Matching Items (40)

136386-Thumbnail Image.png

Query System for epiDMS and EnergyPlus

Description

With the development of technology, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of machine learning programs. These complex programs make conclusions and can predict or perform actions based

With the development of technology, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of machine learning programs. These complex programs make conclusions and can predict or perform actions based off of models from previous runs or input information. However, such programs require the storing of a very large amount of data. Queries allow users to extract only the information that helps for their investigation. The purpose of this thesis was to create a system with two important components, querying and visualization. Metadata was stored in Sedna as XML and time series data was stored in OpenTSDB as JSON. In order to connect the two databases, the time series ID was stored as a metric in the XML metadata. Queries should be simple, flexible, and return all data that fits the query parameters. The query language used was an extension of XQuery FLWOR that added time series parameters. Visualization should be easily understood and be organized in a way to easily find important information and details. Because of the possibility of a large amount of data being returned from a query, a multivariate heat map was used to visualize the time series results. The two programs that the system performed queries on was Energy Plus and Epidemic Simulation Data Management System. By creating such a system, it would be easier for people of the project's fields to find the relationship between metadata that leads to the desired results over time. Over the time of the thesis project, the overall software was completed, however the software must be optimized in order to take the enormous amount of data expected from the system.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

135868-Thumbnail Image.png

Analyzing the Spread of Chikungunya in the Caribbean 2013-2015

Description

This work examines one dimension of the effect that complex human transport systems have on the spread of Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) in the Caribbean from 2013 to 2015. CHIKV is

This work examines one dimension of the effect that complex human transport systems have on the spread of Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) in the Caribbean from 2013 to 2015. CHIKV is transmitted by mosquitos and its novel spread through the Caribbean islands provided a chance to examine disease transmission through complex human transportation systems. Previous work by Cauchemez et al. had shown a simple distance-based model successfully predict CHIKV spread in the Caribbean using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) statistical methods. A MCMC simulation is used to evaluate different transportation methods (air travel, cruise ships, and local maritime traffic) for the primary transmission patterns through linear regression. Other metrics including population density to account for island size variation and dengue fever incidence rates as a proxy for vector control and health spending were included. Air travel and cruise travel were gathered from monthly passenger arrivals by island. Local maritime traffic is approximated with a gravity model proxy incorporating GDP-per-capita and distance and historic dengue rates were used for determine existing vector control measures for the islands. The Caribbean represents the largest cruise passenger market in the world, cruise ship arrivals were expected to show the strongest signal; however, the gravity model representing local traffic was the best predictor of infection routes. The early infected islands (<30 days) showed a heavy trend towards an alternate primary transmission but our consensus model able to predict the time until initial infection reporting with 94.5% accuracy for islands 30 days post initial reporting. This result can assist public health entities in enacting measures to mitigate future epidemics and provide a modelling basis for determining transmission modes in future CHIKV outbreaks.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

131736-Thumbnail Image.png

Narcotics Consumption Trends at a Southwestern U.S. University Campus in 2017-2018 Tracked By Wastewater-Based Epidemiology

Description

Current methods measuring the consumption of prescription and illicit drugs are often hampered by innate limitations, the data is slow and often restricted, which can impact the relevance and robustness

Current methods measuring the consumption of prescription and illicit drugs are often hampered by innate limitations, the data is slow and often restricted, which can impact the relevance and robustness of the associated data. Here, wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) was applied as an alternative metric to measure trends in the consumption of twelve narcotics within a collegiate setting from January 2018 to May 2018 at a Southwestern U.S. university. The present follow-up study was designed to identify potential changes in the consumption patterns of prescription and illicit drugs as the academic year progressed. Samples were collected from two sites that capture nearly 100% of campus-generated wastewater. Seven consecutive 24-hour composite raw wastewater samples were collected each month (n = 68) from both locations. The study identified the average consumption of select narcotics, in units of mg/day/1000 persons in the following order: cocaine (528 ± 266), heroin (404 ± 315), methylphenidate (343 ± 396), amphetamine (308 ±105), ecstasy (MDMA; 114 ± 198), oxycodone (57 ± 28), methadone (58 ± 73), and codeine (84 ± 40). The consumption of oxycodone, methadone, heroin, and cocaine were identified as statistically lower in the Spring 2018 semester compared to the Fall 2017. Universities may need to increase drug education for the fall semester to lower the consumption of drugs in that semester. Data from this research encompasses both human health and the built environment by evaluating public health through collection of municipal wastewater, allowing public health officials rapid and robust narcotic consumption data while maintaining the anonymity of the students, faculty, and staff.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

131610-Thumbnail Image.png

Monitoring the Rise of Methamphetamine use Amidst the Opioid Epidemic in Two U.S. Cities via Wastewater-based Epidemiology

Description

The combined use of methamphetamine and opioids has been reported to be on the rise throughout the United States (U.S.). However, our knowledge of this phenomenon is largely based upon

The combined use of methamphetamine and opioids has been reported to be on the rise throughout the United States (U.S.). However, our knowledge of this phenomenon is largely based upon reported overdoses and overdose-related deaths, law enforcement seizures, and drug treatment records; data that are often slow, restricted, and only track a portion of the population participating in drug consumption activities. As an alternative, wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has the capability to track licit and illicit drug trends within an entire community, at a low cost and in near real-time, while providing anonymity to those contributing to the sewer shed. In this study, wastewater was collected from two Midwestern U.S. cities (2017-2019) and analyzed for the prevalence of methamphetamine and the opioids oxycodone, codeine, fentanyl, tramadol, hydrocodone, and hydromorphone. Monthly 24-hour time-weighted composite samples (n = 48) from each city were analyzed using isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that methamphetamine and total opioid consumption (milligram morphine equivalents) in City 1 were strongly correlated only in 2017 (Spearman rank order correlation coefficient, ρ = 0.78), the relationship driven by fentanyl, hydrocodone, and hydromorphone. For City 2, methamphetamine and total opioid consumption were strongly positively correlated during the entire study (ρ = 0.54), with the correlations driven by hydrocodone and hydromorphone. In both cities, hydrocodone and hydromorphone mass loads were highly correlated, suggesting a parent and metabolite relationship. WBE provides important insights into licit and illicit drug consumption patterns in near real-time as they evolve; important information for community stakeholders in municipalities across the U.S.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

131315-Thumbnail Image.png

An Assessment of Vaccine Hesitancy in the context of the Flu in Maricopa County, Arizona

Description

Objective: To provide insight into the World Health Organization SAGE Working Group Vaccine Hesitancy Survey by applying the tool to populations across Maricopa County, Arizona. Design: An online survey was

Objective: To provide insight into the World Health Organization SAGE Working Group Vaccine Hesitancy Survey by applying the tool to populations across Maricopa County, Arizona. Design: An online survey was conducted using the Qualtrics Survey Software, of individuals residing in Maricopa County, Arizona during the month of October 2019. Results: Of 209 respondents, the followed demonstrated to be the top 3 reasons for either having not received the flu shot yet or having not planned to receive the flu shot: “I’m healthy, I don’t need it”(20.1%); “Worried I might get the flu from it”(17.7%); “I don’t think it works”(17.7%) Statistical analysis demonstrated that vaccine hesitant and non-hesitant respondents are likely to respond differently to topics covering: safety of vaccines; self-perceived health status; importance of the flu shot among one’s peers; flu vaccine related knowledge Conclusions: The WHO VHS applied to the population of Maricopa County, Arizona reported little hesitancy towards the seasonal flu vaccine. Statistical analysis of Vaccine Hesitant respondents vs. Non-Hesitant respondents demonstrates that specified public health education focused on the immunological implications of vaccines may be needed for the hesitant population to gain confidence in vaccine efficacy. A more diverse respondent group that consists of residents beyond the county lines of Maricopa is needed to understand the full scope of vaccine hesitancy that exists in Arizona.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

148186-Thumbnail Image.png

What the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization Do Not Want Us to Know About Neglected Diseases and Populations in Latin America

Description

The purpose of this research is to exploit the neglect of specific populations and diseases in Latin America through an epidemiological literature review. As a small part of a larger

The purpose of this research is to exploit the neglect of specific populations and diseases in Latin America through an epidemiological literature review. As a small part of a larger publication, the foci of this research was the infectious disease, helminthiasis. Using manually indexed abstracts from the National Library of Medicine database in PubMed, 4,594 papers were synthesized and then processed for further review. Of those papers, 29 provided information about helminths in indigenous populations. These papers were reviewed and used in prevalence data extraction and variable analysis. The main conclusion was to reveal the fact that from an entire health database less than 30 papers provided information about the persistence of helminths in indigenous communities of Latin America. Not only that but the few papers that could be analyzed had consistently high prevalence ratios.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

135335-Thumbnail Image.png

Linking Immunologic and Epidemiologic Models of Virus Transmission and Susceptibility

Description

Memory CD8+ T-cells can persist in the absence of antigen, primed for immediate activation and proliferation if later exposed to the same antigen. These cytotoxic lymphocytes provide long-term immunity following

Memory CD8+ T-cells can persist in the absence of antigen, primed for immediate activation and proliferation if later exposed to the same antigen. These cytotoxic lymphocytes provide long-term immunity following an acute infection. Studies have observed that intermediate levels of general T cell transfer prior to infection may cause an inappropriate response resulting in increased pathology rather than prevention. Therefore, our study focused on a memory CD8 T-cell therapy using lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) specific splenocytes, which activate and proliferate at an accelerated pace compared to that of naive T-cells. LCMV is a natural murine pathogen which also poses a zoonotic infection threat to humans, and the effect of immune cell vaccination therapies for LCMV is not fully understood. We observed the effect of multiple memory CD8 T cell dosage levels on overall disease and memory CD8 T-cell response to the virus. Infection by exposure to a carrier was shown to have a reduced impact on mice receiving higher doses of memory T cells prior to infection compared to mice receiving less or no memory cells. Higher presence of activated memory cells were shown to correlate with less disease-related weight loss and accelerated recovery times. Survival rate after exposure to carriers was not shown to be affected by dosage level, warranting further research regarding the prevalence of the immunopathology observed in other studies in natural murine transmission models.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

134849-Thumbnail Image.png

My journey to initiate a study for determining the prevalence/incidence of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (""PSC"") in different race/ethnic groups through a retrospective study in Arizona

Description

This paper will chronicle my personal experience in trying to design and initiate a retrospective patient data study to determine the prevalence of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (“PSC”) in certain races/ethnic

This paper will chronicle my personal experience in trying to design and initiate a retrospective patient data study to determine the prevalence of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (“PSC”) in certain races/ethnic groups in Arizona. This experience will also be the basis for my proposed roadmap for a more successful future study.

My nearly 10 month thesis project of trying to complete a study yielded considerable ‘learning opportunities’ in large part due to my inexperience. I made numerous errors in sequencing tasks, grossly under-scoping elapsed time and hours for other tasks, completely overlooking other critical tasks, and being insensitive to how irrelevant I and my project were to the many professionals whose help I needed to complete the study. Based upon the knowledge I gained through this process, I will describe the design of a future study of retrospective patient data that will assess whether PSC patients in Phoenix, Arizona follow racial/ethnic trends. I chose Phoenix as an ideal location to perform this proposed study because of the diverse racial/ethnic population in the greater Phoenix area. The goal will be to obtain and review 20 years of retrospective patient data from three large hospital groups in Phoenix, identify the races/ethnicities of PSC patients, and quantify the prevalence and incidence of PSC in such races/ethnicities. The lack of IRB uniformity among the subject hospitals/clinics will pose a challenge, but a detailed outline of how to approach the IRB approval process and obtain PSC patient data from each institution is provided.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

136628-Thumbnail Image.png

Validation of the ACT24 Physical Activity Recall for Sedentary and Active Behaviors

Description

Tools that accurately assess physical activity and sedentary behaviors have broad implications relative to understanding the association of adverse health outcomes and these behaviors. Given the ease of distribution and

Tools that accurately assess physical activity and sedentary behaviors have broad implications relative to understanding the association of adverse health outcomes and these behaviors. Given the ease of distribution and inexpensive nature of self-report tools, they are the most widely used means to assess human behavior in large-scale populations. The purpose of this study was to validate the ACT24 online self-report recall for measures of sedentary and active behavior against criterion measure. Participants of a larger study were asked to complete the ACT24 recall on a random day in three different weeks during which they were wearing the criterion device. A total of 16 recalls were completed that were used to assess ACT24 measures of sedentary, active, and MVPA behavior. Four different comparisons afforded this analysis: criterion sitting time to ACT24 sedentary time, criterion standing time to ACT24 active behavior, criterion stepping time to ACT24 active behavior, and criterion stepping of 3.0+METs to ACT24 MVPA. Results for the comparisons made between ACT24 sedentary time versus criterion sitting time and ACT24 active time to criterion active time showed little systematic differences at the group level, but the limits of agreement were relatively wide. The comparisons made between ACT24 active time to criterion stepping time and ACT24 MVPA to criterion stepping time at 3.0+ METs both showed a positive systematic difference. Increased incidence of physical activity was correlated with more difference between the measures, likely due to an underestimation of criterion active time measurement. These results are important in the preliminary validity analysis of ACT24 measures of active and sedentary time. Future directions include implementing validation protocols in larger and more diverse samples.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

136083-Thumbnail Image.png

Quantifying the Mortality Impact of the 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic in Arizona

Description

Mortality of 1918 influenza virus was high, partly due to bacteria coinfections. We characterize pandemic mortality in Arizona, which had high prevalence of tuberculosis. We applied regressions to over 35,000

Mortality of 1918 influenza virus was high, partly due to bacteria coinfections. We characterize pandemic mortality in Arizona, which had high prevalence of tuberculosis. We applied regressions to over 35,000 data points to estimate the basic reproduction number and excess mortality. Age-specific mortality curves show elevated mortality for all age groups, especially the young, and senior sparing effects. The low value for reproduction number indicates that transmissibility was moderately low.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05