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Environmental Impact of Graphene's Adoption into Everyday Life

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Graphene has the ability to advance many common fields, including: membranes, composites and coatings, energy, and electronics. For membranes, graphene will be used as a filter for desalination plants which will reduce the cost of desalination and greatly increase water

Graphene has the ability to advance many common fields, including: membranes, composites and coatings, energy, and electronics. For membranes, graphene will be used as a filter for desalination plants which will reduce the cost of desalination and greatly increase water security in developing countries. For composites and coatings, graphene's strength, flexibility, and lightweight will be instrumental in producing the next generation of athletic wear and sports equipment. Graphene's use in energy comes from its theorized ability to charge a phone battery in seconds or an electric car in minutes. Finally, for electronics, graphene will be used to create faster transistors, flexible electronics, and fully integrated wearable technology.

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2018-05

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An Effective Characterization Methodology for Sub-micron Copper Oxides and Oxide-preventing Surface Finishes with a Short Essay on the Role of SEM in the Continuing Miniaturization of Integrated Circuits

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The transition to lead-free solder in the electronics industry has benefited the environment in many ways. However, with new materials systems comes new materials issues. During the processing of copper pads, a protective surface treatment is needed to prevent the

The transition to lead-free solder in the electronics industry has benefited the environment in many ways. However, with new materials systems comes new materials issues. During the processing of copper pads, a protective surface treatment is needed to prevent the copper from oxidizing. Characterizing the copper oxidation underneath the surface treatment is challenging but necessary for product reliability and failure analysis. Currently, FIB-SEM, which is time-consuming and expensive, is what is used to understand and analyze the surface treatment-copper oxide(s)-copper system. This project's goals were to determine a characterization methodology that cuts both characterization time and cost in half for characterizing copper oxidation beneath a surface treatment and to determine which protective surface treatment is the best as defined by multiple criterion such as cost, sustainability, and reliability. Two protective surface treatments, organic solderability preservative (OSP) and chromium zincate, were investigated, and multiple characterization techniques were researched. Six techniques were tested, and three were deemed promising. Through our studies, it was determined that the best surface treatment was organic solderability preservative (OSP) and the ideal characterization methodology would be using FIB-SEM to calibrate a QCM model, along with using SERA to confirm the QCM model results. The methodology we propose would result in a 91% reduction in characterization cost and a 92% reduction in characterization time. Future work includes further calibration of the QCM model using more FIB/SEM data points and eventually creating a model for oxide layer thickness as a function of exposure time and processing temperature using QCM as the primary data source. An additional short essay on the role of SEM on the continuing miniaturization of integrated circuits is included at the end. This paper explores the intertwined histories of the scanning electron microscope and the integrated circuit, highlighting how advances in SEM influence integrated circuit advances.

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2015-05

A Study of the Mechanical Behavior Of Nanocrystalline Metals Using Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

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The study of the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices lies at the intersection of nanotechnology, mechanical engineering and material science. The extremely small grains that make up nanocrystalline metals lead to higher strength but lower

The study of the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices lies at the intersection of nanotechnology, mechanical engineering and material science. The extremely small grains that make up nanocrystalline metals lead to higher strength but lower ductility as compared to bulk metals. Effects of strain-rate dependence on the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals are explored. Knowing the strain rate dependence of mechanical properties would enable optimization of material selection for different applications and lead to lighter structural components and enhanced sustainability.

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2014-05

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Optimization of ionic conductivity in doped ceria using density functional theory and kinetic lattice Monte Carlo

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Fuel cells, particularly solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), are important for the future of greener and more efficient energy sources. Although SOFCs have been in existence for over fifty years, they have not been deployed extensively because they need to

Fuel cells, particularly solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), are important for the future of greener and more efficient energy sources. Although SOFCs have been in existence for over fifty years, they have not been deployed extensively because they need to be operated at a high temperature (∼1000 °C), are expensive, and have slow response to changes in energy demands. One important need for commercialization of SOFCs is a lowering of their operating temperature, which requires an electrolyte that can operate at lower temperatures. Doped ceria is one such candidate. For this dissertation work I have studied different types of doped ceria to understand the mechanism of oxygen vacancy diffusion through the bulk. Doped ceria is important because they have high ionic conductivities thus making them attractive candidates for the electrolytes of solid oxide fuel cells. In particular, I have studied how the ionic conductivities are improved in these doped materials by studying the oxygen-vacancy formations and migrations. In this dissertation I describe the application of density functional theory (DFT) and Kinetic Lattice Monte Carlo (KLMC) simulations to calculate the vacancy diffusion and ionic conductivities in doped ceria. The dopants used are praseodymium (Pr), gadolinium (Gd), and neodymium (Nd), all belonging to the lanthanide series. The activation energies for vacancy migration between different nearest neighbor (relative to the dopant) positions were calculated using the commercial DFT code VASP (Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package). These activation energies were then used as inputs to the KLMC code that I co-developed. The KLMC code was run for different temperatures (673 K to 1073 K) and for different dopant concentrations (0 to 40%). These simulations have resulted in the prediction of dopant concentrations for maximum ionic conductivity at a given temperature.

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2011

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1-dimensional zinc oxide nanomaterial growth and solar cell applications

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Zinc oxide (ZnO) has attracted much interest during last decades as a functional material. Furthermore, ZnO is a potential material for transparent conducting oxide material competing with indium tin oxide (ITO), graphene, and carbon nanotube film. It has been known

Zinc oxide (ZnO) has attracted much interest during last decades as a functional material. Furthermore, ZnO is a potential material for transparent conducting oxide material competing with indium tin oxide (ITO), graphene, and carbon nanotube film. It has been known as a conductive material when doped with elements such as indium, gallium and aluminum. The solubility of those dopant elements in ZnO is still debatable; but, it is necessary to find alternative conducting materials when their form is film or nanostructure for display devices. This is a consequence of the ever increasing price of indium. In addition, a new generation solar cell (nanostructured or hybrid photovoltaics) requires compatible materials which are capable of free standing on substrates without seed or buffer layers and have the ability introduce electrons or holes pathway without blocking towards electrodes. The nanostructures for solar cells using inorganic materials such as silicon (Si), titanium oxide (TiO2), and ZnO have been an interesting topic for research in solar cell community in order to overcome the limitation of efficiency for organic solar cells. This dissertation is a study of the rational solution-based synthesis of 1-dimentional ZnO nanomaterial and its solar cell applications. These results have implications in cost effective and uniform nanomanufacturing for the next generation solar cells application by controlling growth condition and by doping transition metal element in solution.

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Date Created
2012

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Electromigration in gold interconnects

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Electromigration in metal interconnects is the most pernicious failure mechanism in semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs). Early electromigration investigations were primarily focused on aluminum interconnects for silicon-based ICs. An alternative metallization compatible with gallium arsenide (GaAs) was required in the development

Electromigration in metal interconnects is the most pernicious failure mechanism in semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs). Early electromigration investigations were primarily focused on aluminum interconnects for silicon-based ICs. An alternative metallization compatible with gallium arsenide (GaAs) was required in the development of high-powered radio frequency (RF) compound semiconductor devices operating at higher current densities and elevated temperatures. Gold-based metallization was implemented on GaAs devices because it uniquely forms a very low resistance ohmic contact and gold interconnects have superior electrical and thermal conductivity properties. Gold (Au) was also believed to have improved resistance to electromigration due to its higher melting temperature, yet electromigration reliability data on passivated Au interconnects is scarce and inadequate in the literature. Therefore, the objective of this research was to characterize the electromigration lifetimes of passivated Au interconnects under precisely controlled stress conditions with statistically relevant quantities to obtain accurate model parameters essential for extrapolation to normal operational conditions. This research objective was accomplished through measurement of electromigration lifetimes of large quantities of passivated electroplated Au interconnects utilizing high-resolution in-situ resistance monitoring equipment. Application of moderate accelerated stress conditions with a current density limited to 2 MA/cm2 and oven temperatures in the range of 300°C to 375°C avoided electrical overstress and severe Joule-heated temperature gradients. Temperature coefficients of resistance (TCRs) were measured to determine accurate Joule-heated Au interconnect film temperatures. A failure criterion of 50% resistance degradation was selected to prevent thermal runaway and catastrophic metal ruptures that are problematic of open circuit failure tests. Test structure design was optimized to reduce resistance variation and facilitate failure analysis. Characterization of the Au microstructure yielded a median grain size of 0.91 ìm. All Au lifetime distributions followed log-normal distributions and Black's model was found to be applicable. An activation energy of 0.80 ± 0.05 eV was measured from constant current electromigration tests at multiple temperatures. A current density exponent of 1.91 was extracted from multiple current densities at a constant temperature. Electromigration-induced void morphology along with these model parameters indicated grain boundary diffusion is dominant and the void nucleation mechanism controlled the failure time.

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Date Created
2013

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Interfacial and electrode modifications in P₃HT:PC₆₁BM based organic solar cells: devices, processing and characterization

Description

The inexorable upsurge in world’s energy demand has steered the search for newer renewable energy sources and photovoltaics seemed to be one of the best alternatives for energy production. Among the various photovoltaic technologies that emerged, organic/polymer photovoltaics based on

The inexorable upsurge in world’s energy demand has steered the search for newer renewable energy sources and photovoltaics seemed to be one of the best alternatives for energy production. Among the various photovoltaic technologies that emerged, organic/polymer photovoltaics based on solution processed bulk-heterojunctions (BHJ) of semiconducting polymers has gained serious attention owing to the use of inexpensive light-weight materials, exhibiting high mechanical flexibility and compatibility with low temperature roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques on flexible substrates. The most widely studied material to date is the blend of regioregular P3HT and PC61BM used as donor and acceptor materials. The object of this study was to investigate and improve the performance/stability of the organic solar cells by use of inexpensive materials. In an attempt to enhance the efficiency of organic solar cells, we have demonstrated the use of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode in bulk heterojunction solar cell structure The device studies showed a significant enhancement in the short-circuit current as well as in the shunt resistance on use of the hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) layer. In another approach a p-type CuI hole-transport layer was utilized that could possibly replace the acidic PEDOT:PSS layer in the fabrication of high-efficiency solar cells. The device optimization was done by varying the concentration of CuI in the precursor solution which played an important role in the efficiency of the solar cell devices. Recently a substantial amount of research has been focused on identifying suitable interfacial layers in organic solar cells which has efficient charge transport properties. It was illustrated that a thin layer of silver oxide interfacial layer showed a 28% increase in power conversion efficiency in comparison to that of the control cell. The optoelectronic properties and morphological features of indium-free ZnO/Ag/MoOx electrodes was also studied. Organic solar cells on these composite electrodes revealed good optical and electrical properties, making them a promising alternative indium free and PEDOT:PSS-free organic solar cells. Lastly, inverted solar cells utilizing zinc oxide and yttrium doped zinc oxide electron transport was also created and their device properties revealed that optimum annealing conditions and yttrium doping was essential to obtain high efficiency solar cells.

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2015

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Fabrication and characterization of carbon nanotubes-zinc oxide structure by drop-drying and ink jet printing

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This thesis elaborates the application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and it is discussed in two parts. In the first part of the thesis, two types of CNTs inks for inkjet materials printer are prepared. They are both chemical stable and

This thesis elaborates the application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and it is discussed in two parts. In the first part of the thesis, two types of CNTs inks for inkjet materials printer are prepared. They are both chemical stable and printable, effective and easily made. The sheet resistance of printed films decreases exponentially as the number of layers increases. In the second part of this study, CNTs/ZnO composite structures are fabricated to understand the electronic and optical properties. The materials were deposited by two different methods: drop-drying and RF magnetic sputtering system on flexible polymer substrates. To further increase the conductivity of the various layers of deposited CNTs films, electrical and optical characterizations are also done. This study establishes CNTs as a multi-functional semitransparent conductor, which can be deposited at room-temperature with other transparent conductive oxide (TCO) composites for application in flexible electronics and printed circuit and sensors.

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2012

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Development of a robust and integrated methodology for predicting the reliability of microelectronic packaging systems

Description

Ball Grid Array (BGA) using lead-free or lead-rich solder materials are widely used as Second Level Interconnects (SLI) in mounting packaged components to the printed circuit board (PCB). The reliability of these solder joints is of significant importance to the

Ball Grid Array (BGA) using lead-free or lead-rich solder materials are widely used as Second Level Interconnects (SLI) in mounting packaged components to the printed circuit board (PCB). The reliability of these solder joints is of significant importance to the performance of microelectronics components and systems. Product design/form-factor, solder material, manufacturing process, use condition, as well as, the inherent variabilities present in the system, greatly influence product reliability. Accurate reliability analysis requires an integrated approach to concurrently account for all these factors and their synergistic effects. Such an integrated and robust methodology can be used in design and development of new and advanced microelectronics systems and can provide significant improvement in cycle-time, cost, and reliability. IMPRPK approach is based on a probabilistic methodology, focusing on three major tasks of (1) Characterization of BGA solder joints to identify failure mechanisms and obtain statistical data, (2) Finite Element analysis (FEM) to predict system response needed for life prediction, and (3) development of a probabilistic methodology to predict the reliability, as well as, the sensitivity of the system to various parameters and the variabilities. These tasks and the predictive capabilities of IMPRPK in microelectronic reliability analysis are discussed.

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2013

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Effect of microwave annealing on low energy ion implanted wafer

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Rapid processing and reduced end-of-range diffusion effects demonstrate that susceptor-assisted microwave annealing is an efficient processing alternative for electrically activating dopants and removing ion-implantation damage in ion-implanted semiconductors. Sheet resistance and Hall measurements provide evidence of electrical activation. Raman spectroscopy

Rapid processing and reduced end-of-range diffusion effects demonstrate that susceptor-assisted microwave annealing is an efficient processing alternative for electrically activating dopants and removing ion-implantation damage in ion-implanted semiconductors. Sheet resistance and Hall measurements provide evidence of electrical activation. Raman spectroscopy and ion channeling analysis monitor the extent of ion implantation damage and recrystallization. The presence of damage and defects in ion implanted silicon, and the reduction of the defects as a result of annealing, is observed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, moreover, the boron implanted silicon is further investigated by cross-section transmission electron microscopy. When annealing B+ implanted silicon, the dissolution of small extended defects and growth of large extended defects result in reduced crystalline quality that hinders the electrical activation process. Compared to B+ implanted silicon, phosphorus implanted samples experience more effective activation and achieve better crystalline quality. Comparison of end-of-range dopants diffusion resulting from microwave annealing and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) is done using secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Results from microwave annealed P+ implanted samples show that almost no diffusion occurs during time periods required for complete dopant activation and silicon recrystallization. The relative contributions to heating of the sample, by a SiC susceptor, and by Si self-heating in the microwave anneal, were also investigated. At first 20s, the main contributor to the sample's temperature rise is Si self-heating by microwave absorption.

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2013