examination of herd nutritional and metabolic status from the Fall 2005 - Spring 2008 was completed at the request of AzGFD and ADA. Habitat analysis included forage micro-histological, protein, and caloric content plus whole blood and plasma assays gauging herd metabolic response. Modelling was completed using best management practices wildlife energy demand calculations and principal component analysis. Forage quality analysis and modelling suggest a sufficient amount of nitrogen (N) available (DPI) to the deer for protein synthesis. Energy analysis (MEI) of forage suggest caloric deficiencies are widely prevalent on the north Kaibab plateau. Principal component analysis integrates forage and metabolic results providing a linear regression model describing the dynamics of forage utilization, energy availability, and forage nitrogen supply with metabolic demand and response of the mule deer herd. Most of the plasma and blood metabolic indicators suggest baseline values for the North Kaibab mule deer. Albumin values are in agreement with albumin values for mule deer in the Southwest. I suggest that the agreed values become a standard for mule deer in the Southwestern U.S. As excess dietary N is converted to a caloric resource, a continual state of under-nutrition exists for the deer upon entering the N. Kaibab winter range. The population is exceeding the nutritional resource plane that the winter habitat provides. Management recommendations include implementation of multiple small-scale habitat rehabilitation efforts over time, including invasive juniper (Juniperous osteosperma) and piñon (Pinus edulis) management, prescribed burning to control big sage (Artemesia tridentata) populations, and reseeding treated areas with a seed mix of native shrubs, grasses and forbs. I recommended that the population size of the North Kaibab deer herd is maintained at the current size with natural selection controlling growth, or the population be artificially reduced through increased hunting opportunities.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

156025-Thumbnail Image.png

Commons governance for robust systems: irrigation systems study under a multi-method approach

Description

Sustainability depends in part on our capacity to resolve dilemmas of the commons in Coupled Infrastructure Systems (CIS). Thus, we need to know more about how to incentivize individuals to

Sustainability depends in part on our capacity to resolve dilemmas of the commons in Coupled Infrastructure Systems (CIS). Thus, we need to know more about how to incentivize individuals to take collective action to manage shared resources. Moreover, given that we will experience new and more extreme weather events due to climate change, we need to learn how to increase the robustness of CIS to those shocks. This dissertation studies irrigation systems to contribute to the development of an empirically based theory of commons governance for robust systems. I first studied the eight institutional design principles (DPs) for long enduring systems of shared resources that the Nobel Prize winner Elinor Ostrom proposed in 1990. I performed a critical literature review of 64 studies that looked at the institutional configuration of CIS, and based on my findings I propose some modifications of their definitions and application in research and policy making. I then studied how the revisited design principles, when analyzed conjointly with biophysical and ethnographic characteristics of CISs, perform to avoid over-appropriation, poverty and critical conflicts among users of an irrigation system. After carrying out a meta-analysis of 28 cases around the world, I found that particular combinations of those variables related to population size, countries corruption, the condition of water storage, monitoring of users behavior, and involving users in the decision making process for the commons governance, were sufficient to obtain the desired outcomes. The two last studies were based on the Peruvian Piura Basin, a CIS that has been exposed to environmental shocks for decades. I used secondary and primary data to carry out a longitudinal study using as guidance the robustness framework, and different hypothesis from prominent collapse theories to draw potential explanations. I then developed a dynamic model that shows how at the current situation it is more effective to invest in rules enforcement than in the improvement of the physical infrastructure (e.g. reservoir). Finally, I explored different strategies to increase the robustness of the system, through enabling collective action in the Basin.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

157023-Thumbnail Image.png

From Design Principles to Principles of Design: Resolving Wicked Problems in Coupled Infrastructure Systems Involving Common-Pool Resources

Description

Design is a fundamental human activity through which we attempt to navigate and manipulate the world around us for our survival, pleasure, and benefit. As human society has evolved, so

Design is a fundamental human activity through which we attempt to navigate and manipulate the world around us for our survival, pleasure, and benefit. As human society has evolved, so too has the complexity and impact of our design activities on the environment. Now clearly intertwined as a complex social-ecological system at the global scale, we struggle in our ability to understand, design, implement, and manage solutions to complex global issues such as climate change, water scarcity, food security, and natural disasters. Some have asserted that this is because complex adaptive systems, like these, are moving targets that are only partially designed and partially emergent and self-organizing. Furthermore, these types of systems are difficult to understand and control due to the inherent dynamics of "wicked problems", such as: uncertainty, social dilemmas, inequities, and trade-offs involving multiple feedback loops that sometimes cause both the problems and their potential solutions to shift and evolve together. These problems do not, however, negate our collective need to effectively design, produce, and implement strategies that allow us to appropriate, distribute, manage and sustain the resources on which we depend. Design, however, is not well understood in the context of complex adaptive systems involving common-pool resources. In addition, the relationship between our attempts at control and performance at the system-level over time is not well understood either. This research contributes to our understanding of design in common-pool resource systems by using a multi-methods approach to investigate longitudinal data on an innovative participatory design intervention implemented in nineteen small-scale, farmer-managed irrigation systems in the Indrawati River Basin of Nepal over the last three decades. The intervention was intended as an experiment in using participatory planning, design and construction processes to increase food security and strengthen the self-sufficiency and self-governing capacity of resource user groups within the poorest district in Nepal. This work is the first time that theories of participatory design-processes have been empirically tested against longitudinal data on a number of small-scale, locally managed common-pool resource systems. It clarifies and helps to develop a theory of design in this setting for both scientific and practical purposes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

158665-Thumbnail Image.png

Evaluating the Social and Ecological Drivers of Invasive Plant Species Abundance in Sub-tropical Community Forests of Nepal

Description

Invasive plants harm the ecological properties of natural systems, human health,

and local economies. However, the negative impacts of invasive species are not always

immediately visible and may be disregarded

Invasive plants harm the ecological properties of natural systems, human health,

and local economies. However, the negative impacts of invasive species are not always

immediately visible and may be disregarded by local communities if social benefits of

control efforts are not clear. In this dissertation, I use a mixed-methods approach to

investigate the drivers of invasive plant distribution, potential financially feasible

management techniques to control invasion, and community forest user perceptions of

those techniques. In this work, I aim to incorporate the diverse perspectives of local

people and increase the long-term success of invasive species control activities in socio

economically vulnerable populations.

Integrating a spatially and temporally diverse data set, I explore the social and

ecological drivers of invasive plant abundance across 21 buffer zone community forests

in the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal. I evaluate to what extent forest user and

collective manager activities, the legacies of historic activities, and ecological properties

influence present-day invasive plant abundance. I built upon this study to identify areas

with critically high levels of invasion then initiated a three-year, community-based

management intervention to evaluate traditional and adaptive land management

approaches to control invasive plants. I found that both approaches reduced invasive

plant abundance relative to the surrounding, untreated forest. I then interviewed focus

groups to investigate their perceived efficacy of the various treatment types and found

that almost all forest users and managers preferred the adaptive approach over the

traditional management approach. Notably, forest users cited the importance of the

availability of forest resources and lack of harmful plants in the plots that had undergone

this method. Understanding how forest users relate to and experience invasive plants has

been relatively understudied but can influence forest user engagement in different

management approaches. For this reason, I performed in-depth ethnoecological

interviews to explore how forest users perceive, how they utilize, and to what extent they

value invasive plants. This mixed-methods approach contributes to a more holistic

understanding of the role that local people play in invasive plant management and

restoration activities.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

154191-Thumbnail Image.png

Vegetation community responses to juniper slash/burn and broadcast burn on a semi-desert tobosa grassland

Description

ABSTRACT

Modern management techniques to maintain rangelands and deter encroachment of juniper into grassland habitats currently includes fire prescription. Additionally, a large body of research has indicated that fire has multiple

ABSTRACT

Modern management techniques to maintain rangelands and deter encroachment of juniper into grassland habitats currently includes fire prescription. Additionally, a large body of research has indicated that fire has multiple benefits to grasslands resulting in increased diversity of flora and fauna. In the semi-arid grassland of the Agua Fria National Monument, fire treatments may be able to provide similar advantages. This study considers two methods of fire prescription on the Agua Fria National Monument within central Arizona: 1) Juniper thinning with pile burning; 2) Broadcast burning.

The Agua Fria National Monument upland ecosystem has limited research focusing on semi-arid grassland and juniper stand’s response to implemented treatments over time. The four year monitoring duration of this study aids in assessing the outcome of treatments and reaching the objectives of the management plan.

Vegetation in 981 quadrats was measured for species richness, cover, densities, height, and biomass during the fire prescription period from 2009 through 2013. The study was divided into two treatment types: 1) Juniper cutting and pile burn; 2) Broadcast burn areas in open grasslands.

Results of this study provide consistent examples of vegetative change and community movement towards positive response. Percent composition of overall vegetation is 5 – 30% with >50% of litter, bare ground and rock cover. Juniper sites have immediate consequences from tree thinning activities that may be beneficial to wildlife, particularly as connective corridors pronghorn antelope. Grass height was significantly reduced as well as forb density. Forbs that are highly responsive to environmental factors indicate an increase after the second year. Analysis results from grasslands indicated that cactus and unpalatable shrubs are reduced by fire but a return to pre-burn conditions occur by the third year after fire disturbance. Percent cover of perennial grasses has shown a slow increase. Wright’s buckwheat, a palatable shrub, has increased in density and height, indicating fire adaptations in the species. Species richness was reduced in the first year but increase in density continues into the third year after burn.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015