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A Study of the Mechanical Behavior Of Nanocrystalline Metals Using Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

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The study of the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices lies at the intersection of nanotechnology, mechanical engineering and material science. The extremely small grains that

The study of the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices lies at the intersection of nanotechnology, mechanical engineering and material science. The extremely small grains that make up nanocrystalline metals lead to higher strength but lower ductility as compared to bulk metals. Effects of strain-rate dependence on the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals are explored. Knowing the strain rate dependence of mechanical properties would enable optimization of material selection for different applications and lead to lighter structural components and enhanced sustainability.

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  • 2014-05

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Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Antenna with Built in Self-Test Unit: Analysis of Trace Error Simulation

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The capstone portion of this project was to use the established STaR antennas and add a Built in Self-Test system to ensure the quality of the signals being received. This

The capstone portion of this project was to use the established STaR antennas and add a Built in Self-Test system to ensure the quality of the signals being received. This part of the project required a MatLab simulation to be built, a layout created, and a PCB designed for fabrication. In theory, the test BiST unit will allow the gain and delay of the transmitted signal and then cancel out unneeded interference for the received signal. However, this design required multiple paths to maintain the same lengths to keep the signals in phase for comparison. The purpose of this thesis is to show the potential drop-offs of the quality of the signals from being out of phase due to the wires that should be similar, being off by a certain percentage. This project will calculate the theoretical delay of all wires being out of sync and then add this delay to the established MatLab simulation. This report will show the relationship between the error of the received variables and what the actual generated values. And, the last part of the document will demonstrate the simulation by creating a signal and comparing it to its received counterpart. The end result of the study showed that the percent error between what is seen and what is expected is near insignificant and, hence, not an issue with regards to the quality of the project.

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  • 2016-05

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Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Antenna: Analysis of Measurement Accuracy on Performance

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The purpose of the Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Antenna project is to design a test circuit that will allow us to use an antenna to both send out and receive

The purpose of the Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Antenna project is to design a test circuit that will allow us to use an antenna to both send out and receive a signal at the same time on the same frequency. The test circuit will generate DC voltage levels that we can use to solve for the gain and delay of the transmit interference, so we will then be able to cancel out the unwanted signal from the received signal. With a theoretically perfect setup, the transmitted signal will be able to be completely isolated from the received signal, leaving us with only what we want at the output. In practice, however, this is not the case. There are many variables that will affect the integrity of the DC output of the test signal. As the output voltage level deviates from its theoretical perfect measurement, the precision to which we are able to solve for the gain and delay values decreases. The focus of this study is to estimate the effect of using a digital measurement tool to measure the output of the test circuit. Assuming a voltmeter with 1 volt full range, simulations were run using measurements stored at different bit resolutions, from 8-bit storage up to 16-bit storage. Since the physical hardware for the Simultaneous Transmit and Receive test circuit is not currently available, these tests were performed with an edited version of the Matlab simulation created for the Senior Design project. The simulation was run 2000 times over each bit resolution to get a wide range of generated values, then the error from each run was analyzed to come to a conclusion on the effect of the digital measurement on the design. The results of these simulations as well as further details of the project and testing are described inside this document.

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  • 2016-05

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Densification of Li7La3Zr2O12 Electrospun Nanowires Through Processing Control of Intermediate La2Zr2O7 Phase (Electrospinning Synthesis of Electrolytes for Solid-state Lithium-ion Batteries)

Description

Solid-state lithium-ion batteries are a major area of research due to their increased safety characteristics over conventional liquid electrolyte batteries. Lithium lanthanum zirconate (LLZO) is a promising garnet-type ceramic for

Solid-state lithium-ion batteries are a major area of research due to their increased safety characteristics over conventional liquid electrolyte batteries. Lithium lanthanum zirconate (LLZO) is a promising garnet-type ceramic for use as a solid-state electrolyte due to its high ionic conductivity. The material exists in two dierent phases, one that is cubic in structure and one that is tetragonal. One potential synthesis method that results in LLZO in the more useful, cubic phase, is electrospinning, where a mat of nanowires is spun and then calcined into LLZO. A phase containing lanthanum zirconate (LZO) and amorphous lithium occursas an intermediate during the calcination process. LZO has been shown to be a sintering aid for LLZO, allowing for lower sintering temperatures. Here it is shown the eects of internal LZO on the sintered pellets. This is done by varying the 700C calcination time to transform diering amounts of LZO and LLZO in electrospun nanowires, and then using the same sintering parameters for each sample. X-ray diraction was used to get structural and compositional analysis of both the calcined powders and sintered pellets. Pellets formed from wires calcined at 1 hour or longer contained only LLZO even if the calcined powder had only undergone the rst phase transformation. The relative density of the pellet with no initial LLZO of 61.0% was higher than that of the pellet with no LZO, which had a relative density of 57.7%. This allows for the same, or slightly higher, quality material to be synthesized with a shorter amount of processing time.

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  • 2017-05

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Quantifying Microstructural Effects on the Strain Localization During Fatigue

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The goal of this research is to compare the mechanical properties of CP-Ti and Ti-O and to understand the relationship between a material's microstructure and its response to fatigue. Titanium

The goal of this research is to compare the mechanical properties of CP-Ti and Ti-O and to understand the relationship between a material's microstructure and its response to fatigue. Titanium has been selected due to its desirable properties and applicability in several engineering fields. Both samples are polished and etched in order to visualize and characterize the microstructure and its features. The samples then undergo strain-controlled fatigue tests for several thousand cycles. Throughout testing, images of the samples are taken at zero and maximum load for DIC analysis. The DIC results can be used to study the local strains of the samples. The DIC analysis performed on the CP-Ti sample and presented in this study will be used to understand how the addition of oxygen in the Ti-O impacts fatigue response. The outcome of this research can be used to develop long-lasting, high strength materials.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Optimal Modeling of Knots in Wood

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A model has been developed to modify Euler-Bernoulli beam theory for wooden beams, using visible properties of wood knot-defects. Treating knots in a beam as a system of two ellipses

A model has been developed to modify Euler-Bernoulli beam theory for wooden beams, using visible properties of wood knot-defects. Treating knots in a beam as a system of two ellipses that change the local bending stiffness has been shown to improve the fit of a theoretical beam displacement function to edge-line deflection data extracted from digital imagery of experimentally loaded beams. In addition, an Ellipse Logistic Model (ELM) has been proposed, using L1-regularized logistic regression, to predict the impact of a knot on the displacement of a beam. By classifying a knot as severely positive or negative, vs. mildly positive or negative, ELM can classify knots that lead to large changes to beam deflection, while not over-emphasizing knots that may not be a problem. Using ELM with a regression-fit Young's Modulus on three-point bending of Douglass Fir, it is possible estimate the effects a knot will have on the shape of the resulting displacement curve.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Tribological Failures of Wind Turbine Bearings

Description

Although wind turbine bearings are designed to operate 18-20 years, in the recent years premature failure among these bearings has caused this life to reduce to as low as a

Although wind turbine bearings are designed to operate 18-20 years, in the recent years premature failure among these bearings has caused this life to reduce to as low as a few months to a year. One of the leading causes of premature failure called white structure flaking is a mechanism that was first cited in literature decades ago but not much is understood about it even today. The cause of this mode of failure results from the initiation of white etched cracks (WECs). In this report, different failure mechanisms, especially premature failure mechanisms that were tested and analyzed are demonstrated as a pathway to understanding this phenomenon. Through the use of various tribometers, samples were tested in diverse and extreme conditions in order to study the effect of these different operational conditions on the specimen. Analysis of the tested samples allowed for a comparison of the microstructure alterations in the tested samples to the field bearings affected by WSF.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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An Effective Characterization Methodology for Sub-micron Copper Oxides and Oxide-preventing Surface Finishes with a Short Essay on the Role of SEM in the Continuing Miniaturization of Integrated Circuits

Description

The transition to lead-free solder in the electronics industry has benefited the environment in many ways. However, with new materials systems comes new materials issues. During the processing of copper

The transition to lead-free solder in the electronics industry has benefited the environment in many ways. However, with new materials systems comes new materials issues. During the processing of copper pads, a protective surface treatment is needed to prevent the copper from oxidizing. Characterizing the copper oxidation underneath the surface treatment is challenging but necessary for product reliability and failure analysis. Currently, FIB-SEM, which is time-consuming and expensive, is what is used to understand and analyze the surface treatment-copper oxide(s)-copper system. This project's goals were to determine a characterization methodology that cuts both characterization time and cost in half for characterizing copper oxidation beneath a surface treatment and to determine which protective surface treatment is the best as defined by multiple criterion such as cost, sustainability, and reliability. Two protective surface treatments, organic solderability preservative (OSP) and chromium zincate, were investigated, and multiple characterization techniques were researched. Six techniques were tested, and three were deemed promising. Through our studies, it was determined that the best surface treatment was organic solderability preservative (OSP) and the ideal characterization methodology would be using FIB-SEM to calibrate a QCM model, along with using SERA to confirm the QCM model results. The methodology we propose would result in a 91% reduction in characterization cost and a 92% reduction in characterization time. Future work includes further calibration of the QCM model using more FIB/SEM data points and eventually creating a model for oxide layer thickness as a function of exposure time and processing temperature using QCM as the primary data source. An additional short essay on the role of SEM on the continuing miniaturization of integrated circuits is included at the end. This paper explores the intertwined histories of the scanning electron microscope and the integrated circuit, highlighting how advances in SEM influence integrated circuit advances.

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  • 2015-05

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Effects of Aging and Crystallization Time and Temperature in the Synthesis of Ideal Zeolite Linde Type A

Description

One of the grand challenges of engineering is to provide access to clean water because it is predicted that by 2025 more than two thirds of the world’s population will

One of the grand challenges of engineering is to provide access to clean water because it is predicted that by 2025 more than two thirds of the world’s population will face severe water shortages. To combat this global issue, our lab focuses on creating a novel composite membrane to recover potable water from waste. For use as the water-selective component in this membrane design Linde Type A zeolites were synthesized for optimal size without the use of a template. Current template-free synthesis of zeolite LTA produces particles that are too large for our application therefore the particle size was reduced in this study to reduce fouling of the membrane while also investigating the nanoparticle synthesis mechanisms. The time and temperature of the reaction and the aging of the precursor gel were systematically modified and observed to determine the optimal conditions for producing the particles. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis were used for characterization. Sub-micron sized particles were synthesized at 2 weeks aging time at -8°C with an average size of 0.6 micrometers, a size suitable for our membrane. There is a limit to the posterity and uniformity of particles produced from modifying the reaction time and temperature. All results follow general crystallization theory. Longer aging produced smaller particles, consistent with nucleation theory. Spinodal decomposition is predicted to affect nucleation clustering during aging due to the temperature scheme. Efforts will be made to shorten the effective aging time and these particles will eventually be incorporated into our mixed matrix osmosis membrane.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Simultaneous Transmit and Receive: Noise Analysis on Performance

Description

The Built-In Self-Test for Simultaneous Transmit and Receive (BIST for STAR) will be able to solve the challenges of transmitting and receiving at the same time at the same frequency.

The Built-In Self-Test for Simultaneous Transmit and Receive (BIST for STAR) will be able to solve the challenges of transmitting and receiving at the same time at the same frequency. One of the major components is the STAR antenna which transmits and receives along the same pathway. The main problem with doing both on the same path is that the transmit signal is usually much stronger in power compared to the received signal. The transmit signal has echoes and leakages that cause self-interference, preventing the received signal from being properly obtained. The solution developed in this project is the BIST component, which will help calculate the functional gain and phase offset of the interference signal and subtract it from the pathway so that the received signal remains. The functions of the proposed circuit board can be modeled in Matlab, where an emulation code generates a random, realistic functional gain and delay for the interference. From the generated values, the BIST for STAR was simulated to output what the measurements would be given the strength of the input signal and a controlled delay. The original Matlab code models an ideal environment directly recalculating the functional gain and phase from the given measurements in a second Matlab script. The actual product will not be ideal; a possible source of error to be considered is the effect of thermal noise. To observe the effect of noise on the BIST for STAR's performance, the Matlab code was expanded upon to include a component for thermal noise, and a method of analyzing the results of the board.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05