Long-term monitoring of deep brain structures using microelectrode implants is critical for the success of emerging clinical applications including cortical neural prostheses, deep brain stimulation and other neurobiology studies such as progression of disease states, learning and memory, brain mapping etc. However, current microelectrode technologies are not capable enough of reaching those clinical milestones given their inconsistency in performance and reliability in long-term studies. In all the aforementioned applications, it is important to understand the limitations & demands posed by technology as well as biological processes. Recent advances in implantable Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology have tremendous potential and opens a plethora of opportunities for long term studies which were not possible before. The overall goal of the project is to develop large scale autonomous, movable, micro-scale interfaces which can seek and monitor/stimulate large ensembles of precisely targeted neurons and neuronal networks that can be applied for brain mapping in behaving animals. However, there are serious technical (fabrication) challenges related to packaging and interconnects, examples of which include: lack of current industry standards in chip-scale packaging techniques for silicon chips with movable microstructures, incompatible micro-bonding techniques to elongate current micro-electrode length to reach deep brain structures, inability to achieve hermetic isolation of implantable devices from biological tissue and fluids (i.e. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, etc.). The specific aims are to: 1) optimize & automate chip scale packaging of MEMS devices with unique requirements not amenable to conventional industry standards with respect to bonding, process temperature and pressure in order to achieve scalability 2) develop a novel micro-bonding technique to extend the length of current polysilicon micro-electrodes to reach and monitor deep brain structures 3) design & develop high throughput packaging mechanism for constructing a dense array of movable microelectrodes. Using a combination of unique micro-bonding technique which involves conductive thermosetting epoxy’s with hermetically sealed support structures and a highly optimized, semi-automated, 90-minute flip-chip packaging process, I have now extended the repertoire of previously reported movable microelectrode arrays to bond conventional stainless steel and Pt/Ir microelectrode arrays of desired lengths to steerable polysilicon shafts. I tested scalable prototypes in rigorous bench top tests including Impedance measurements, accelerated aging and non-destructive testing to assess electrical and mechanical stability of micro-bonds under long-term implantation. I propose a 3D printed packaging method allows a wide variety of electrode configurations to be realized such as a rectangular or circular array configuration or other arbitrary geometries optimal for specific regions of the brain with inter-electrode distance as low as 25 um with an unprecedented capability of seeking and recording/stimulating targeted single neurons in deep brain structures up to 10 mm deep (with 6 μm displacement resolution). The advantage of this computer controlled moveable deep brain electrodes facilitates potential capabilities of moving past glial sheath surrounding microelectrodes to restore neural connection, counter the variabilities in signal amplitudes, and enable simultaneous recording/stimulation at precisely targeted layers of brain.