Matching Items (50)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

149502-Thumbnail Image.png

Evaluation of the effects of aging on asphalt rubber

Description

Oxidative aging is an important factor in the long term performance of asphalt pavements. Oxidation and the associated stiffening can lead to cracking, which in turn can lead to the functional and structural failure of the pavement system. Therefore, a

Oxidative aging is an important factor in the long term performance of asphalt pavements. Oxidation and the associated stiffening can lead to cracking, which in turn can lead to the functional and structural failure of the pavement system. Therefore, a greater understanding of the nature of oxidative aging in asphalt pavements can potentially be of great importance in estimating the performance of a pavement before it is constructed. Of particular interest are the effects of aging on asphalt rubber pavements, due to the fact that, as a newer technology, few asphalt rubber pavement sections have been evaluated for their full service life. This study endeavors to shed some light on this topic. This study includes three experimental programs on the aging of asphalt rubber binders and mixtures. The first phase addresses aging in asphalt rubber binders and their virgin bases. The binders were subjected to various aging conditions and then tested for viscosity. The change in viscosity was analyzed and it was found that asphalt rubber binders exhibited less long term aging. The second phase looks at aging in a laboratory environment, including both a comparison of accelerated oxidative aging techniques and aging effects that occur during long term storage. Dynamic modulus was used as a tool to assess the aging of the tested materials. It was found that aging materials in a compacted state is ideal, while aging in a loose state is unrealistic. Results not only showed a clear distinction in aged versus unaged material but also showed that the effects of aging on AR mixes is highly dependant on temperature; lower temperatures induce relatively minor stiffening while higher temperatures promote much more significant aging effects. The third experimental program is a field study that builds upon a previous study of pavement test sections. Field pavement samples were taken and tested after being in service for 7 years and tested for dynamic modulus and beam fatigue. As with the laboratory aging, the dynamic modulus samples show less stiffening at low temperatures and more at higher temperatures. Beam fatigue testing showed not only stiffening but also a brittle behavior.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2010

152208-Thumbnail Image.png

Estimations of reductions in household vehicle miles traveled under scenarios of shifts in vehicle type choice

Description

Vehicle type choice is a significant determinant of fuel consumption and energy sustainability; larger, heavier vehicles consume more fuel, and expel twice as many pollutants, than their smaller, lighter counterparts. Over the course of the past few decades, vehicle type

Vehicle type choice is a significant determinant of fuel consumption and energy sustainability; larger, heavier vehicles consume more fuel, and expel twice as many pollutants, than their smaller, lighter counterparts. Over the course of the past few decades, vehicle type choice has seen a vast shift, due to many households making more trips in larger vehicles with lower fuel economy. During the 1990s, SUVs were the fastest growing segment of the automotive industry, comprising 7% of the total light vehicle market in 1990, and 25% in 2005. More recently, due to rising oil prices, greater awareness to environmental sensitivity, the desire to reduce dependence on foreign oil, and the availability of new vehicle technologies, many households are considering the use of newer vehicles with better fuel economy, such as hybrids and electric vehicles, over the use of the SUV or low fuel economy vehicles they may already own. The goal of this research is to examine how vehicle miles traveled, fuel consumption and emissions may be reduced through shifts in vehicle type choice behavior. Using the 2009 National Household Travel Survey data it is possible to develop a model to estimate household travel demand and total fuel consumption. If given a vehicle choice shift scenario, using the model it would be possible to calculate the potential fuel consumption savings that would result from such a shift. In this way, it is possible to estimate fuel consumption reductions that would take place under a wide variety of scenarios.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

154324-Thumbnail Image.png

Effect of roundabouts on accident rate and severity in Arizona

Description

This study examines the outcomes of roundabouts in the State of Arizona. Two types of roundabouts are introduced in this study, single-lane roundabouts and double-lane roundabouts. A total of 17 roundabouts across Arizona were chosen upon several selection criteria and

This study examines the outcomes of roundabouts in the State of Arizona. Two types of roundabouts are introduced in this study, single-lane roundabouts and double-lane roundabouts. A total of 17 roundabouts across Arizona were chosen upon several selection criteria and according to the availability of data for roundabouts in Arizona. Government officials and local cities’ personnel were involved in this work in order to achieve the most accurate results possible. This thesis focused mainly on the impact of roundabouts on the accident rates, accident severities, and any specific trends that could have been found. Scottsdale, Sedona, Phoenix, Prescott, and Cottonwood are the cities that were involved in this study. As an overall result, both types of roundabouts showed improvements in decreasing the severity of accidents. Single-lane roundabouts had the advantage of largely reducing the overall rate of accidents by 18%, while double-lane roundabouts increased the accident rate by 62%. Although the number of fatalities was very small, both types of roundabouts were able to stop all fatalities during the analysis periods used in this study. Damage rates increased by 2% and 60% for single-lane and double-lane roundabouts, respectively. All levels of injury severities dropped by 44% and 16% for single-lane and double-lane roundabouts, respectively. Education and awareness levels of the public still need to be improved in order for people to be able to drive within the roundabouts safely.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

154328-Thumbnail Image.png

Crumb rubber modified crack sealants to improve performance

Description

Crack sealing is considered one of the least expensive and cost effective maintenance activity used on pavements. In some cases, crack sealing suffers from premature failure due to various material, environmental, and construction issues. A survey that was conducted as

Crack sealing is considered one of the least expensive and cost effective maintenance activity used on pavements. In some cases, crack sealing suffers from premature failure due to various material, environmental, and construction issues. A survey that was conducted as part of this study showed that the highest sealant failure year occurring on the second year. Therefore, any attempt to increase the sealants’ service life by addressing and improving the sealant properties and their resistance to failure will benefit the effectiveness of this treatment.

The goal behind this study was to evaluate the potential improvement in performance of hot applied sealant material commonly used in the Phoenix area, and evaluate the performance of using a neat binder modified with crumb rubber (at 5 and 10% by weight of binder) as a low-grade sealing material. The sealants was also modified with crumb rubber at 2.5, and 5% by weight fo the sealant. Six ASTM tests were conducted for the comparison. These tests are the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Cone Penetration Test (CPT), Resilience Test, Softening Point Test, Brookfield Viscometer Test, and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR).

The results showed that adding only crumb rubber to a neat binder for its potential use as a crack sealant is inadequate to meet the specifications expected for sealants. However, the modification of the sealant with crumb rubber showed some benefits, such as increased elasticity and decreased temperature susceptibility. A crumb rubber content of 2.5% by weight of the sealant was recommended.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

150035-Thumbnail Image.png

Finite element analysis on the effects of elastomeric inclusions for abating heat transfer in steel reinforced concrete columns

Description

Concrete columns constitute the fundamental supports of buildings, bridges, and various other infrastructures, and their failure could lead to the collapse of the entire structure. As such, great effort goes into improving the fire resistance of such columns. In a

Concrete columns constitute the fundamental supports of buildings, bridges, and various other infrastructures, and their failure could lead to the collapse of the entire structure. As such, great effort goes into improving the fire resistance of such columns. In a time sensitive fire situation, a delay in the failure of critical load bearing structures can lead to an increase in time allowed for the evacuation of occupants, recovery of property, and access to the fire. Much work has been done in improving the structural performance of concrete including reducing column sizes and providing a safer structure. As a result, high-strength (HS) concrete has been developed to fulfill the needs of such improvements. HS concrete varies from normal-strength (NS) concrete in that it has a higher stiffness, lower permeability and larger durability. This, unfortunately, has resulted in poor performance under fire. The lower permeability allows for water vapor to build up causing HS concrete to suffer from explosive spalling under rapid heating. In addition, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of HS concrete is lower than that of NS concrete. In this study, the effects of introducing a region of crumb rubber concrete into a steel-reinforced concrete column were analyzed. The inclusion of crumb rubber concrete into a column will greatly increase the thermal resistivity of the overall column, leading to a reduction in core temperature as well as the rate at which the column is heated. Different cases were analyzed while varying the positioning of the crumb-rubber region to characterize the effect of position on the improvement of fire resistance. Computer simulated finite element analysis was used to calculate the temperature and strain distribution with time across the column's cross-sectional area with specific interest in the steel - concrete region. Of the several cases which were investigated, it was found that the improvement of time before failure ranged between 32 to 45 minutes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

150365-Thumbnail Image.png

Evaluation of warm mix asphalt versus conventional hot mix asphalt for field and laboratory-compacted specimens

Description

A recent joint study by Arizona State University and the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) was conducted to evaluate certain Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) properties in the laboratory. WMA material was taken from an actual ADOT project that involved two

A recent joint study by Arizona State University and the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) was conducted to evaluate certain Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) properties in the laboratory. WMA material was taken from an actual ADOT project that involved two WMA sections. The first section used a foamed-based WMA admixture, and the second section used a chemical-based WMA admixture. The rest of the project included control hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixture. The evaluation included testing of field-core specimens and laboratory compacted specimens. The laboratory specimens were compacted at two different temperatures; 270 °F (132 °C) and 310 °F (154 °C). The experimental plan included four laboratory tests: the dynamic modulus (E*), indirect tensile strength (IDT), moisture damage evaluation using AASHTO T-283 test, and the Hamburg Wheel-track Test. The dynamic modulus E* results of the field cores at 70 °F showed similar E* values for control HMA and foaming-based WMA mixtures; the E* values of the chemical-based WMA mixture were relatively higher. IDT test results of the field cores had comparable finding as the E* results. For the laboratory compacted specimens, both E* and IDT results indicated that decreasing the compaction temperatures from 310 °F to 270 °F did not have any negative effect on the material strength for both WMA mixtures; while the control HMA strength was affected to some extent. It was noticed that E* and IDT results of the chemical-based WMA field cores were high; however, the laboratory compacted specimens results didn't show the same tendency. The moisture sensitivity findings from TSR test disagreed with those of Hamburg test; while TSR results indicated relatively low values of about 60% for all three mixtures, Hamburg test results were quite excellent. In general, the results of this study indicated that both WMA mixes can be best evaluated through field compacted mixes/cores; the results of the laboratory compacted specimens were helpful to a certain extent. The dynamic moduli for the field-core specimens were higher than for those compacted in the laboratory. The moisture damage findings indicated that more investigations are needed to evaluate moisture damage susceptibility in field.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

150433-Thumbnail Image.png

Development of enhanced cylindrical specimen thermal conductivity testing procedure

Description

The current method of measuring thermal conductivity requires flat plates. For most common civil engineering materials, creating or extracting such samples is difficult. A prototype thermal conductivity experiment had been developed at Arizona State University (ASU) to test cylindrical specimens

The current method of measuring thermal conductivity requires flat plates. For most common civil engineering materials, creating or extracting such samples is difficult. A prototype thermal conductivity experiment had been developed at Arizona State University (ASU) to test cylindrical specimens but proved difficult for repeated testing. In this study, enhancements to both testing methods were made. Additionally, test results of cylindrical testing were correlated with the results from identical materials tested by the Guarded Hot&ndashPlate; method, which uses flat plate specimens. In validating the enhancements made to the Guarded Hot&ndashPlate; and Cylindrical Specimen methods, 23 tests were ran on five different materials. The percent difference shown for the Guarded Hot&ndashPlate; method was less than 1%. This gives strong evidence that the enhanced Guarded Hot-Plate apparatus in itself is now more accurate for measuring thermal conductivity. The correlation between the thermal conductivity values of the Guarded Hot&ndashPlate; to those of the enhanced Cylindrical Specimen method was excellent. The conventional concrete mixture, due to much higher thermal conductivity values compared to the other mixtures, yielded a P&ndashvalue; of 0.600 which provided confidence in the performance of the enhanced Cylindrical Specimen Apparatus. Several recommendations were made for the future implementation of both test methods. The work in this study fulfills the research community and industry desire for a more streamlined, cost effective, and inexpensive means to determine the thermal conductivity of various civil engineering materials.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

150506-Thumbnail Image.png

Integrated model of the urban continuum with dynamic time-dependent activity-travel microsimulation: framework, prototype, and implementation

Description

The development of microsimulation approaches to urban systems modeling has occurred largely in three parallel streams of research, namely, land use, travel demand and traffic assignment. However, there are important dependencies and inter-relationships between the model systems which need to

The development of microsimulation approaches to urban systems modeling has occurred largely in three parallel streams of research, namely, land use, travel demand and traffic assignment. However, there are important dependencies and inter-relationships between the model systems which need to be accounted to accurately and comprehensively model the urban system. Location choices affect household activity-travel behavior, household activity-travel behavior affects network level of service (performance), and network level of service, in turn, affects land use and activity-travel behavior. The development of conceptual designs and operational frameworks that represent such complex inter-relationships in a consistent fashion across behavioral units, geographical entities, and temporal scales has proven to be a formidable challenge. In this research, an integrated microsimulation modeling framework called SimTRAVEL (Simulator of Transport, Routes, Activities, Vehicles, Emissions, and Land) that integrates the component model systems in a behaviorally consistent fashion, is presented. The model system is designed such that the activity-travel behavior model and the dynamic traffic assignment model are able to communicate with one another along continuous time with a view to simulate emergent activity-travel patterns in response to dynamically changing network conditions. The dissertation describes the operational framework, presents the modeling methodologies, and offers an extensive discussion on the advantages that such a framework may provide for analyzing the impacts of severe network disruptions on activity-travel choices. A prototype of the model system is developed and implemented for a portion of the Greater Phoenix metropolitan area in Arizona to demonstrate the capabilities of the model system.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

150527-Thumbnail Image.png

Fiber dosage effects in asphalt binders and hot mix asphalt mixtures

Description

The application of fibers and other materials in asphalt mixes has been studied and applied over the past five decades in order to improve pavement performance around the world. This thesis highlights the characteristics and performance properties of modified asphalt

The application of fibers and other materials in asphalt mixes has been studied and applied over the past five decades in order to improve pavement performance around the world. This thesis highlights the characteristics and performance properties of modified asphalt mixes using a blend of polypropylene and aramid fibers, The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding different fiber dosages on the laboratory performance of both asphalt binder and mixture. The laboratory study was conducted on sixteen different dosages and blends of the fibers, with various combinations of polypropylene and aramid, using binder tests as well as hot mix asphalt tests. The binder tests included: penetration, softing point, and Brookfield viscosity tests. The asphalt mixture tests included the dynamic modulus, and indirect tensile strength. The binder test results indicated that the best viscosity - temperature susceptibility performance would be from the blend of three dosages of polypropylene and one dosage of aramid, the dynamic modulus test results also confirmed this finding. Overall, in almost every case, the addition of fibers resulted in an increase in mixture stiffness regardless of fiber content. From the indirect tensile strength results, the polypropylene fibers had less of an effect on post peak failure than the aramid fibers. Overall, the aramid fibers yielded better results than the polypropylene fibers. This study has important implications for the future of pavement design and the prospect of using optimal dosages of polypropylene and aramid fibers in further research to further determine their long-term performance and characteristics used in real world applications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

150282-Thumbnail Image.png

Analytical procedure for flexible airfield pavement rutting incorporating environmental location and groundwater table effects

Description

The structural design of pavements in both highways and airfields becomes complex when one considers environmental effects and ground water table variation. Environmental effects have been incorporated on the new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) but little has been done

The structural design of pavements in both highways and airfields becomes complex when one considers environmental effects and ground water table variation. Environmental effects have been incorporated on the new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) but little has been done to incorporate environmental effects on airfield design. This work presents a developed code produced from this research study called ZAPRAM, which is a mechanistically based pavement model based upon Limiting Strain Criteria in airfield HMA pavement design procedures. ZAPRAM is capable of pavement and airfield design analyses considering environmental effects. The program has been coded in Visual Basic and implemented in an event-driven, user-friendly educational computer program, which runs in Excel environment. Several studies were conducted in order to insure the validity of the analysis as well as the efficiency of the software. The first study yielded the minimum threshold number of computational points the user should use at a specific depth within the pavement system. The second study was completed to verify the correction factor for the Odemark's transformed thickness equation. Default correction factors were included in the code base on a large comparative study between Odemark's and MLET. A third study was conducted to provide a comparison of flexible airfield pavement design thicknesses derived from three widely accepted design procedures used in practice today: the Asphalt Institute, Shell Oil, and the revised Corps of Engineering rutting failure criteria to calculate the thickness requirements necessary for a range of design input variables. The results of the comparative study showed that there is a significant difference between the pavement thicknesses obtained from the three design procedures, with the greatest deviation found between the Shell Oil approach and the other two criteria. Finally, a comprehensive sensitivity study of environmental site factors and the groundwater table depth upon flexible airfield pavement design and performance was completed. The study used the newly revised USACE failure criteria for subgrade shear deformation. The methodology utilized the same analytical methodology to achieve real time environmental effects upon unbound layer modulus, as that used in the new AASHTO MEPDG. The results of this effort showed, for the first time, the quantitative impact of the significant effects of the climatic conditions at the design site, coupled with the importance of the depth of the groundwater table, on the predicted design thicknesses. Significant cost savings appear to be quite reasonable by utilizing principles of unsaturated soil mechanics into the new airfield pavement design procedure found in program ZAPRAM.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011