Matching Items (22)

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Controlling nanochannel dimensions in graphene oxide for the fabrication of graphene-based desalination membranes

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The purpose of this research was to produce reduced graphene oxides for the fabrication of desalination membranes. Graphene has typically been considered a way to create more energy efficient

The purpose of this research was to produce reduced graphene oxides for the fabrication of desalination membranes. Graphene has typically been considered a way to create more energy efficient desalination membranes. However, graphene is expensive and unstable, while graphene oxide has similar properties, but is less expensive and more stable. Graphene oxide membranes have the potential to perform above the permeability-selectivity tradeoff that is typical in membranes through size-based exclusion. Reduction through heat or Vitamin C reduces the size of graphene oxide nanochannels so salt and organic materials can be rejected in higher numbers. Both reduced and unreduced graphene oxide membranes were created and evaluated by their ability to filter dye and salt in a pressurized membrane cell. The permeability and rejection of the graphene oxide membrane is found to be dependent on the oxidation level of the graphene oxide material and the concentration on the graphene oxide on the membrane. Unreduced graphene oxide membranes were created in three concentrations: 7.37, 14.74, and 29.47 μg/cm2. As graphene oxide concentration increased, dye rejection and salt rejection increased, while water flux decreased. Graphene oxide was reduced in solution using Vitamin C and was used to create a 14.74 μg/cm2 membrane. The reduction resulted in an increase in salt rejection from 12.59% to 100%, an increase in dye rejection from 30.44% to 100%, and a decrease in water flux from 9.502 to 0.198 L/(hr*m2*bar). Future research should focus on creating membranes using different methods of synthesizing graphene oxide from graphene and creating a reduced graphene oxide membrane with a higher water flux.

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Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Environmental Impact of Graphene's Adoption into Everyday Life

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Graphene has the ability to advance many common fields, including: membranes, composites and coatings, energy, and electronics. For membranes, graphene will be used as a filter for desalination plants which

Graphene has the ability to advance many common fields, including: membranes, composites and coatings, energy, and electronics. For membranes, graphene will be used as a filter for desalination plants which will reduce the cost of desalination and greatly increase water security in developing countries. For composites and coatings, graphene's strength, flexibility, and lightweight will be instrumental in producing the next generation of athletic wear and sports equipment. Graphene's use in energy comes from its theorized ability to charge a phone battery in seconds or an electric car in minutes. Finally, for electronics, graphene will be used to create faster transistors, flexible electronics, and fully integrated wearable technology.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Using Graphene as a Flex Resistor to Detect Biodynamics

Description

Over the past 30 years the use of graphene has been increasing at a rapid rate. The reason why graphene has become more popular is because it is starting to

Over the past 30 years the use of graphene has been increasing at a rapid rate. The reason why graphene has become more popular is because it is starting to be understood better, and researchers are starting to recognize graphene’s unique properties. Graphene is a single atomic layer of graphite, and graphite is a three-dimensional cube base structure of carbon. Graphite has a high conductivity rate, and graphene has an even higher conductivity, meaning that graphene makes for an excellent resistor in any hardware system. Graphene is flexible, has high durability, and can vary in resistance based on its shape (Sharon 2015). With graphene being able to change its resistivity, it can act as different types of sensors. These sensors include measuring pressure, resistance, force, strain, and angle. One problem across the globe is that patients have arthritis, decaying bone density, and injuries which can easily go mistreated or not treated at all. It can be hard to determine the severity of injuries in joints by observation of the patient. There are tools and equipment that will allow a doctor to track the force and degrees of motion of certain joints, but they are mostly limited to hospitals. With graphene acting as a sensor it can be embedded into casts, braces, and even clothing. With a mobile sensor that relays accurate and continuous data to a doctor they can more precisely determine a therapy or recovery time that will better suit the patients’ needs. In this project the graphene was used to measure the angle of a patient’s wrist while they were wearing a wrist brace. From the data collected, the graphene was able to track the user’s movement of their wrist as they moved it in a single direction. The data showed the angle of the wrist ranging from zero degrees to 90 degrees. This proves that graphene can shape the way biosensing is accomplished. Biodynamics is a growing field, and with more injuries everyday it is important to study graphene and how it can be used to diagnose and prevent injuries related to joints. Graphene can be used as a biosensor which can then be implemented into a brace to allow for accurate biodynamic tracking.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of oxides on graphene

Description

Integration of dielectrics with graphene is essential to the fulfillment of graphene based electronic applications. While many dielectric deposition techniques exist, plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) is emerging as

Integration of dielectrics with graphene is essential to the fulfillment of graphene based electronic applications. While many dielectric deposition techniques exist, plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) is emerging as a technique to deposit ultrathin dielectric films with superior densities and interfaces. However, the degree to which PEALD on graphene can be achieved without plasma-induced graphene deterioration is not well understood. In this work, we investigate a range of plasma conditions across a single sample, characterizing both oxide growth and graphene deterioration using spectroscopic analysis and atomic force microscopy. Investigation of graphene and film quality produced by these conditions yields insight into plasma effects. Using a specially designed sample configuration, we achieve ultrathin (< 1 nm) aluminum oxide films atop graphene.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Magnetic field sensing and nanoparticle induced ferromagnetism in graphene towards spintronics

Description

Graphene has been extensively researched for both scientific and technological interests since its first isolation from graphite. The excellent transport properties and long spin diffusion length of graphene make

Graphene has been extensively researched for both scientific and technological interests since its first isolation from graphite. The excellent transport properties and long spin diffusion length of graphene make it a promising material for electronic and spintronic device applications. This dissertation deals with the optimization of magnetic field sensing in graphene and the realization of nanoparticle induced ferromagnetism in graphene towards spintronic device applications.

Graphene has been used as a channel material for magnetic sensors demonstrating the potential for very high sensitivities, especially for Hall sensors, due to its extremely high mobility and low carrier concentration. However, the two-carrier nature of graphene near the charge neutrality point (CNP) causes a nonlinearity issue for graphene Hall sensors, which limits useful operating ranges and has not been fully studied. In this dissertation, a two-channel model was used to describe the transport of graphene near the CNP. The model was carefully validated by experiments and then was used to explore the optimization of graphene sensor performance by tuning the gate operating bias under realistic constraints on linearity and power dissipation.

The manipulation of spin in graphene that is desired for spintronic applications is limited by its weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Proximity induced ferromagnetism (PIFM) from an adjacent ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) provides a method for enhancing SOC in graphene without degrading its transport properties. However, suitable FMIs are uncommon and difficult to integrate with graphene. In this dissertation, PIFM in graphene from an adjacent Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) array was demonstrated for the first time. Observation of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in the device structures provided the signature of PIFM. Comparison of the test samples with different control samples conclusively proved that exchange interaction at the MNP/graphene interface was responsible for the observed characteristics. The PIFM in graphene was shown to persist at room temperature and to be gate-tunable, which are desirable features for electrically controlled spintronic device applications.

The observation of PIFM in the MNP/graphene devices indicates that the spin transfer torque (STT) from spin-polarized current in the graphene can interact with the magnetization of the MNPs. If there is sufficient STT, spin torque oscillation (STO) could be realized in this structure. In this dissertation, three methods were employed to search for signatures of STO in the devices. STO was not observed in our devices, most likely due to the weak spin-polarization for current injected from conventional ferromagnetic contacts to graphene. Calculation indicates that graphene should provide sufficient spin-polarized current for exciting STO in optimized structures that miniaturize the device area and utilize optimized tunnel-barrier contacts for improved spin injection.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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High performance microbial fuel cells and supercapacitors using Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology

Description

A Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-inspired carbon-neutral, renewable electrochemical converter to extract electricity from catabolic reaction of micro-organisms. It is a promising technology capable of directly converting the

A Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-inspired carbon-neutral, renewable electrochemical converter to extract electricity from catabolic reaction of micro-organisms. It is a promising technology capable of directly converting the abundant biomass on the planet into electricity and potentially alleviate the emerging global warming and energy crisis. The current and power density of MFCs are low compared with conventional energy conversion techniques. Since its debut in 2002, many studies have been performed by adopting a variety of new configurations and structures to improve the power density. The reported maximum areal and volumetric power densities range from 19 mW/m2 to 1.57 W/m2 and from 6.3 W/m3 to 392 W/m3, respectively, which are still low compared with conventional energy conversion techniques. In this dissertation, the impact of scaling effect on the performance of MFCs are investigated, and it is found that by scaling down the characteristic length of MFCs, the surface area to volume ratio increases and the current and power density improves. As a result, a miniaturized MFC fabricated by Micro-Electro-Mechanical System(MEMS) technology with gold anode is presented in this dissertation, which demonstrate a high power density of 3300 W/m3. The performance of the MEMS MFC is further improved by adopting anodes with higher surface area to volume ratio, such as carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene based anodes, and the maximum power density is further improved to a record high power density of 11220 W/m3. A novel supercapacitor by regulating the respiration of the bacteria is also presented, and a high power density of 531.2 A/m2 (1,060,000 A/m3) and 197.5 W/m2 (395,000 W/m3), respectively, are marked, which are one to two orders of magnitude higher than any previously reported microbial electrochemical techniques.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Growth of novel semiconducting nano and heterostructures

Description

This dissertation presents research findings on the three materials systems: lateral Si nanowires (SiNW), In2Se3/Bi2Se3 heterostructures and graphene. The first part of the thesis was focused on the growth and

This dissertation presents research findings on the three materials systems: lateral Si nanowires (SiNW), In2Se3/Bi2Se3 heterostructures and graphene. The first part of the thesis was focused on the growth and characterization of lateral SiNW. Lateral here refers to wires growing along the plane of substrate; vertical NW on the other hand grow out of the plane of substrate. It was found, using the Au-seeded vapor – liquid – solid technique, that epitaxial single-crystal SiNW can be grown laterally along Si(111) substrates that have been miscut toward [11− 2]. The ratio of lateral-to-vertical NW was found to increase as the miscut angle increased and as disilane pressure and substrate temperature decreased. Based on this observation, growth parameters were identified whereby all of the deposited Au seeds formed lateral NW. Furthermore, the nanofaceted substrate guided the growth via a mechanism that involved pinning of the trijunction at the liquid/solid interface of the growing nanowire.

Next, the growth of selenide heterostructures was explored. Specifically, molecular beam epitaxy was utilized to grow In2Se3 and Bi2Se3 films on h-BN, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and Si(111) substrates. Growth optimizations of In2Se3 and Bi2Se3 films were carried out by systematically varying the growth parameters. While the growth of these films was demonstrated on h-BN and HOPG surface, the majority of the effort was focused on growth on Si(111). Atomically flat terraces that extended laterally for several hundred nm, which were separated by single quintuple layer high steps characterized surface of the best In2Se3 films grown on Si(111). These In2Se3 films were suitable for subsequent high quality epitaxy of Bi2Se3 .

The last part of this dissertation was focused on a recently initiated and ongoing study of graphene growth on liquid metal surfaces. The initial part of the study comprised a successful modification of an existing growth system to accommodate graphene synthesis and process development for reproducible graphene growth. Graphene was grown on Cu, Au and AuCu alloys at varioua conditions. Preliminary results showed triangular features on the liquid part of the Cu metal surface. For Au, and AuCu alloys, hexagonal features were noticed both on the solid and liquid parts.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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3D printed glucose monitoring sensor

Description

The American Diabetes Association reports that diabetes costs $322 billion annually and affects 29.1 million Americans. The high out-of-pocket cost of managing diabetes can lead to noncompliance causing serious and

The American Diabetes Association reports that diabetes costs $322 billion annually and affects 29.1 million Americans. The high out-of-pocket cost of managing diabetes can lead to noncompliance causing serious and expensive complications. There is a large market potential for a more cost-effective alternative to the current market standard of screen-printed self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) strips. Additive manufacturing, specifically 3D printing, is a developing field that is growing in popularity and functionality. 3D printers are now being used in a variety of applications from consumer goods to medical devices. Healthcare delivery will change as the availability of 3D printers expands into patient homes, which will create alternative and more cost-effective methods of monitoring and managing diseases, such as diabetes. 3D printing technology could transform this expensive industry. A 3D printed sensor was designed to have similar dimensions and features to the SMBG strips to comply with current manufacturing standards. To make the sensor electrically active, various conductive filaments were tested and the conductive graphene filament was determined to be the best material for the sensor. Experiments were conducted to determine the optimal print settings for printing this filament onto a mylar substrate, the industry standard. The reagents used include a mixture of a ferricyanide redox mediator and flavin adenine dinucleotide dependent glucose dehydrogenase. With these materials, each sensor only costs $0.40 to print and use. Before testing the 3D printed sensor, a suitable design, voltage range, and redox probe concentration were determined. Experiments demonstrated that this novel 3D printed sensor can accurately correlate current output to glucose concentration. It was verified that the sensor can accurately detect glucose levels from 25 mg/dL to 400 mg/dL, with an R2 correlation value as high as 0.97, which was critical as it covered hypoglycemic to hyperglycemic levels. This demonstrated that a 3D-printed sensor was created that had characteristics that are suitable for clinical use. This will allow diabetics to print their own test strips at home at a much lower cost compared to SMBG strips, which will reduce noncompliance due to the high cost of testing. In the future, this technology could be applied to additional biomarkers to measure and monitor other diseases.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Potential materials for fuel cells

Description

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells have attracted immense research activities from the inception of the technology due to its high stability and performance capabilities. The major obstacle from commercialization is

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells have attracted immense research activities from the inception of the technology due to its high stability and performance capabilities. The major obstacle from commercialization is the cost of the catalyst material in manufacturing the fuel cell. In the present study, the major focus in PEMFCs has been in reduction of the cost of the catalyst material using graphene, thin film coated and Organometallic Molecular catalysts. The present research is focused on improving the durability and active surface area of the catalyst materials with low platinum loading using nanomaterials to reduce the effective cost of the fuel cells. Performance, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, oxygen reduction and surface morphology studies were performed on each manufactured material.

Alkaline fuel cells with anion exchange membrane get immense attention due to very attractive opportunity of using non-noble metal catalyst materials. In the present study, cathodes with various organometallic cathode materials were prepared and investigated for alkaline membrane fuel cells for oxygen reduction and performance studies. Co and Fe Phthalocyanine catalyst materials were deposited on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) support materials. Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated using Tokuyama Membrane (#A901) with cathodes containing Co and Fe Phthalocyanine/MWCNTs and Pt/C anodes. Fuel cell performance of the MEAs was examined.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Metasurface-Based Optoelectronic Devices for Polarization Detection and Ultrafast Optical Modulation

Description

Optical metasurfaces, i.e. artificially engineered arrays of subwavelength building blocks supporting abrupt and substantial light confinement, was employed to demonstrate a novel generation of devices for circularly polarized detection, full-Stokes

Optical metasurfaces, i.e. artificially engineered arrays of subwavelength building blocks supporting abrupt and substantial light confinement, was employed to demonstrate a novel generation of devices for circularly polarized detection, full-Stokes polarimetry and all-optical modulation with ultra-compact footprint and chip-integrability.

Optical chirality is essential for generation, manipulation and detection of circularly polarized light (CPL), thus finds many applications in quantum computing, communication, spectroscopy, biomedical diagnosis, imaging and sensing. Compared to natural chiral materials, chiral metamaterials and metasurfaces enable much stronger chirality on subwavelength scale; therefore, they are ideal for device miniaturization and system integration. However, they are usually associated with low performance due to limited fabrication tolerance and high dissipation mainly caused by plasmonic materials. Here, a bio-inspired submicron-thick chiral metamaterial structure was designed and demonstrated experimentally with high contrast (extinction ratio >35) detection of CPL with different handedness and high efficiency (>80%) of the overall device. Furthermore, integration of left- and right-handed CPL detection units with nanograting linear polarization filters enabled full-Stokes polarimetry of arbitrarily input polarization states with high accuracy and very low insertion loss, all on a submillimeter single chip. These unprecedented highly efficient and high extinction ratio devices pave the way for on-chip polarimetric measurements.

All-optical modulation is widely used for optical interconnects, communication, information processing, and ultrafast spectroscopy. Yet, there’s deficiency of ultrafast, compact and energy-efficient solutions all in one device. Here, all-optical modulation of light in the near- and mid-infrared regimes were experimentally demonstrated based on a graphene-integrated plasmonic nanoantenna array. The remarkable feature of the device design is its simultaneous near-field enhancement for pump and probe (signal) beams, owing to the localized surface plasmon resonance excitation, while preserving the ultrafast photocarrier relaxation in graphene. Hence, a distinct modulation at 1560nm with record-low pump fluence (<8μJ/cm^2) was reported with ~1ps response time. Besides, relying on broadband interaction of graphene with incident light, a first-time demonstration of graphene-based all-optical modulation in mid-infrared spectral region (6-7μm) was reported based on the above double-enhancement design concept. Relying on the tunability of metasurface design, the proposed device can be used for ultrafast optical modulation from near-infrared to terahertz regime.

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Date Created
  • 2020