Matching Items (24)

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Relationship Selling in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Impact of the Opioid Crisis

Description

702,000 and counting. That is the estimated figure of deaths related to drug overdoses from 1997-2017 reported by the CDC. Almost 70% of those deaths can be attributed to prescribed or illicit opioids. Many have been quick to place blame

702,000 and counting. That is the estimated figure of deaths related to drug overdoses from 1997-2017 reported by the CDC. Almost 70% of those deaths can be attributed to prescribed or illicit opioids. Many have been quick to place blame and unsurprisingly no one seems to be coming forward to take responsibility. What was the cause of this crisis? A current lawsuit against Purdue Pharma alleges that they are responsible for not only starting but continuing the crisis. (Strickler 2019) One of the initial indications of how the crisis started was due to unprofessional and deceptive sales tactics. Along with this, there have been many unethical practices involving advertising of various pharmaceutical products to exacerbate the issue. These practices range from general advertising to holding conferences with Doctors. Considering how many different parties are involved with the production, sale, prescription, and use of these products I find it difficult to place blame on one party. I wanted to specifically research how sales representatives build trust and relationships with their clients within this industry and how the crisis itself has impacted these relationships. The majority of my research consists of the foundation of relationships, different types of relationships, and how to build and maintain productive relationships. Relationships can be difficult, especially in a professional sales environment because each party typically has their own interests throughout each interaction. By understanding how professional relationships can be built we can aim to avoid a crisis like this in the future, and ultimately save lives because of it.

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Created

Date Created
2020-05

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Effect of Threat, Costly Signaling, and Religion on Trust Decisions

Description

Trust was measured for a target profile that varied the target's religion and costly signaling behavior. Subjects were primed with a threat, romance, or neutral response previous to viewing the profile to determine if this had any effect on their

Trust was measured for a target profile that varied the target's religion and costly signaling behavior. Subjects were primed with a threat, romance, or neutral response previous to viewing the profile to determine if this had any effect on their trust ratings of the target. Participants were drawn from MTurk with ages ranging from 18 to 75 (M= 33.2) and various religious backgrounds (including 210 Christians, 190 atheists/agnostics, and 92 other religious believers). Participants were presented with the threat, romance, or neutral vignette, shown the target profile, and asked to rate the target's trustworthiness. There was no main effect of the vignette condition (p = .088) or costly signaling (p = .099) on the target's trustworthiness. There was a main effect of target religion (p = .006) wherein the Muslim target was trusted more than the Catholic target. These findings do not replicate previous findings on religion, costly signaling, and trust.

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Date Created
2016-05

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RAProp: ranking tweets by exploiting the tweet/user/web ecosystem

Description

The increasing popularity of Twitter renders improved trustworthiness and relevance assessment of tweets much more important for search. However, given the limitations on the size of tweets, it is hard to extract measures for ranking from the tweet's content alone.

The increasing popularity of Twitter renders improved trustworthiness and relevance assessment of tweets much more important for search. However, given the limitations on the size of tweets, it is hard to extract measures for ranking from the tweet's content alone. I propose a method of ranking tweets by generating a reputation score for each tweet that is based not just on content, but also additional information from the Twitter ecosystem that consists of users, tweets, and the web pages that tweets link to. This information is obtained by modeling the Twitter ecosystem as a three-layer graph. The reputation score is used to power two novel methods of ranking tweets by propagating the reputation over an agreement graph based on tweets' content similarity. Additionally, I show how the agreement graph helps counter tweet spam. An evaluation of my method on 16~million tweets from the TREC 2011 Microblog Dataset shows that it doubles the precision over baseline Twitter Search and achieves higher precision than current state of the art method. I present a detailed internal empirical evaluation of RAProp in comparison to several alternative approaches proposed by me, as well as external evaluation in comparison to the current state of the art method.

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Created

Date Created
2013

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Using funds of knowledge to build trust between a teacher and parents of language-delayed preschoolers

Description

Preschool children with language delays often struggle to learn new concepts. Proven strategies such as modeling, prompting, reinforcing responses, direct teaching, and hands-on experience matter to young children with language delays. Also important are social interactions and shared experiences with

Preschool children with language delays often struggle to learn new concepts. Proven strategies such as modeling, prompting, reinforcing responses, direct teaching, and hands-on experience matter to young children with language delays. Also important are social interactions and shared experiences with more knowledgeable persons. Within a cultural context Funds of Knowledge, that is the talents, traditions, and abilities families possess and pass down to their children may be a context for these. However, despite their importance the value Funds of Knowledge have has not been explored with parents of children with special needs. This action research study used a mixed-methods design to understand if Funds of Knowledge could be used as context to improve communication between parents and their children and build trust between parents and a teacher. Seven families participated in the study. Quantitative data were gathered with surveys and were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Qualitative data consisted of transcripts from home-visit interviews, parent presentations, and a focus group, and were analyzed with a grounded theory approach. Results indicate parents entered the study with trust in the teacher especially in terms of having competence in her abilities. Data also show that parents used the language strategies provided to improve communication with their children. Data also indicate that the use of a Funds of Knowledge activity allowed parents to share their knowledge and interests with their children and children in the classroom, feel empowered, and express emotions. From these findings, implication for practice and further research are provided.

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Created

Date Created
2014

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A Look into Measuring Trust in Medical Devices

Description

The purpose of this review is to determine how to measure and assess human trust in medical technology. A systematic literature review was selected as the path to understand the landscape for measuring trust up to this point. I started

The purpose of this review is to determine how to measure and assess human trust in medical technology. A systematic literature review was selected as the path to understand the landscape for measuring trust up to this point. I started by creating a method of systematically reading through related studies in databases before summarizing results and concluding with a recommended design for the upcoming study. This required searching several databases and learning each advanced search methods for each in order to determine which databases provided the most relevant results. From there, the reader examined the results, keeping track in a spreadsheet. The first pass through filtered out the results which did not include detailed methods of measuring trust. The second pass took detailed notes on the remaining studies, keeping track of authors, participants, subjects, methods, instruments, issues, limitations, analytics, and validation. After summarizing the results, discussing trends in the results, and mentioning limitations a conclusion was devised. The recommendation is to use an uncompressed self-reported questionnaire with 4-10 questions on a six-point-Likert scale with reversing scales throughout. Though the studies analyzed were specific to medical settings, this method can work outside of the medical setting for measuring human trust.

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Created

Date Created
2020-05

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“Forgive Me Father”: A Look at Trust Engagement Within Catholic Confession

Description

Catholic confession is one of the most practiced and well-known religious acts in the world. Although Catholic confession has proven to be an important component in the lives of millions of people, little research has been conducted exploring trust engagement

Catholic confession is one of the most practiced and well-known religious acts in the world. Although Catholic confession has proven to be an important component in the lives of millions of people, little research has been conducted exploring trust engagement within Catholic confession or the variables that affect one’s willingness to confess. The purpose of this study was to examine Catholic confession and find whether variables such as perception of the sexual abuse within the Catholic Church, ability, benevolence, and integrity of the priest, Catholic Church, and pope, propensity to trust, trust, and intrinsic religiosity have a significant relation with one’s willingness to confess. This study was conducted through a series of anonymous questionnaires, including two measures that were created for the purpose of this study—the Sex Abuse Perception Measure and Willingness to Confess Measure. Linear regressions and correlations were used to analyze relation between variables. Results revealed that the perception one has of the sexual abuse within the Catholic Church is significantly related to the perceived ability, benevolence, and integrity for a priest, Catholic Church, and the pope. Additionally, ability and benevolence had a moderate positive relation with trust in a priest and the pope and benevolence and integrity had a moderate positive relation with trust in the Catholic Church. Surprisingly, there were no significant relations between propensity to trust and trust in the priest, Catholic Church, or the pope. Similarly, there were no significant relations between trust in the priest, Catholic Church, or the pope and one’s willingness to confess. Intrinsic religiosity did have a positive relation with willingness to confess. This study highlights that individual and organizational religious figures possibly have differing origins of trust (ability, benevolence, and integrity). This difference may be related to one’s perception of the sexual abuse that occurred within the Catholic Church.

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Created

Date Created
2019-12

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Quality of professional life for teachers: identifying the behaviors and characteristics of teachers which influence their professional lives

Description

This study examined the quality of professional life at a Title I school that has achieved the Arizona Department of Education's highest accountability rating of Excelling for eight consecutive years. By examining the factors that influence the school environment including

This study examined the quality of professional life at a Title I school that has achieved the Arizona Department of Education's highest accountability rating of Excelling for eight consecutive years. By examining the factors that influence the school environment including teachers' attitudes and the connections within the teacher community at this school, a description emerged of the factors that influenced the quality of professional lives of teachers. This descriptive study sought to describe, "What is the quality of professional life for teachers at a Title I elementary school with a history of high levels of student achievement?" The research was conducted at Seneca Elementary school (a pseudonym) in the Seneca School District (a pseudonym). By examining the quality of professional life for teachers in a highly ranked Title I school, a better understanding of the quality of professional life may lead to recommendations for other schools with high levels of poverty on how to support teachers who work in high poverty schools. Within a theoretical framework of motivation-hygiene theory and socio cultural theory, the study identified principal leadership as a primary supporting factor of quality of professional life. The study also identified lack of input and lack of teacher control over curriculum and instruction as barriers to quality of professional life. Teachers described principal leadership, environment, social factors and teacher identity as contributors to enhancing the quality of professional life. Trust and focus emerged as additional factors that improved the workplace for teachers.

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Created

Date Created
2011

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A Longitudinal and Experimental Study of the Impact of Knowledge on the Bases of Institutional Trust.

Description

This study examined a knowledge-centered theory of institutional trust development. In the context of trust in water regulatory institutions, the moderating impact of knowledge was tested to determine if there were longitudinal changes in the bases of institutional trust as

This study examined a knowledge-centered theory of institutional trust development. In the context of trust in water regulatory institutions, the moderating impact of knowledge was tested to determine if there were longitudinal changes in the bases of institutional trust as a function of increases in knowledge about a target institution. We hypothesized that as people learn about an institution with which they were previously unfamiliar, they begin to form more nuanced perceptions, distinguishing the new institution from other institutions and relying less upon their generalized trust to estimate their trust in that institution. Prior to having specific, differential information about a new institution, we expected institutional trust to be a function of generalized trust variables such as dispositional trust and trust in government. The longitudinal experiment involved 185 college students randomly assigned to one of three information conditions.

Every 3 months for 15 months, participants read information about water regulatory institutions or a control institution. At each time point, participants reported their trust in and perceptions of the trust- and distrust-worthiness of the water regulatory institutions. Participants also completed measures of knowledge of water regulatory institutions, dispositional trust, and governmental trust. Our manipulation check indicated that, as expected, those in the experimental group increased in subjective knowledge of water regulatory institutions to a greater extent than those in the control condition.

Consistent with our hypotheses, there was some evidence that, compared to the control group, the experimental group relied less on their general trust in government as a basis for their trust in water regulatory institutions. However, contrary to our hypotheses, there was no evidence the experimental group relied less on dispositional trust as a basis for institutional trust. There also was some evidence the experimental group's trust in water regulatory institutions was less affected by fluctuations of trustworthiness (but not distrustworthiness) perceptions over time. This suggests that knowledge results in the development of more stable institutional trust attitudes, but that trustworthiness and distrustworthiness perceptions may operate somewhat differently when impacting trust in specific institutions.

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Created

Date Created
2017-04-17

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Developing social capital for parents in low income urban schools

Description

The purpose of this study was to determine if social capital for parents in a low-income urban school would develop through structured or unstructured parent-teacher meetings. The parent-teacher meetings were developed to provide opportunities for parents and teachers to meet

The purpose of this study was to determine if social capital for parents in a low-income urban school would develop through structured or unstructured parent-teacher meetings. The parent-teacher meetings were developed to provide opportunities for parents and teachers to meet to build relationships and develop trust through teaching and learning how to support reading fluency and reading comprehension strategies. In order to build relationships between parents and teachers both parties need to trust one another. Trust is the foundation of relationships but before parties can trust one another, opportunities to form relationships need to be provided. In the case of parents and teachers, the study suggests that the parent-teacher meetings might be a starting point to provide opportunities to form trusting relationships. As parents and teachers work collaboratively to support the academic needs of the children, parents will increase their social capital and learn how to navigate the school system. The findings of the parent-teacher meetings showed that the perceptions of parents and teachers varied. The findings of the study did not display any noticeable differences in responses between the structured and unstructured group of participants. Parents appreciated meeting with teachers to learn how to support student learning at home and believed teachers were influential in the educational experience of their children. Teachers believed: parents want to support student learning at home, but lack academic skills; parents are the influential in the educational experience of the students; and parents are hesitant to ask school staff for help.

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Created

Date Created
2013

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Computing distrust in social media

Description

A myriad of social media services are emerging in recent years that allow people to communicate and express themselves conveniently and easily. The pervasive use of social media generates massive data at an unprecedented rate. It becomes increasingly difficult for

A myriad of social media services are emerging in recent years that allow people to communicate and express themselves conveniently and easily. The pervasive use of social media generates massive data at an unprecedented rate. It becomes increasingly difficult for online users to find relevant information or, in other words, exacerbates the information overload problem. Meanwhile, users in social media can be both passive content consumers and active content producers, causing the quality of user-generated content can vary dramatically from excellence to abuse or spam, which results in a problem of information credibility. Trust, providing evidence about with whom users can trust to share information and from whom users can accept information without additional verification, plays a crucial role in helping online users collect relevant and reliable information. It has been proven to be an effective way to mitigate information overload and credibility problems and has attracted increasing attention.

As the conceptual counterpart of trust, distrust could be as important as trust and its value has been widely recognized by social sciences in the physical world. However, little attention is paid on distrust in social media. Social media differs from the physical world - (1) its data is passively observed, large-scale, incomplete, noisy and embedded with rich heterogeneous sources; and (2) distrust is generally unavailable in social media. These unique properties of social media present novel challenges for computing distrust in social media: (1) passively observed social media data does not provide necessary information social scientists use to understand distrust, how can I understand distrust in social media? (2) distrust is usually invisible in social media, how can I make invisible distrust visible by leveraging unique properties of social media data? and (3) little is known about distrust and its role in social media applications, how can distrust help make difference in social media applications?

The chief objective of this dissertation is to figure out solutions to these challenges via innovative research and novel methods. In particular, computational tasks are designed to {\it understand distrust}, a innovative task, i.e., {\it predicting distrust} is proposed with novel frameworks to make invisible distrust visible, and principled approaches are develop to {\it apply distrust} in social media applications. Since distrust is a special type of negative links, I demonstrate the generalization of properties and algorithms of distrust to negative links, i.e., {\it generalizing findings of distrust}, which greatly expands the boundaries of research of distrust and largely broadens its applications in social media.

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Created

Date Created
2015