Matching Items (38)

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Changing Conceptions of the Israel-Palestine Situation: An Analysis of the Effects of Study Abroad

Description

An ever increasing number of university students partake in study abroad opportunities. Extant research has measured the effects of such experiences on the students who participate in them. Nonetheless, this

An ever increasing number of university students partake in study abroad opportunities. Extant research has measured the effects of such experiences on the students who participate in them. Nonetheless, this research tends to rely on comparative analyses between study abroad participants and control groups of students who do not travel abroad. Furthermore, data are often retrospectively collected and are thus subject to individual retention, which may entail significant limitations. This research attempts to subvert these limitations by using a pre- and post-test methodology coupled with qualitative analysis. The study consists of in-depth qualitative interviews with nineteen participants who partook in a semester abroad at the Rothberg International School at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In contrast to previous research which has attempted to ascertain general effects, the aim of this research is to measure the effects of study abroad on individuals’ conceptions and perspectives as they relate to the Israel-Palestine situation and the groups involved. The results indicate that the participant group which consisted of both Jewish and non-Jewish individuals did, in fact, demonstrate changes in their perceptions and perspectives at the conclusion of their study abroad experience. Specifically, the majority of individuals reported more critical views of the Israeli state and its governmental policies in addition to demonstrated increases in empathetic sentiment towards Palestinian individuals. The results are discussed in relation to future research which perhaps could be utilized to further promote perception change and subversion of dominant narratives by fostering intergroup openness and interaction.

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  • 2019-05

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How do perceptions of nutrition influence student nutritional health behavior and nutritional health seeking behavior?

Description

The transition from high school to college is, for many, a drastic change in lifestyle, social networks, and dietary choices. The prevalence of obesity in college students has been steadily

The transition from high school to college is, for many, a drastic change in lifestyle, social networks, and dietary choices. The prevalence of obesity in college students has been steadily increasing. Freshmen weight gains have been associated with a decrease in fruits and vegetables and an increase in unhealthy items such as desserts, alcohol, and late night snacking after dinner. A survey of college students was constructed to gauge students' perceptions of nutrition how these perceptions influenced dietary practices and behaviors. Survey results indicated that awareness of nutrition and health does not translate to dietary practices, aligning with results from previous studies. Several sex differences were noted in regards to dietary choices and perceptions, knowledge seeking behavior, and sources of information. While there were some similarities, it is clear from the results obtained that men and women have different approaches and thoughts with regard to nutrition. The results showed that college students who actively seek our nutritional information are more likely to do so in the form of social media or Internet sources. This study could be useful for those planning on conducting college-based nutritional programs in that the results indicate patterns and trends that should be taken into consideration in order for a successful nutrition intervention

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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The Influence of the ""War on Cancer"" Metaphor on Illness Perception and Treatment Decision

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The purpose of this thesis study was to examine whether the "war on cancer" metaphor influences cancer perception and treatment decision. A total of 249 undergraduates (152 females) from a

The purpose of this thesis study was to examine whether the "war on cancer" metaphor influences cancer perception and treatment decision. A total of 249 undergraduates (152 females) from a large southwestern university participated in an online survey experiment and were either randomly assigned to the control condition (N=123) or to the war prime condition (N=126). Participants in the control condition did not receive the metaphor manipulation while participants in the war prime condition received the subtle "war on cancer" metaphor prime. After the prime was given, participants read a scenario, answered questions related to the situation, and responded to demographic questions. The results suggested that, compared to participants in the no-prime condition, participants exposed to the war metaphor were more likely to (a) view melanoma as an acute disease, (b) choose chemotherapy over molecular tests, and (c) prefer more aggressive treatment. These findings illustrated the unintended consequences of the "war on cancer" slogan. The results were encouraging and in the predicted direction, but the effect size was small. The discussion section described possible future directions for research.

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  • 2015-05

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The Effect of Number of Pieces of Food on Perceptions of Quantity and Food Intake

Description

Previously we found that subjects ate less from a four-piece bagel than from the same bagel served whole. Here, we determined if subjects differed in their perception of the amount

Previously we found that subjects ate less from a four-piece bagel than from the same bagel served whole. Here, we determined if subjects differed in their perception of the amount of food based on the number of pieces of food served and measured the effects of these judgments on the amount of food consumed. A total of 213 (140 male, 73 female) undergraduate students with a mean age of 19 years participated in this study. Subjects were shown a whole food and the same food cut into pieces and asked which they perceived to be larger either before or after consuming that food, or not asked at all. We found that subjects ate less from a whole bagel than from a four-piece bagel. Furthermore, significantly more subjects perceived the whole bagel to be more food when asked this question after consumption of the bagel than before. People may be more familiar with the amount of satiation expected from a whole bagel than the four-piece bagel and this perceptual bias may be influenced by recent exposure to food, which ultimately may affect food intake.

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  • 2015-05

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A Personal and Neuropsychological Evaluation of Synesthetic Experience

Description

Synesthesia is a psychological phenomenon in which the stimulation of one sensory modality brings about a response from at least one other modality. There has now been about two centuries

Synesthesia is a psychological phenomenon in which the stimulation of one sensory modality brings about a response from at least one other modality. There has now been about two centuries of official synesthesia research, yet the current era of study, about the 2000s on, has proven invaluable to our further understanding of how synesthesia works in our perceptive world. I myself have two forms of synesthesia: color-grapheme and lexical-gustatory. In this paper, I look back on my personal experience with synesthesia and review its history and its operational definitions and theories. I then aim to perform a small case study on my synesthesia, using current research to evaluate my observations. I believe synesthesia has the ability to tell us much about perception, subjectivity, language, and consciousness, and I investigate the potential implications that studying synesthesia could have for some of these fields.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Perception of American Pit Bull Terriers

Description

Behavior traits were examined in an observed experiment with the presentation of an American Pit Bull Terrier. The experiment was conducted at two locations (Wal Mart, Pet Smart) with searching

Behavior traits were examined in an observed experiment with the presentation of an American Pit Bull Terrier. The experiment was conducted at two locations (Wal Mart, Pet Smart) with searching for behavior traits (positive, negative) with an American Pit Bull Terrier present. In contrast to the hypothesis, there was more positive behavior traits than negative behavior traits. Together, these findings suggest that the presentation of an American Pit Bull Terrier has a more positive outlook on the breed rather than negative. Similar studies should be conducted to change the legislation in regard of "Pit Bulls" that cause discrimination against the breed.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Law Enforcement Use of Force: An Analysis of the Literature in Criminal Justice and Psychology

Description

Highly publicized cases involving citizen fatalities due to police use of force raise questions about perceptions of danger. Arrest-related deaths due to weapons, accidental injuries, and natural causes remain high

Highly publicized cases involving citizen fatalities due to police use of force raise questions about perceptions of danger. Arrest-related deaths due to weapons, accidental injuries, and natural causes remain high year after year. Communities are greatly affected, and mistrust with the police continues to increase when these situations happen. There seem to be inaccurate perceptions that may stem from implicit associations, stereotypes, and social learning. These psychological concepts may provide theoretical explanations of how decisions are made when police officers are faced with danger. Some elements of this decision-making process may include suspect characteristics, officer experience, and police sub-culture. In this review, race/ethnicity and socio-economic status are examined as factors that contribute to police use of force. Disparities in use of force data often involve young, Black males living in low-income neighborhoods. The stereotype that this group is more dangerous than others stems from underlying prejudices and previous situations where Black people are targeted more in certain areas. Training, education, and community outreach programs can assist in mending relations between police and affected communities. Acknowledging these inaccurate perceptions, making the adjustments to police training and community relations, and being open to exploration in future research of other minority groups will assist in eliminating prejudices and creating better connections between law enforcement and the community.

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  • 2017-05

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The effect of scale and familiarity on the perception of music "dissonance"

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Music is part of cultures all over the world and is entrenched in our daily lives, and yet little is known about the neural pathways responsible for how we perceive

Music is part of cultures all over the world and is entrenched in our daily lives, and yet little is known about the neural pathways responsible for how we perceive music. The property of "dissonance" is central to our understanding of the emotional meaning in music, and this study is a preliminary step in understanding how this property of music is perceived. Twenty-four participants with normal hearing listened to melodies and ranked their degrees of dissonance. Melodies that are categorized as "dissonant" according to Western music theory were ranked as more "dissonant" to a significant degree across the 9 conditions (3 conditions of scale: Major, Neapolitan Minor, and Oriental; 3 conditions of wrong notes: no wrong notes, diatonic wrong notes, and non-diatonic wrong notes). As expected, the familiar Major scale was identified as more consonant across all wrong note conditions than the other scales. Notably, a significant interaction was found, with diatonic and non-diatonic notes not perceived differently in both of the unfamiliar scales, Neapolitan and Oriental. This study suggests that the context of musical scale does influence how we create expectations of music and perceive dissonance. Future studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms by which scales drive these expectations.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Student Perception of the Accounting Profession Compared to the Reality of Audit Professionals

Description

It appears that students have an overall negative perception of accountants due to the negative connotations associated with the profession. The overarching stereotype of an accountant appears to be one

It appears that students have an overall negative perception of accountants due to the negative connotations associated with the profession. The overarching stereotype of an accountant appears to be one of a professional that lacks soft skills but is known to excel at hard skills. After personally working in audit, I do not believe auditors lack the soft skills that stereotypes portray but, in fact, believe they excel at these along with hard skills. It is for this reason that I surveyed undergraduate students at Arizona State University to understand their perceptions of the accounting profession. I also surveyed audit professionals at both EY LLP and the Arizona State Office of the Auditor General to understand the importance of specific traits that a professional auditor would exhibit in their daily job function. After conducting a statistical analysis, I found that the only trait where there was a statistically significant deviation between students' perceptions and professional auditors' realities was with the importance of communication in the profession. Students, on average, rated the importance of communication lower than professional auditors rated this. I also found that there was only a statistically significant deviation in the importance of creativity and volunteerism in students' future industries compared to the importance of these traits in audit, and that there were 10 other traits that did not have a statistically significant deviation. Although this is the case, students, on average, said they would not be willing to take a job in the accounting profession. Yet, it was found that students, on average, have an overall positive opinion about the accounting profession. Although the results disagree in some regards to my hypotheses, this research shows that the importance of communication should be emphasized more in introductory accounting courses. It also can be used to inform students that there is little difference in the importance of specific traits they will exhibit in their future jobs compared to the importance of those in audit.

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  • 2016-12

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Public Library Programming for Families with Young Children: Parent Perceptions of the Fun with Math & Science Program

Description

There is a serious need for high quality early childhood programming in the state of Arizona. More than half of children under the age of six are living below the

There is a serious need for high quality early childhood programming in the state of Arizona. More than half of children under the age of six are living below the poverty line, and Arizona is ranked 47th out of 50 states and the District of Columbia in education (Tirozzi, 2014). The Scottsdale Public Library (SPL) system is fighting to combat this issue by providing free, interactive parent-child classes that are aligned with the Arizona Early Learning Standards in order to support school readiness; additionally, these programs are also aligned with the Arizona School Readiness Framework. This thesis project focuses on the Fun with Math & Science (FMS) program, one of three Knowing and Growing programs, implemented across six Scottsdale Public Library locations. This program is an extremely interactive, parent-child class that aims to improve children's basic science and math skills. The purpose of this study is to understand the population of families attending FMS at SPL, as well as parent perceptions of the programming and its impact on their family. This study also focuses on a subset of families who participated in this research at two of the give Scottsdale Public Libraries. Interviews with parents were conducted and provide insightful information about parent and child experiences participating in the program at the library.

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  • 2016-05