Matching Items (152)
- All Subjects: Materials Science
- Genre: Masters Thesis
- Resource Type: Text
In this work a newly fabricated organic solar cell based on a composite of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with an added interfacial layer of AgOx in between the PEDOT:PSS layer and the ITO layer is investigated. Previous equivalent circuit models are discussed and an equivalent circuit model is proposed for the fabricated device. Incorporation of the AgOx interfacial layer shows an increase in fill factor (by 33%) and power conversion efficiency (by 28%). Moreover proper correlation has been achieved between the experimental and simulated I-V plots. The simulation shows that device characteristics can be explained with accuracy by the proposed model.
Characterization and analysis of long term field aged photovoltaic modules and encapsulant materials
Photovoltaic (PV) module degradation is a well-known issue, however understanding the mechanistic pathways in which modules degrade is still a major task for the PV industry. In order to study the mechanisms responsible for PV module degradation, the effects of these degradation mechanisms must be quantitatively measured to determine the severity of each degradation mode. In this thesis multiple modules from three climate zones (Arizona, California and Colorado) were investigated for a single module glass/polymer construction (Siemens M55) to determine the degree to which they had degraded, and the main factors that contributed to that degradation. To explain the loss in power, various nondestructive and destructive techniques were used to indicate possible causes of loss in performance. This is a two-part thesis. Part 1 presents non-destructive test results and analysis and Part 2 presents destructive test results and analysis.
Estimation of complex permittivity of arsenic-doped silicon is the primary topic of discussion in this thesis presentation. The frequency that is of interest is 2.45 GHz, frequency typically used in conventional microwave ovens. The analysis is based on closed-form analytical expressions of cylindrical symmetry. A coaxial/radial line junction with the central conductor sheathed in dielectric material, which is As-doped silicon in this case, are analyzed. Electrical and magnetic field equations governing the wave propagation in this setup are formulated by applying the necessary boundary conditions. Input admittance is computed using the fields in the device and reflection coefficient is calculated at the input. This analytical solution is matched to the reflection coefficient acquired by experiments conducted, using VNA as the input source. The contemplation is backed by simulation using High Frequency Structural Simulator, HFSS. Susceptor-assisted microwave heating has been shown to be a faster and easier method of annealing arsenic-doped silicon samples. In that study, it was noticed that the microwave power absorbed by the sample can directly be linked to the heat power required for the annealing process. It probes the validity of the statement that for arsenic-doped silicon the heating curve depends only on its sheet properties and not on the bulk as such and the results presented here gives more insight to it as to why this assumption is true. The results obtained here can be accepted as accurate since it is known that this material is highly conductive and electromagnetic waves do not penetrate in to the material beyond a certain depth, which is given by the skin depth of the material. Hall measurements and four-point-probe measurements are performed on the material in support of the above contemplation.
ABSTRACT Electronics especially mobile electronics such as smart phones, tablet PCs, notebooks and digital cameras are undergoing rapid development nowadays and have thoroughly changed our lives. With the requirement of more transistors, higher power, smaller size, lighter weight and even bendability, thermal management of these devices became one of the key challenges. Compared to active heat management system, heat pipe, which is a passive fluidic system, is considered promising to solve this problem. However, traditional heat pipes have size, weight and capillary limitation. Thus new type of heat pipe with smaller size, lighter weight and higher capillary pressure is needed. Nanofiber has been proved with superior properties and has been applied in multiple areas. This study discussed the possibility of applying nanofiber in heat pipe as new wick structure. In this study, a needleless electrospinning device with high productivity rate was built onsite to systematically investigate the effect of processing parameters on fiber properties as well as to generate nanofiber mat to evaluate its capability in electronics cooling. Polyethylene oxide (PEO) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were generated. Tensiometer was used for wettability measurement. The results show that independent parameters including spinneret type, working distance, solution concentration and polymer type are strongly correlated with fiber morphology compared to other parameters. The results also show that the fabricated nanofiber mat has high capillary pressure.
Topological insulators with conducting surface states yet insulating bulk states have generated a lot of interest amongst the physics community due to their varied characteristics and possible applications. Doped topological insulators have presented newer physical states of matter where topological order co&ndashexists; with other physical properties (like magnetic order). The electronic states of these materials are very intriguing and pose problems and the possible solutions to understanding their unique behaviors. In this work, we use Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) – an analytical TEM tool to study both core&ndashlevel; and valence&ndashlevel; excitations in Bi2Se3 and Cu(doped)Bi2Se3 topological insulators. We use this technique to retrieve information on the valence, bonding nature, co-ordination and lattice site occupancy of the undoped and the doped systems. Using the reference materials Cu(I)Se and Cu(II)Se we try to compare and understand the nature of doping that copper assumes in the lattice. And lastly we utilize the state of the art monochromated Nion UltraSTEM 100 to study electronic/vibrational excitations at a record energy resolution from sub-nm regions in the sample.
Nonvolatile memory (NVM) technologies have been an integral part of electronic systems for the past 30 years. The ideal non-volatile memory have minimal physical size, energy usage, and cost while having maximal speed, capacity, retention time, and radiation hardness. A promising candidate for next-generation memory is ion-conducting bridging RAM which is referred to as programmable metallization cell (PMC), conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM), or electrochemical metallization memory (ECM), which is likely to surpass flash memory in all the ideal memory characteristics. A comprehensive physics-based model is needed to completely understand PMC operation and assist in design optimization.
To advance the PMC modeling effort, this thesis presents a precise physical model parameterizing materials associated with both ion-rich and ion-poor layers of the PMC's solid electrolyte, so that captures the static electrical behavior of the PMC in both its low-resistance on-state (LRS) and high resistance off-state (HRS). The experimental data is measured from a chalcogenide glass PMC designed and manufactured at ASU. The static on- and off-state resistance of a PMC device composed of a layered (Ag-rich/Ag-poor) Ge30Se70 ChG film is characterized and modeled using three dimensional simulation code written in Silvaco Atlas finite element analysis software. Calibrating the model to experimental data enables the extraction of device parameters such as material bandgaps, workfunctions, density of states, carrier mobilities, dielectric constants, and affinities.
The sensitivity of our modeled PMC to the variation of its prominent achieved material parameters is examined on the HRS and LRS impedance behavior.
The obtained accurate set of material parameters for both Ag-rich and Ag-poor ChG systems and process variation verification on electrical characteristics enables greater fidelity in PMC device simulation, which significantly enhances our ability to understand the underlying physics of ChG-based resistive switching memory.
Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and pulverization during the charging and discharging process, many researchers put efforts into it. Most of the strategies are through nanostructured material design and introducing conductive polymer binders that serve as matrix of the active material in anode. This thesis aims for developing a novel method for preparing the anode to improve the capacity retention rate. This would require the anode to have high electrical conductivity, high ionic conductivity, and good mechanical properties, especially elasticity. Here the incorporation of a conducting polymer and a conductive hydrogel in Sn-based anodes using a one-step electrochemical deposition via a 3-electrode cell method is reported: the Sn particles and conductive component can be electrochemically synthesized and simultaneously deposited into a hybrid thin film onto the working electrode directly forming the anode. A well-defined three dimensional network structure consisting of Sn nanoparticles coated by conducting polymers is achieved. Such a conductive polymer-hydrogel network has multiple advantageous features: meshporous polymeric structure can offer the pathway for lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte; the continuous electrically conductive polypyrrole network, with the electrostatic interaction with elastic, porous hydrogel, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAMPS) as both the crosslinker and doping anion for polypyrrole (PPy) can decrease the volume expansion by creating porous scaffold and softening the system itself. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of PAMPS and creating an interval can improve the cycling performance, resulting in improved capacity retention about 80% after 20 cycles, compared with only 54% of that of the control sample without PAMPS. The cycle is performed under current of 0.1 C.
The use of solar energy to produce power has increased substantially in the past few decades. In an attempt to provide uninterrupted solar power, production plants may find themselves having to operate the systems at temperatures higher than the operational capacity of the materials used in many of their components, which affects the microstructural and mechanical properties of those materials. Failures in components that have been exposed to these excessive temperatures have been observed during operations in the turbine used by AORA Solar Ltd. A particular component of interest was made of a material similar to the Ni-based superalloy Inconel 718 (IN 718), which was observed to have damage that is believed to have been initiated by Foreign Object Damage (FOD) and worsened by the high temperatures in the turbine. The potential links among the observed failure, FOD and the high temperatures of operation are investigated in this study.
IN718 is a precipitation hardened nickel superalloy with resistance to oxidation and ability to withstand high stresses over a wide range of temperatures. Several studies have been conducted to understand IN 718 tensile and fatigue properties at elevated temperatures (600- 950°C). However, this study focuses on understanding the behavior of IN718 with FOD induced by a stream of 50 μm Alumina particles at a velocity of 200 m/s. under high cycle fatigue at an elevated temperature of 1050 °C. Tensile tests were conducted for both as-received and heat treated (1050 °C in air for 8hrs) samples at room and high temperature. Fatigue tests were performed at heat treated samples at 1050 °C for samples with and without ablation. The test conditions were as similar as possible to the conditions in the AORA turbine. The results of the study provide an insight into tensile properties, fatigue properties and FOD. The results indicated a reduction in fatigue life for the samples with ablation damage, where crack nucleation occurred either at the edge or inside the ablation region and multisite cracking was observed under far field stresses that were the same than for pristine samples, which showed single cracks. Fracture surfaces indicate intergranular fracture, with the presence of secondary cracks and a lack of typical fatigue features, e.g., beach marks which was attributed to environmental effects and creep.
Microplastics are emerging to be major problem when it comes to water pollution and they pose a great threat to marine life. These materials have the potential to affect a wide range of human population since humans are the major consumers of marine organisms. Microplastics are less than 5 mm in diameter, and can escape from traditional wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) processes and end up in our water sources. Due to their small size, they have a large surface area and can react with chlorine, which it encounters in the final stages of WWTP. After the microplastics accumulate in various bodies of water, they are exposed to sunlight, which contains oxidative ultraviolet (UV) light. Since the microplastics are exposed to oxidants during and after the treatment, there is a strong chance that they will undergo chemical and/or physical changes. The WWTP conditions were replicated in the lab by varying the concentrations of chlorine from 70 to 100 mg/L in increments of 10 mg/L and incubating the samples in chlorine baths for 1–9 days. The chlorinated samples were tested for any structural changes using Raman spectroscopy. High density polyethylene (HDPE), polystyrene (PS), and polypropylene (PP) were treated in chlorine baths and observed for Raman intensity variations, Raman peak shifts, and the formation of new peaks over different exposure times. HDPE responded with a lot of oxidation peaks and shifts of peaks after just one day. For the degradation of semi-crystalline polymers, there was a reduction in crystallinity, as verified by thermal analysis. There was a decrease in the enthalpy of melting as well as the melting temperature with an increase in the exposure time or chlorine concentration, which pointed at the degradation of plastics and bond cleavages. To test the plastic response to
UV, the samples were exposed to sunlight for up to 210 days and analyzed under Raman spectroscopy. Overall the physical and chemical changes with the polymers are evident and makes a way for the wastewater treatment plant to take necessary steps to capture the microplastics to avoid the release of any kind of degraded microplastics that could affect marine life and the environment.
Metal Organic Frameworks(MOFs) have been used in various applications, including
sensors. The unique crystalline structure of MOFs in addition to controllability of
their pore size and their intake selectivity makes them a promising method of detection.
Detection of metal ions in water using a binary mixture of luminescent MOFs
has been reported. 3 MOFs(ZrPDA, UiO-66 and UiO-66-NH2) as detectors and 4
metal ions(Pb2+, Ni2+, Ba2+ and Cu2+) as the target species were chosen based on
cost, water stability, application and end goals.
It is possible to detect metal ions such as Pb2+ at concentrations at low as 0.005
molar using MOFs. Also, based on the luminescence responses, a method of distinguishing
between similar metal ions has been proposed. It is shown that using a
mixture of MOFs with dierent reaction to metal ions can lead to unique and specic
3D luminescence maps, which can be used to identify the present metal ions in water
and their amount.
In addition to the response of a single MOF to addition of a single metal ion,
luminescence response of ZrPDA + UiO-66 mixture to increasing concentration of
each of 4 metal ions was studied, and summarized. A new peak is observed in the
mixture, that did not exist before, and it is proposed that this peak requires metal
ions to activate