Matching Items (17)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease affecting more than ten percent of the U.S. adults. Approximately 50 percent of people with diabetes fail to achieve glycemic targets of A1C levels below seven percent. Poor glycemic control disproportionately affects minority populations such as Korean Americans (KAs). Successful diabetes self-management requires a comprehensive approach that takes into account depression, sleep, and acculturation to achieve good glycemic control. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to: 1) describe the levels of glycemic control, depressive symptoms, sleep quality and duration, and acculturation; 2) examine an association of depressive symptoms with glycemic control; 3) identify mediational roles of sleep quality and sleep duration of less than 6 hours between depressive symptoms and glycemic control; and 4) explore a moderation role of acculturation between depressive symptoms and glycemic control in KAs with T2DM. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive correlational study. A total of 119 first generation KAs with T2DM were recruited from Korean communities in Arizona. A1C levels, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation scale, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and the Berlin Questionnaire were measured. Descriptive statistics, multiple regression analyses, path analyses, and the Sobel tests were conducted for data analyses of this study. Poor glycemic control (A1C ≥ 7 %), high depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16), poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5), and short sleep duration (< 6 hours) were prevalent among KAs with T2DM. The mean score of acculturation (2.18) indicated low acculturation to Western culture. Depressive symptoms were revealed as a significant independent predictor of glycemic control. Physical activity was negatively associated with glycemic control, while cultural identity was positively related to glycemic control. Sleep quality and sleep duration of less than 6 hours did not mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and glycemic control. Acculturation did not moderate the association between depressive symptoms and glycemic control. Diabetes self-management interventions of a comprehensive approach that considers depressive symptoms, sleep problems, and cultural differences in minority populations with T2DM are needed.
Curcumin is an active ingredient of Curcuma longa (Turmeric) and is studied extensively for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-cancer properties. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of turmeric on blood glucose and plasma insulin levels. The study utilized a placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over design with participants serving as their own control. Eight glucose tolerant healthy participants completed the full study. Three-weeks washout period was kept in between six-weeks. Prior to the test meal day, participants were asked to eat a bagel with their evening dinner. During the day of the test meal, participants reported to the test site in a rested and fasted state. Participants completed mashed potato meal tests with 500 mg of turmeric powder or placebo mixed in water, followed by 3 weeks of 500 mg turmeric or placebo supplement ingestion at home. During this visit blood glucose finger picks were obtained at fasting, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min post-meal. Blood plasma insulin at fasting and at 30 min after the test meal were also obtained. During week 4, participants reported to the test site in a rested and fasted state where fasting blood glucose finger pricks and blood plasma insulin were measured. During week 5 to 7, participants were given a washout time-period. During week 8, entire process from week 1 to 4 was repeated by interchanging the groups. Compared to placebo, reduction in postprandial blood glucose and insulin response were non-significant after ingestion of turmeric powder. Taking turmeric for 3 weeks had no change in blood glucose and insulin levels. However, taking turmeric powder supplements for 3 weeks, showed a 4.4% reduction in blood glucose. Change in insulin at 30 min were compared with baseline insulin level showing no significant change between placebo and turmeric group. Fasting insulin after 3-weeks consumption of turmeric did not show any significant change, but showed a larger effect size (0.08). Future research is essential to examine the turmeric powder supplement benefits over a long period of time in healthy adults and whether it is beneficial in preventing the occurrence of type 2 diabetes.
According to the ADA (American Diabetes Association), diabetes mellitus is one of the chronic diseases with the highest mortality rate. In the US, 25 million are known diabetics, which may double in the next decade, and another seven million are undiagnosed. Among these patients, older adults are a very special group with varying physical capabilities, cognitive functions and life expectancies. Because they run an increased risk for geriatric conditions, Type 2 diabetes treatments for them must be both realistic and systematic. In fact, some researchers have explored older adults’ experiences of diabetes, and how they manage their diabetes with new technological devices. However, little research has focused on their emotional experiences of medical treatment technology, such as mobile applications, tablets, and websites for geriatric diabetes. This study will address both elderly people's experiences and reactions to devices and their children's awareness of diabetes. It aims to find out how to improve the diabetes treatment and create a systematic diabetes mobile application that combines self-initiated and assisted care together.
Background: Hispanic women are at high risk for Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), in part due to their high prevalence of obesity, which may influence the development of insulin resistance and disease onset. Unhealthy eating contributes to T2D risk. Dietary patterns are the combination of total foods and beverages among individual’s over time, but there is limited information regarding its role on T2D risk factors among Hispanic women. Objective: To identify a posteriori dietary patterns and their associations with diabetes risk factors (age, BMI, abdominal obesity, elevated fasting blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1c) among overweight/obese Hispanic women. Design: Cross-sectional dietary data were collected among 191 women with or at risk for T2D using the Southwestern Food Frequency Questionnaire capturing the prior three months of intake. Dietary patterns were derived using exploratory factor analysis. Regression scores were used to explore associations between dietary patterns and diabetes risk factors. Results: The patterns derived were: 1) “sugar and fat-laden”, with high loads of sweets, drinks, pastries, and fats; 2) “plant foods and fish”, with high loads of vegetables, fruits, fish, and beans; 3) “soups and starchy dishes”, with high loads of soups, starchy foods, and mixed dishes; 4) “meats and snacks”, with high loads of red meat, salty snacks, and condiments; 5) “beans and grains”, with high loads of beans and seeds, whole-wheat and refined grain foods, fish, and alcohol; and 6) “eggs and dairy”, with high loads of eggs, dairy, and fats. The “sugar and fat-laden” and “meats and snacks” patterns were negatively associated with age (r= -0.230, p= 0.001 and r= -0.298, p<0.001, respectively). Scores for “plant foods and fish” were associated with fasting blood glucose (r= 0.152, p= 0.037). There were no other statistically significant relationships between the dietary patterns and risk factors for T2D. Conclusions: A variety of patterns with healthy and unhealthy traits among Hispanic women were observed. Being younger may play an important role in adhering to a dietary pattern rich in sugary and high-fat foods and highlights the importance of assessing dietary patterns among young women to early identify dietary traits detrimental for their health.
This study examined the effect of consuming pinto, black, and dark red kidney beans with white rice in comparison to a white rice only control meal on the glycemic response of adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). These bean and rice combinations are part of many traditional diets. Seventeen subjects with T2D treated by diet and/or metformin were randomly assigned to 4 treatments: white rice (control), pinto beans/rice, black beans/rice, and dark red kidney beans/rice. All treatments were portioned by weight and matched for available carbohydrate content of ∼ 50 grams. Capillary whole blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 minutes posttreatment and assessed for glucose concentration using the YSI Stat Plus Analyzer. Net change glucose responses were significantly lower for the pinto, black, and dark red kidney bean and rice meals than control at 90, 120 and 150 minutes posttreatment (P < 0.05). Incremental area under the curve (iAUC) values were also significantly reduced for the bean/rice meals containing pinto (P < 0.01) and black beans (P < 0.05) in contrast to the rice control. Results suggest that the combination of whole beans and rice may be beneficial to those with T2D to assist with blood glucose management.
Fish oil has been extensively researched for its protective effects on cognition. More recently, anthocyanins have also gained the attention of the medical community for their potential cognitive benefits. Maqui berries are one of the richest sources of anthocyanins known to science. While there are many randomized controlled trials (RCT) investigating the effects of fish oil and/or anthocyanins on cognition in various populations, there are no RCT that exclusively investigate the cognitive effects of these compounds in adults with Type 2 Diabetes (DM2). The purpose of this double-blinded, placebo-controlled RCT was to investigate the cognitive effects of maqui berry extract and fish oil supplements in adults with DM2 over the course of eight weeks. Adults with DM2 (n=29) were recruited by the researchers and randomized to either Group A or Group B. Because the study is ongoing, it is unknown which group received the intervention. The study used the Stroop Test and Trail Making Test (TMT) to measure cognition at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Anthropometrics, blood glucose, and hemoglobin A1C were also taken at these time points. Sixteen female participants were included in the final analysis. Neither group showed significant improvements in the cognitive tests. However, in Group A, the effect sizes were large for the change in Trail-Making Test A (0.167), Trail Making Test B (0.261), and Trail Making Test B minus A (0.296) scores. In Group A, the change in Trail Making Test B minus A scores between baseline and week 4, and between baseline and week 8 was significant (p=0.053) and produced a large effect size (0.258). The results suggest that fish oil and maqui berry extract may improve cognition in adults with DM2, but further studies with larger sample sizes are needed.
Pediatric obesity is associated with lower quality of life (QOL) and populations with high obesity rates, such as Latinos, are especially vulnerable. We examined the effects of a 12-week diabetes prevention program on changes in weight-specific QOL in Latino youth.
Fifteen obese Latino adolescents (BMI%=96.3±1.1;age=15.0±1.0) completed a 12-week intervention. Youth completed weight-specific QOL measures at baseline, post intervention, and 1-year follow-up. For comparison purposes, intervention youth were matched for age and gender with lean controls.
At baseline, obese youth exhibited significantly lower weight-specific QOL compared with lean youth (70.8±5.4 to 91.2±2.2, p<0.005). The intervention did not significantly impact weight (90.6±6.8 to 89.9±7.2kg, p=0.44). However, significant increases in weight-specific QOL were observed (70.8±20.9 to 86.2±16.9, p<0.001). Post-intervention QOL scores were no longer significantly different than lean controls (P=0.692). Data from nine youth who returned for follow-up indicated that increases in weight-specific QOL were maintained over time (90.5±4.5 to 85.8±5.9, p=0.74).
These results indicate that a community-based diabetes prevention program can result in sustained improvements in weight-specific QOL among obese Latino youth. Lifestyle interventions that focus on social interaction and physical activity, rather than weight-loss per se, may help improve the psychosocial health of obese Latino youth.
Concurrent with the epidemic of childhood obesity (17% of adolescents), an unprecedented world-wide increase in the prevalence of several adiposity-related complications (including fatty liver disease (hepatic steatosis), type 2 diabetes and early cardiovascular disorders) in this age group, has emerged. Two principle environmental variables play an essential role in the development and maintenance of obesity and in disturbing glucose homeostasis: a lack of physical exercise and overnutrition, i.e., high carbohydrate and high fat diets (HFD). It was our laboratory's intention to develop a rodent model to examine whether the metabolic instability observed in human pubertal children is also present in maturing rats and whether a HFD during this maturational period enhances adipose-related complications with or without an increase in body weight. We hypothesized that maturing Sprague-Dawley rats would reveal a profile of metabolic disturbances and that a disruption of the hyperbolic arrangement between insulin sensitivity and insulin release would be evident (statistically significant changes in fasting hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and insulin release) indicating a high risk environment for future cardiometabolic diseases. It was observed that pubertal rats are metabolically impaired and that a HFD substantially enhances metabolic deficits with marked disturbance in insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemia). Additionally, substantial lipogenesis was observed in visceral and liver tissue, potentially as a result of hyperinsulinemia. Both phenotypes of maturing rats exposed to a HFD (obesity prone and obesity resistant) demonstrated "metabolic obesity" regardless of physical phenotype. These outcomes have relevance in the context of public health, particularly if lipocentricity is viewed as an essential element in the challenge of preventing and/or treating perturbations to the metabolic health of pubertal children.
New-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation (NODAT) occurs in 20% of kidney transplant patients. In 5 patients who are at risk for new-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation, skeletal muscle gene expression profiling was performed both before and after kidney transplant. The differences in gene expression before and after transplant were compared in order to identify specific genes that could be linked to developing NODAT. These findings could open new avenues for future research.
DNA methylation, a subset of epigenetics, has been found to be a significant marker associated with variations in gene expression and activity across the entire human genome. As of now, however, there is little to no information about how DNA methylation varies between different tissues inside a singular person's body. By using research data from a preliminary study of lean and obese clinical subjects, this study attempts to put together a profile of the differences in DNA methylation that can be observed between two particular body tissues from this subject group: blood and skeletal muscle. This study allows us to start describing the changes that occur at the epigenetic level that influence how differently these two tissues operate, along with seeing how these tissues change between individuals of different weight classes, especially in the context of the development of symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes.