Matching Items (15)

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Government Subsidization, Public Assistance, and the Socioeconomics of Type-Two Diabetes

Description

Type-two diabetes represents a pathological state of insulin resistance due to systemic, complex interactions between numerous identified and linked metabolic genes. According to current medical literature, the genetic predisposition to

Type-two diabetes represents a pathological state of insulin resistance due to systemic, complex interactions between numerous identified and linked metabolic genes. According to current medical literature, the genetic predisposition to type-two diabetes, coupled with environmental risk-factors, such as poverty and poor dietary habits, further exacerbate the risk of developing the disease. My research investigated the hypothesis that government poverty programs are associated with the surge in type-two diabetes among people of low socioeconomic status. My research suggests that government subsidies for the Commodity Supplemental Food Program, Women Infants and Children, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, National School Lunch Program, and corn production influence individual dietary choices that lead to consumption of excessive amounts of refined sugars and fats and a surge in the prevalence of obesity, known risk-factors for developing type-two diabetes. These policies and programs may directly or indirectly promote and incentivize diets with excessive refined sugars and fats. As such, current programs paradoxically contradict current medical literature and direct individual choices that have increased the known risk-factors for developing type-two diabetes. Future efforts should reassess poverty and agricultural subsidy programs in relation to medical recommendations for diabetes prevention. The enormous societal and economic burden associated with type-two diabetes calls for further research to assess the efficacy of current public policy and the allocation of government funds.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Combined Impact of Aerobic Exercise and Music on Glycemic Control and Anxiety Symptoms in Type 2 Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Men and Women

Description

ABSTRACT
Background: Although aerobic exercise has been shown to improve the glycemic control of individuals with type 2 diabetes, a simple and effective approach to manage post-meal glycemic control remains

ABSTRACT
Background: Although aerobic exercise has been shown to improve the glycemic control of individuals with type 2 diabetes, a simple and effective approach to manage post-meal glycemic control remains less clear.
Purpose: This study examined the effect of 15-minute of post-meal aerobic exercise on the glycemic control and anxiety scores as compared with control trials in participants with and without type 2 diabetes.
Methods: Six adults volunteered to participate in the study (3 adults with type 2 diabetes, age = 44.33 ± 7.71; and 3 adults without type 2 diabetes, age = 31.67 ± 15.76). All participants received aerobic exercise intervention and control treatments. The aerobic exercise treatment was listening to upbeat music and dancing for 15-minutes, whereas the control participants ingested 1 gram of vitamin C 30-minutes post-meal. Glucose levels were measured at baseline, and the 10, and 15-minute mark in both exercise intervention and control conditions 30-minutes post-meal.
Results: There was a significant interaction between treatment and time on the change in glucose levels (P<0.001). There was a significant mean difference in change in glucose levels between exercise intervention and control conditions (P = 0.002). Change in glucose levels in exercise intervention was significantly decreased at 10-minute (-18 ± 4.35 vs. 1.67 ± 4.34, P = 0.009) and 15-minute (-24 ± 4.88 vs. 5.67 ± 4.88, P = 0.001) compared with control condition. Although there were no statistical differences in state anxiety scores between pre- and post-exercise intervention (p=0.42), there was a significant trend in the reduction of state anxiety scores in diabetic participants, as compared with healthy participants, after 15-minute exercise intervention (-8 vs. -1).
Conclusion: Aerobic exercise for 15-minute by dancing to music after a meal is an effective approach to controlling the blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic and healthy persons.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Changes in miRNA species following lifestyle intervention among obese Latino youth with prediabetes

Description

Obesity and related health disparities including type 2 diabetes disproportionately impact Latino youth. These health disparities may be the result of gene-environment interactions, but limited research has examined these interactions

Obesity and related health disparities including type 2 diabetes disproportionately impact Latino youth. These health disparities may be the result of gene-environment interactions, but limited research has examined these interactions in the pediatric age group. Lifestyle intervention is the cornerstone for preventing diabetes among high-risk populations and epigenetic and genetic factors may help explain the biological mechanisms underlying diabetes risk reduction following lifestyle changes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA’s that regulate gene expression and have emerged as potential biomarkers for predicting type 2 diabetes risk in adults but have yet to be applied to youth. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify changes in miRNA expression among Latino youth with prediabetes (4 female/2 male, ages 14-16, BMI percentile 99 ±.2) who participated in a 12-week lifestyle intervention focused on increasing physical activity and improving nutrition-related behaviors.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Reviewing the Effects of Misfolded Tau Proteins in Alzheimer’s Disease

Description

Current research attempts to address the increasing prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by
finding causes and treatments to revert misfolded proteins and ceasing progression due to
Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The

Current research attempts to address the increasing prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by
finding causes and treatments to revert misfolded proteins and ceasing progression due to
Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The goal of this review is to highlight the contribution of misfolded Tau
protein to AD through neurofibrillary tangles solely, and in conjunction with known causative
agents such as 𝛽-amyloid protein. Finally, it interprets the association of Tau with DM and its
effects on the progression of AD.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Effects of Lifestyle Intervention on Cardiorespiratory Fitness Among Latino Youth with Obesity and Prediabetes

Description

Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness in Latino youth with obesity and prediabetes. <br/>Methods: Participants (n=50) in this

Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness in Latino youth with obesity and prediabetes. <br/>Methods: Participants (n=50) in this study were taken from a larger randomized controlled trial (n=180, BMI ≥ 95th percentile). Youth participated in a 6-month lifestyle intervention that included physical activity (60 minutes, 3x/week) and nutrition and wellness classes (60 minutes, 1x/week) delivered to families at the Lincoln Family YMCA in Downtown Phoenix. The primary outcome was cardiorespiratory fitness measured at baseline and post-intervention.<br/>Results: The mean BMI for the sample was 33.17 ± 4.54 kg/m2, which put the participants in the 98.4th percentile. At baseline, the mean VO2max was 2737.02 ± 488.89 mL/min. The mean relative VO2max was 30.65 ± 3.87 mL/kg/min. VO2max values significantly increased from baseline to post-intervention (2737.022 ± 483.977 mL/min vs 2932.654 ± 96.062 mL/min, p<0.001). <br/>Conclusion: Culturally-grounded, family-focused lifestyle interventions are a promising approach for improving cardiorespiratory fitness in high-risk youth at risk for diabetes.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

Feeding Patients with Plants: Plant-Based Diets in Medical Nutrition Therapy

Description

Chronic diseases place a financial burden on the United States and claim the lives of nearly 2 million Americans every year. Among the chronic diseases that plague American people, type

Chronic diseases place a financial burden on the United States and claim the lives of nearly 2 million Americans every year. Among the chronic diseases that plague American people, type 2 diabetes is particularly prevalent and injurious. Thus, action is warranted to improve prevention and management of this disease. Nutrition plays a significant role in prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases. Registered dietitians, as nutrition experts, are qualified to use medical nutrition therapy as a method of prevention and treatment for chronic diseases using a nutritional approach. However, there is no consensus as to which eating pattern is the most efficacious. The aim of this review of research was to examine how plant-based eating patterns impact chronic disease conditions, with an emphasis on type 2 diabetes mellitus, as compared to omnivorous eating patterns. A literature search was conducted through the ASU Library, PubMed, and CINAHL using terms related to plant-based diets and chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. The results revealed that a plant-based eating pattern may be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. Specifically, adults who have type 2 diabetes and consume a plant-based diet may exhibit enhanced glycemic control as evidenced by less insulin resistance, increased incretin and insulin secretion, greater insulin sensitivity, and improved HbA1c levels. There is sufficient evidence for registered dietitians to recommend a plant-based approach to patients with type 2 diabetes who would like to achieve enhanced glycemic control.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Hyperinsulinemia

Description

Concurrent with the epidemic of childhood obesity (17% of adolescents), an unprecedented world-wide increase in the prevalence of several adiposity-related complications (including fatty liver disease (hepatic steatosis), type 2 diabetes

Concurrent with the epidemic of childhood obesity (17% of adolescents), an unprecedented world-wide increase in the prevalence of several adiposity-related complications (including fatty liver disease (hepatic steatosis), type 2 diabetes and early cardiovascular disorders) in this age group, has emerged. Two principle environmental variables play an essential role in the development and maintenance of obesity and in disturbing glucose homeostasis: a lack of physical exercise and overnutrition, i.e., high carbohydrate and high fat diets (HFD). It was our laboratory's intention to develop a rodent model to examine whether the metabolic instability observed in human pubertal children is also present in maturing rats and whether a HFD during this maturational period enhances adipose-related complications with or without an increase in body weight. We hypothesized that maturing Sprague-Dawley rats would reveal a profile of metabolic disturbances and that a disruption of the hyperbolic arrangement between insulin sensitivity and insulin release would be evident (statistically significant changes in fasting hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and insulin release) indicating a high risk environment for future cardiometabolic diseases. It was observed that pubertal rats are metabolically impaired and that a HFD substantially enhances metabolic deficits with marked disturbance in insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemia). Additionally, substantial lipogenesis was observed in visceral and liver tissue, potentially as a result of hyperinsulinemia. Both phenotypes of maturing rats exposed to a HFD (obesity prone and obesity resistant) demonstrated "metabolic obesity" regardless of physical phenotype. These outcomes have relevance in the context of public health, particularly if lipocentricity is viewed as an essential element in the challenge of preventing and/or treating perturbations to the metabolic health of pubertal children.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Improving Weight-Specific Quality of Life in Obese Latino Youth: Is Weight Loss Necessary?

Description

Background:
Pediatric obesity is associated with lower quality of life (QOL) and populations with high obesity rates, such as Latinos, are especially vulnerable. We examined the effects of a

Background:
Pediatric obesity is associated with lower quality of life (QOL) and populations with high obesity rates, such as Latinos, are especially vulnerable. We examined the effects of a 12-week diabetes prevention program on changes in weight-specific QOL in Latino youth.
Method:
Fifteen obese Latino adolescents (BMI%=96.3±1.1;age=15.0±1.0) completed a 12-week intervention. Youth completed weight-specific QOL measures at baseline, post intervention, and 1-year follow-up. For comparison purposes, intervention youth were matched for age and gender with lean controls.
Results:
At baseline, obese youth exhibited significantly lower weight-specific QOL compared with lean youth (70.8±5.4 to 91.2±2.2, p<0.005). The intervention did not significantly impact weight (90.6±6.8 to 89.9±7.2kg, p=0.44). However, significant increases in weight-specific QOL were observed (70.8±20.9 to 86.2±16.9, p<0.001). Post-intervention QOL scores were no longer significantly different than lean controls (P=0.692). Data from nine youth who returned for follow-up indicated that increases in weight-specific QOL were maintained over time (90.5±4.5 to 85.8±5.9, p=0.74).
Conclusion:
These results indicate that a community-based diabetes prevention program can result in sustained improvements in weight-specific QOL among obese Latino youth. Lifestyle interventions that focus on social interaction and physical activity, rather than weight-loss per se, may help improve the psychosocial health of obese Latino youth.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Next-Generation Sequencing for DNA Methylation Profiling in Blood and Skeletal Muscle

Description

DNA methylation, a subset of epigenetics, has been found to be a significant marker associated with variations in gene expression and activity across the entire human genome. As of now,

DNA methylation, a subset of epigenetics, has been found to be a significant marker associated with variations in gene expression and activity across the entire human genome. As of now, however, there is little to no information about how DNA methylation varies between different tissues inside a singular person's body. By using research data from a preliminary study of lean and obese clinical subjects, this study attempts to put together a profile of the differences in DNA methylation that can be observed between two particular body tissues from this subject group: blood and skeletal muscle. This study allows us to start describing the changes that occur at the epigenetic level that influence how differently these two tissues operate, along with seeing how these tissues change between individuals of different weight classes, especially in the context of the development of symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes.

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Agent

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Date Created
  • 2013-12

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Gene Expression Profiling in Skeletal Muscle of Patients at Risk for NODAT

Description

New-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation (NODAT) occurs in 20% of kidney transplant patients. In 5 patients who are at risk for new-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation, skeletal muscle gene expression

New-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation (NODAT) occurs in 20% of kidney transplant patients. In 5 patients who are at risk for new-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation, skeletal muscle gene expression profiling was performed both before and after kidney transplant. The differences in gene expression before and after transplant were compared in order to identify specific genes that could be linked to developing NODAT. These findings could open new avenues for future research.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05