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A Study of the Mechanical Behavior Of Nanocrystalline Metals Using Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

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The study of the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices lies at the intersection of nanotechnology, mechanical engineering and material science. The extremely small grains that

The study of the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices lies at the intersection of nanotechnology, mechanical engineering and material science. The extremely small grains that make up nanocrystalline metals lead to higher strength but lower ductility as compared to bulk metals. Effects of strain-rate dependence on the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals are explored. Knowing the strain rate dependence of mechanical properties would enable optimization of material selection for different applications and lead to lighter structural components and enhanced sustainability.

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  • 2014-05

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Exhaust System Design and Testing Methods

Description

The exhaust system is an integral part of any internal combustion engine. A well- designed exhaust system efficiently removes exhaust gasses expelled from the cylinders. If tuned for performance purposes,

The exhaust system is an integral part of any internal combustion engine. A well- designed exhaust system efficiently removes exhaust gasses expelled from the cylinders. If tuned for performance purposes, the exhaust system can also exhibit scavenging and supercharging characteristics. This project reviews the major components of an exhaust system and discusses the proper design techniques necessary to utilize the performance boosting potential of a tuned exhaust system for a four-stroke engine. These design considerations are then applied to Arizona State University's Formula SAE vehicle by comparing the existing system to a properly tuned system. An inexpensive testing method, developed specifically for this project, is used to test the effectiveness of the current design. The results of the test determined that the current design is ineffective at scavenging neighboring pipes of exhaust gasses and should be redesigned for better performance.

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  • 2014-05

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Densification of Li7La3Zr2O12 Electrospun Nanowires Through Processing Control of Intermediate La2Zr2O7 Phase (Electrospinning Synthesis of Electrolytes for Solid-state Lithium-ion Batteries)

Description

Solid-state lithium-ion batteries are a major area of research due to their increased safety characteristics over conventional liquid electrolyte batteries. Lithium lanthanum zirconate (LLZO) is a promising garnet-type ceramic for

Solid-state lithium-ion batteries are a major area of research due to their increased safety characteristics over conventional liquid electrolyte batteries. Lithium lanthanum zirconate (LLZO) is a promising garnet-type ceramic for use as a solid-state electrolyte due to its high ionic conductivity. The material exists in two dierent phases, one that is cubic in structure and one that is tetragonal. One potential synthesis method that results in LLZO in the more useful, cubic phase, is electrospinning, where a mat of nanowires is spun and then calcined into LLZO. A phase containing lanthanum zirconate (LZO) and amorphous lithium occursas an intermediate during the calcination process. LZO has been shown to be a sintering aid for LLZO, allowing for lower sintering temperatures. Here it is shown the eects of internal LZO on the sintered pellets. This is done by varying the 700C calcination time to transform diering amounts of LZO and LLZO in electrospun nanowires, and then using the same sintering parameters for each sample. X-ray diraction was used to get structural and compositional analysis of both the calcined powders and sintered pellets. Pellets formed from wires calcined at 1 hour or longer contained only LLZO even if the calcined powder had only undergone the rst phase transformation. The relative density of the pellet with no initial LLZO of 61.0% was higher than that of the pellet with no LZO, which had a relative density of 57.7%. This allows for the same, or slightly higher, quality material to be synthesized with a shorter amount of processing time.

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  • 2017-05

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Design and Analysis of an Exhaust System for a Four Cylinder Engine

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Formula SAE is a student design competition where students design and fabricate a formula-style racecar to race in a series of events against schools from around the world. It gives

Formula SAE is a student design competition where students design and fabricate a formula-style racecar to race in a series of events against schools from around the world. It gives students of all majors the ability to use classroom theory and knowledge in a real world application. The general guidelines for the prototype racecars is for the students to use four-stroke, Otto cycle piston engines with a displacement of no greater than 610cc. A 20mm air restrictor downstream the throttle limits the power of the engines to under 100 horsepower. A 178-page rulebook outlines the remaining restrictions as they apply to the various vehicle systems: vehicle dynamics, driver interface, aerodynamics, and engine. Vehicle dynamics is simply the study of the forces which affect wheeled vehicles in motion. Its primary components are the chassis and suspension system. Driver interface controls everything that the driver interacts with including steering wheel, seat, pedals, and shifter. Aerodynamics refers to the outside skin of the vehicle which controls the amount of drag and downforce on the vehicle. Finally, the engine consists of the air intake, engine block, cooling system, and the exhaust. The exhaust is one of the most important pieces of an engine that is often overlooked in racecar design. The purpose of the exhaust is to control the removal of the combusted air-fuel mixture from the engine cylinders. The exhaust as well as the intake is important because they govern the flow into and out of the engine's cylinders (Heywood 231). They are especially important in racecar design because they have a great impact on the power produced by an engine. The higher the airflow through the cylinders, the larger amount of fuel that can be burned and consequently, the greater amount of power the engine can produce. In the exhaust system, higher airflow is governed by several factors. A good exhaust design gives and engine a higher volumetric efficiency through the exhaust scavenging effect. Volumetric efficiency is also affected by frictional losses. In addition, the system should ideally be lightweight, and easily manufacturable. Arizona State University's Formula SAE racecar uses a Honda F4i Engine from a CBR 600 motorcycle. It is a four cylinder Otto cycle engine with a 600cc displacement. An ideal or tuned exhaust system for this car would maximize the negative gauge pressure during valve overlap at the ideal operating rpm. Based on the typical track layout for the Formula SAE design series, an ideal exhaust system would be optimized for 7500 rpm and work well in the range

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Quantifying Microstructural Effects on the Strain Localization During Fatigue

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The goal of this research is to compare the mechanical properties of CP-Ti and Ti-O and to understand the relationship between a material's microstructure and its response to fatigue. Titanium

The goal of this research is to compare the mechanical properties of CP-Ti and Ti-O and to understand the relationship between a material's microstructure and its response to fatigue. Titanium has been selected due to its desirable properties and applicability in several engineering fields. Both samples are polished and etched in order to visualize and characterize the microstructure and its features. The samples then undergo strain-controlled fatigue tests for several thousand cycles. Throughout testing, images of the samples are taken at zero and maximum load for DIC analysis. The DIC results can be used to study the local strains of the samples. The DIC analysis performed on the CP-Ti sample and presented in this study will be used to understand how the addition of oxygen in the Ti-O impacts fatigue response. The outcome of this research can be used to develop long-lasting, high strength materials.

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  • 2016-05

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Method to Systematically Optimize the Formula Society of Automotive Engineering Race Car

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The purpose of this paper is to provide a new and improved design method for the Formula Society of Automotive Engineering (FSAE) team. There are five tasks that I accomplish

The purpose of this paper is to provide a new and improved design method for the Formula Society of Automotive Engineering (FSAE) team. There are five tasks that I accomplish in this paper: 1. I describe how the FSAE team is currently designing their car. This allows the reader to understand where the flaws might arise in their design method. 2. I then describe the key aspects of systems engineering design. This is the backbone of the method I am proposing, and it is important to understand the key concepts so that they can be applied to the FSAE design method. 3. I discuss what is available in the literature about race car design and optimization. I describe what other FSAE teams are doing and how that differs from systems engineering design. 4. I describe what the FSAE team at Arizona State University (ASU) should do to improve their approach to race car design. I go into detail about how the systems engineering method works and how it can and should be applied to the way they design their car. 5. I then describe how the team should implement this method because the method is useless if they do not implement it into their design process. I include an interview from their brakes team leader, Colin Twist, to give an example of their current method of design and show how it can be improved with the new method. This paper provides a framework for the FSAE team to develop their new method of design that will help them accomplish their overall goal of succeeding at the national competition.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Optimal Modeling of Knots in Wood

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A model has been developed to modify Euler-Bernoulli beam theory for wooden beams, using visible properties of wood knot-defects. Treating knots in a beam as a system of two ellipses

A model has been developed to modify Euler-Bernoulli beam theory for wooden beams, using visible properties of wood knot-defects. Treating knots in a beam as a system of two ellipses that change the local bending stiffness has been shown to improve the fit of a theoretical beam displacement function to edge-line deflection data extracted from digital imagery of experimentally loaded beams. In addition, an Ellipse Logistic Model (ELM) has been proposed, using L1-regularized logistic regression, to predict the impact of a knot on the displacement of a beam. By classifying a knot as severely positive or negative, vs. mildly positive or negative, ELM can classify knots that lead to large changes to beam deflection, while not over-emphasizing knots that may not be a problem. Using ELM with a regression-fit Young's Modulus on three-point bending of Douglass Fir, it is possible estimate the effects a knot will have on the shape of the resulting displacement curve.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Tribological Failures of Wind Turbine Bearings

Description

Although wind turbine bearings are designed to operate 18-20 years, in the recent years premature failure among these bearings has caused this life to reduce to as low as a

Although wind turbine bearings are designed to operate 18-20 years, in the recent years premature failure among these bearings has caused this life to reduce to as low as a few months to a year. One of the leading causes of premature failure called white structure flaking is a mechanism that was first cited in literature decades ago but not much is understood about it even today. The cause of this mode of failure results from the initiation of white etched cracks (WECs). In this report, different failure mechanisms, especially premature failure mechanisms that were tested and analyzed are demonstrated as a pathway to understanding this phenomenon. Through the use of various tribometers, samples were tested in diverse and extreme conditions in order to study the effect of these different operational conditions on the specimen. Analysis of the tested samples allowed for a comparison of the microstructure alterations in the tested samples to the field bearings affected by WSF.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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An Effective Characterization Methodology for Sub-micron Copper Oxides and Oxide-preventing Surface Finishes with a Short Essay on the Role of SEM in the Continuing Miniaturization of Integrated Circuits

Description

The transition to lead-free solder in the electronics industry has benefited the environment in many ways. However, with new materials systems comes new materials issues. During the processing of copper

The transition to lead-free solder in the electronics industry has benefited the environment in many ways. However, with new materials systems comes new materials issues. During the processing of copper pads, a protective surface treatment is needed to prevent the copper from oxidizing. Characterizing the copper oxidation underneath the surface treatment is challenging but necessary for product reliability and failure analysis. Currently, FIB-SEM, which is time-consuming and expensive, is what is used to understand and analyze the surface treatment-copper oxide(s)-copper system. This project's goals were to determine a characterization methodology that cuts both characterization time and cost in half for characterizing copper oxidation beneath a surface treatment and to determine which protective surface treatment is the best as defined by multiple criterion such as cost, sustainability, and reliability. Two protective surface treatments, organic solderability preservative (OSP) and chromium zincate, were investigated, and multiple characterization techniques were researched. Six techniques were tested, and three were deemed promising. Through our studies, it was determined that the best surface treatment was organic solderability preservative (OSP) and the ideal characterization methodology would be using FIB-SEM to calibrate a QCM model, along with using SERA to confirm the QCM model results. The methodology we propose would result in a 91% reduction in characterization cost and a 92% reduction in characterization time. Future work includes further calibration of the QCM model using more FIB/SEM data points and eventually creating a model for oxide layer thickness as a function of exposure time and processing temperature using QCM as the primary data source. An additional short essay on the role of SEM on the continuing miniaturization of integrated circuits is included at the end. This paper explores the intertwined histories of the scanning electron microscope and the integrated circuit, highlighting how advances in SEM influence integrated circuit advances.

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  • 2015-05

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Effects of Aging and Crystallization Time and Temperature in the Synthesis of Ideal Zeolite Linde Type A

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One of the grand challenges of engineering is to provide access to clean water because it is predicted that by 2025 more than two thirds of the world’s population will

One of the grand challenges of engineering is to provide access to clean water because it is predicted that by 2025 more than two thirds of the world’s population will face severe water shortages. To combat this global issue, our lab focuses on creating a novel composite membrane to recover potable water from waste. For use as the water-selective component in this membrane design Linde Type A zeolites were synthesized for optimal size without the use of a template. Current template-free synthesis of zeolite LTA produces particles that are too large for our application therefore the particle size was reduced in this study to reduce fouling of the membrane while also investigating the nanoparticle synthesis mechanisms. The time and temperature of the reaction and the aging of the precursor gel were systematically modified and observed to determine the optimal conditions for producing the particles. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis were used for characterization. Sub-micron sized particles were synthesized at 2 weeks aging time at -8°C with an average size of 0.6 micrometers, a size suitable for our membrane. There is a limit to the posterity and uniformity of particles produced from modifying the reaction time and temperature. All results follow general crystallization theory. Longer aging produced smaller particles, consistent with nucleation theory. Spinodal decomposition is predicted to affect nucleation clustering during aging due to the temperature scheme. Efforts will be made to shorten the effective aging time and these particles will eventually be incorporated into our mixed matrix osmosis membrane.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05