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Contact Theory-Busted

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The intergroup contact theory purports positive effects of intergroup contact on both implicit and explicit attitudes. Implicit attitudes refer to the lack of awareness of the attitude, whereas explicit attitudes are conscious to each individual. The purpose of this study

The intergroup contact theory purports positive effects of intergroup contact on both implicit and explicit attitudes. Implicit attitudes refer to the lack of awareness of the attitude, whereas explicit attitudes are conscious to each individual. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of direct interaction with people with intellectual disabilities on both the conscious and unconscious attitudes of college students without intellectual disabilities. The intergroup contact was accomplished through the Exercise Program for Adults with Down Syndrome (ExDS) at Arizona State University (ASU). ExDS is a semester long program integrating ASU students with adults with Down syndrome to design and perform workouts in a buddy system twice a week. ASU students enrolled in unrelated on-ground courses served as control participants. Implicit attitudes were tested using the Implicit Association Task at the beginning and end of the semester. Explicit attitudes were also tested using a self-report questionnaire--Community Living Attitudes Scale-ID version before and after enrollment in the program. Results were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA, where the interaction effects were statistically insignificant for both the IAT and CLAS-ID. Limitations included inconsistencies in the data collection process, the type of contact with those with intellectual disabilities, possible testing effects of learning both measures pre- and post- testing and a small sample size. Further research is necessary to determine the most effective way to measure implicit and explicit biases to those with intellectual disabilities.

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Date Created
2020-05

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The Effects of Stereotyping and Impression Formation on Medical Treatment: Weight a Minute

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The current study looked at weight stereotype presence and whether certain types of medical professionals held this bias over others. This study also investigated if there was a relation between medical professionals' self-esteem and the presence of the weight stereotype.

The current study looked at weight stereotype presence and whether certain types of medical professionals held this bias over others. This study also investigated if there was a relation between medical professionals' self-esteem and the presence of the weight stereotype. By having a sample consisting of registered nurses, physician assistants, and medical doctors data was then collected within each group to analyze for any significant differences between the three levels of medical professionals. Eleven participants were guided through participation in the Harvard Implicit Association Test, specifically testing for weight stereotype presence, followed by responses to 50 true/false statements on the Sorensen Self-Esteem Test to measure the self-esteem of each participant. The participants within this study were 11 medical professionals, between the ages of 25 and 59, with 6 women and 5 men. The resulting sample consisted of 6 registered nurses, 3 physician assistants, and 2 medical doctors all currently practicing medicine in the state of Arizona, with the exception of 1 participant who is practicing in Colorado. This study was conducted through Qualtrics, an online database through Arizona State University. Upon completion of the study, 3 different tests were run using the data collected. The first was a between-subjects effect test to determine if there was a difference in stereotype presence among the three levels of medical professionals. The second test was a correlation between stereotype presence and the self-esteem each medical professional displayed. The third was a between-subjects effect test looking at self-esteem differences among the three levels of medical professionals. None of the tests yielded significant results, suggesting that there is no difference in weight stereotype presence or self-esteem among the three groups of medical professionals. The data also suggests that there is no correlation between a medical professionals' self-esteem and weight stereotype presence. Suggestions for future research within this paper have discussed ways to improve the current study in order to create significant results.

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Date Created
2017-05

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The Role of Implicit Gender Bias in the Courtroom

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My thesis explores the role that implicit gender bias plays in the courtroom. From personal experience, I have seen the way that gender has been a factor in the courtroom as a result of both competing in and coaching Mock

My thesis explores the role that implicit gender bias plays in the courtroom. From personal experience, I have seen the way that gender has been a factor in the courtroom as a result of both competing in and coaching Mock Trial. As a competitor, my gender was always a factor in that I was told that I couldn't do something because I am female. As a coach, I found myself reinforcing these ideas of gender because that was what I was taught, even though I didn't agree with them. I decided to explore the role of gender in the courtroom using Mock Trial as a framework to study how implicit gender biases is present. As a result of my research, I argue that implicit gender bias is present in the courtroom, and that these biases create barriers for female success. I have conducted research based on a variety of sources, beginning with looking at the role women have historically played in the courtroom to current issues facing women attorneys today. I have researched the role of implicit gender bias and studied how these biases impact women and hinder their success. I conducted research through distribution of the coach survey and analyzed the responses. From these finding I have concluded that implicit gender bias is a factor in the courtroom and that these biases tend to negatively affect women competitors. I conclude that that more research and studies need to be done to make individuals aware of how implicit gender bias functions in the courtroom and how coaches in Mock Trial may be contributing to the reinforcement of these biases.

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Date Created
2017-05

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Addressing Implicit Bias in Mental Healthcare: A Novel Health Promotion Tool for the Treatment of Minority Mental Health Patients

Description

Minority mental health patients face many health inequities and inequalities that may stem from implicit bias and a lack of cultural awareness from their healthcare providers. I analyzed the current literature evaluating implicit bias among healthcare providers and culturally specific

Minority mental health patients face many health inequities and inequalities that may stem from implicit bias and a lack of cultural awareness from their healthcare providers. I analyzed the current literature evaluating implicit bias among healthcare providers and culturally specific life traumas that Latinos and African Americans face that can impact their mental health. Additionally, I researched a current mental health assessments tool, the Child and Adolescent Trauma Survey (CATS), and evaluated it for the use on Latino and African American patients. Face-to-face interviews with two healthcare providers were also used to analyze the CATS for its’ applicability to Latino and African American patients. Results showed that these assessments were not sufficient in capturing culturally specific life traumas of minority patients. Based on the literature review and analysis of the interviews with healthcare providers, a novel assessment tool, the Culturally Traumatic Events Questionnaire (CTEQ), was created to address the gaps that currently make up other mental health assessment tools used on minority patients.

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Created

Date Created
2021-05

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Implicit Racial Bias in Engineering Education

Description

With the ongoing development of simulation technology, classic barriers to social interactions are beginning to be dismantled. One such exchange is encapsulated within education—instructors can use simulations to make difficult topics more manageable and accessible to students. Within simulations that

With the ongoing development of simulation technology, classic barriers to social interactions are beginning to be dismantled. One such exchange is encapsulated within education—instructors can use simulations to make difficult topics more manageable and accessible to students. Within simulations that include virtual humans, however, there are important factors to consider. Participants playing in virtual environments will act in a way that is consistent with their real-world behaviors—including their implicit biases. The current study seeks to determine the impact of virtual humans’ skin tone on participants’ behaviors when applying engineering concepts to simulated projects. Within a comparable study focused on a medical training simulation, significantly more errors and delays were made when working for the benefit of dark-skinned patients in a virtual context. In the current study, participants were given a choose-your-own-adventure style game in which they constructed simulated bridges for either a light- ordark-skinned community, and the number of errors and time taken for each decision was tracked. Results are expected to be consistent with previous study, indicating a higher number of errors and less time taken for each decision, although these results may be attenuated by a
lack of time pressure and urgency to the given situations. If these expected results hold, there may be implications for both undergraduate engineering curriculum and real-world engineering endeavors.

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Date Created
2020-05

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Underrepresentation Within Healthcare: An Analysis of How the Lack of Diversity Affects Treatment of Patients and How to Combat it

Description

In the US, underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities receive less than adequate health care in comparison to White Americans. This is attributed to multiple factors, including the long history of structural racism in the US and in the medical field

In the US, underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities receive less than adequate health care in comparison to White Americans. This is attributed to multiple factors, including the long history of structural racism in the US and in the medical field in particular. A factor that is still prevalent today is the lack of diversity within the healthcare workforce. Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented in most healthcare occupations. Moreover, many physicians may continue to harbor implicit biases that may interfere with giving adequate care to patients of different backgrounds. We propose that diversity in healthcare should be increased through educational programs and a revamp of existing systems such as medical schools. The increased diversity would mitigate some of the health disparities that exist amongst minorities, as medical professionals are more likely to give adequate care to those who are members of the same community. Increased diversity would also help to increase the cultural competency of physicians as a whole.

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Date Created
2022-05