Matching Items (21)

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Evaluation of Current Helmet Technologies for Redesign of Cycling Helmets

Description

Traumatic brain injuries and the effects they can bring are becoming the main focus among researchers and physicians. Cycling is the leading sport with the most traumatic brain injuries, but the design of the cycling helmet has stayed the same

Traumatic brain injuries and the effects they can bring are becoming the main focus among researchers and physicians. Cycling is the leading sport with the most traumatic brain injuries, but the design of the cycling helmet has stayed the same for decades now. The technology of a bike is constantly getting developed and testing but the helmet is lagging behind. This project consists of designing and testing different cycling helmets through ANSYS simulations to determine the ideal geometry and features a cycling helmet must include, reducing the stress that the head experiences upon impact during a fall.

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2020-05

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Explicit Dynamics Analysis of Collapsible Polymer-Carbon Lightweight Ammunition Package

Description

Structural assemblies for military applications must be guaranteed to withstand normal operating environments. Traditionally, experimental testing is performed on a prototype of the object to understand how it will behave under potential failure conditions. However, this process can be time-consuming

Structural assemblies for military applications must be guaranteed to withstand normal operating environments. Traditionally, experimental testing is performed on a prototype of the object to understand how it will behave under potential failure conditions. However, this process can be time-consuming and expensive, and it is often desired to have preliminary information to guide the design of the components. Consequently, a finite element analysis (FEA) can be performed using computational tools to approximate the failure behavior of the object before experiments are performed. This can provide information for a faster preliminary evaluation of the design, which very useful when implementing new technologies in the defense sector.
Currently, a new design for collapsible, lightweight ammunition package (LAP) has been proposed for military applications. The design employs rubber gaskets which enable the LAP to fold when it is empty, in addition to carbon fiber walls which decrease weight while increasing strength. To evaluate the new design, it is desired to perform a finite element analysis to simulate the behavior of the can under various drop impact conditions. Because the design includes complex joinery, which is often difficult to model, the purpose of this thesis project is to determine the most effective methodology to define the physical system using finite elements for impact simulations, and consequently perform the desired analysis for the LAP.

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Date Created
2020-05

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Finite Element Analysis of Microstructural Weak and Strong Links for Shock-Induced Damage in Metallic Materials

Description

Understanding damage evolution, particularly as it relates to local nucleation and growth kinetics of spall failure in metallic materials subjected to shock loading, is critical to national security. This work uses computational modeling to elucidate what characteristics have the highest

Understanding damage evolution, particularly as it relates to local nucleation and growth kinetics of spall failure in metallic materials subjected to shock loading, is critical to national security. This work uses computational modeling to elucidate what characteristics have the highest impact on damage localization at the microstructural level in metallic materials, since knowledge of these characteristics is critical to improve these materials. The numerical framework consists of a user-defined material model implemented in a user subroutine run in ABAQUS/Explicit that takes into account crystal plasticity, grain boundary effects, void nucleation and initial growth, and both isotropic and kinematic hardening to model incipient spall. Finite element simulations were performed on copper bicrystal models to isolate the boundary effects between two grains. Two types of simulations were performed in this work: experimentally verified cases in order to validate the constitutive model as well as idealized cases in an attempt to determine the microstructural characteristic that define weakest links in terms of spall damage. Grain boundary effects on damage localization were studied by varying grain boundary orientation in respect to the shock direction and the crystallographic properties of each grain in the bicrystal. Varying these parameters resulted in a mismatch in Taylor factor across the grain boundary and along the shock direction. The experimentally verified cases are models of specific damage sites found from flyer plate impact tests on copper multicrystals in which the Taylor factor mismatch across the grain boundary and along the shock direction are both high or both low. For the idealized cases, grain boundary orientation and crystallography of the grains are chosen such that the Taylor factor mismatch in the grain boundary normal and along the shock direction are maximized or minimized. A perpendicular grain boundary orientation in respect to the shock direction maximizes Taylor factor mismatch, while a parallel grain boundary minimizes the mismatch. Furthermore, it is known that <1 1 1> crystals have the highest Taylor factor, while <0 0 1> has nearly the lowest Taylor factor. The permutation of these extremes for mismatch in the grain boundary normal and along the shock direction results in four idealized cases that were studied for this work. Results of the simulations demonstrate that the material model is capable of predicting damage localization, as it has been able to reproduce damage sites found experimentally. However, these results are qualitative since further calibration is still required to produce quantitatively accurate results. Moreover, comparisons of results for void nucleation rate and void growth rate suggests that void nucleation is more influential in the total void volume fraction for bicrystals with high property mismatch across the interface, suggesting that nucleation is the dominant characteristic in the propagation of damage in the material. Further work in recalibrating the simulation parameters and modeling different bicrystal orientations must be done to verify these results.

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2014-12

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3D modeling of incipient spall damage in shocked FCC multicrystals

Description

Shock loading is a complex phenomenon that can lead to failure mechanisms such as strain localization, void nucleation and growth, and eventually spall fracture. Studying incipient stages of spall damage is of paramount importance to accurately determine initiation sites in

Shock loading is a complex phenomenon that can lead to failure mechanisms such as strain localization, void nucleation and growth, and eventually spall fracture. Studying incipient stages of spall damage is of paramount importance to accurately determine initiation sites in the material microstructure where damage will nucleate and grow and to formulate continuum models that account for the variability of the damage process due to microstructural heterogeneity. The length scale of damage with respect to that of the surrounding microstructure has proven to be a key aspect in determining sites of failure initiation. Correlations have been found between the damage sites and the surrounding microstructure to determine the preferred sites of spall damage, since it tends to localize at and around the regions of intrinsic defects such as grain boundaries and triple points. However, considerable amount of work still has to be done in this regard to determine the physics driving the damage at these intrinsic weak sites in the microstructure. The main focus of this research work is to understand the physical mechanisms behind the damage localization at these preferred sites. A crystal plasticity constitutive model is implemented with different damage criteria to study the effects of stress concentration and strain localization at the grain boundaries. A cohesive zone modeling technique is used to include the intrinsic strength of the grain boundaries in the simulations. The constitutive model is verified using single elements tests, calibrated using single crystal impact experiments and validated using bicrystal and multicrystal impact experiments. The results indicate that strain localization is the predominant driving force for damage initiation and evolution. The microstructural effects on theses damage sites are studied to attribute the extent of damage to microstructural features such as grain orientation, misorientation, Taylor factor and the grain boundary planes. The finite element simulations show good correlation with the experimental results and can be used as the preliminary step in developing accurate probabilistic models for damage nucleation.

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Date Created
2013

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Finite element analysis on the effects of elastomeric inclusions for abating heat transfer in steel reinforced concrete columns

Description

Concrete columns constitute the fundamental supports of buildings, bridges, and various other infrastructures, and their failure could lead to the collapse of the entire structure. As such, great effort goes into improving the fire resistance of such columns. In a

Concrete columns constitute the fundamental supports of buildings, bridges, and various other infrastructures, and their failure could lead to the collapse of the entire structure. As such, great effort goes into improving the fire resistance of such columns. In a time sensitive fire situation, a delay in the failure of critical load bearing structures can lead to an increase in time allowed for the evacuation of occupants, recovery of property, and access to the fire. Much work has been done in improving the structural performance of concrete including reducing column sizes and providing a safer structure. As a result, high-strength (HS) concrete has been developed to fulfill the needs of such improvements. HS concrete varies from normal-strength (NS) concrete in that it has a higher stiffness, lower permeability and larger durability. This, unfortunately, has resulted in poor performance under fire. The lower permeability allows for water vapor to build up causing HS concrete to suffer from explosive spalling under rapid heating. In addition, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of HS concrete is lower than that of NS concrete. In this study, the effects of introducing a region of crumb rubber concrete into a steel-reinforced concrete column were analyzed. The inclusion of crumb rubber concrete into a column will greatly increase the thermal resistivity of the overall column, leading to a reduction in core temperature as well as the rate at which the column is heated. Different cases were analyzed while varying the positioning of the crumb-rubber region to characterize the effect of position on the improvement of fire resistance. Computer simulated finite element analysis was used to calculate the temperature and strain distribution with time across the column's cross-sectional area with specific interest in the steel - concrete region. Of the several cases which were investigated, it was found that the improvement of time before failure ranged between 32 to 45 minutes.

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Date Created
2011

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A mesh-free finite element solution for unilateral contact problems

Description

Current trends in the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) involve the integration of legacy mesh-based finite element software with newer solid-modeling kernels or full CAD systems in order to simplify laborious or highly specialized tasks in engineering analysis. In particular, mesh

Current trends in the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) involve the integration of legacy mesh-based finite element software with newer solid-modeling kernels or full CAD systems in order to simplify laborious or highly specialized tasks in engineering analysis. In particular, mesh generation is becoming increasingly automated. In addition, emphasis is increasingly placed on full assembly (multi-part) models, which in turn necessitates an automated approach to contact analysis. This task is challenging due to increases in algebraic system size, as well as increases in the number of distorted elements - both of which necessitate manual intervention to maintain accuracy and conserve computer resources. In this investigation, it is demonstrated that the use of a mesh-free B-Spline finite element basis for structural contact problems results in significantly smaller algebraic systems than mesh-based approaches for similar grid spacings. The relative error in calculated contact pressure is evaluated for simple two dimensional smooth domains at discrete points within the contact zone and compared to the analytical Hertz solution, as well as traditional mesh-based finite element solutions for similar grid spacings. For smooth curved domains, the relative error in contact pressure is shown to be less than for bi-quadratic Serendipity elements. The finite element formulation draws on some recent innovations, in which the domain to be analyzed is integrated with the use of transformed Gauss points within the domain, and boundary conditions are applied via distance functions (R-functions). However, the basis is stabilized through a novel selective normalization procedure. In addition, a novel contact algorithm is presented in which the B-Spline support grid is re-used for contact detection. The algorithm is demonstrated for two simple 2-dimensional assemblies. Finally, a modified Penalty Method is demonstrated for connecting elements with incompatible bases.

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Date Created
2010

Finite element analysis of silicon thin films on soft substrates as anodes for lithium ion batteries

Description

The wide-scale use of green technologies such as electric vehicles has been slowed due to insufficient means of storing enough portable energy. Therefore it is critical that efficient storage mediums be developed in order to transform abundant renewable energy into

The wide-scale use of green technologies such as electric vehicles has been slowed due to insufficient means of storing enough portable energy. Therefore it is critical that efficient storage mediums be developed in order to transform abundant renewable energy into an on-demand source of power. Lithium (Li) ion batteries are seeing a stream of improvements as they are introduced into many consumer electronics, electric vehicles and aircraft, and medical devices. Li-ion batteries are well suited for portable applications because of their high energy-to-weight ratios, high energy densities, and reasonable life cycles. Current research into Li-ion batteries is focused on enhancing its energy density, and by changing the electrode materials, greater energy capacities can be realized. Silicon (Si) is a very attractive option because it has the highest known theoretical charge capacity. Current Si anodes, however, suffer from early capacity fading caused by pulverization from the stresses induced by large volumetric changes that occur during charging and discharging. An innovative system aimed at resolving this issue is being developed. This system incorporates a thin Si film bonded to an elastomeric substrate which is intended to provide the desired stress relief. Non-linear finite element simulations have shown that a significant amount of deformation can be accommodated until a critical threshold of Li concentration is reached; beyond which buckling is induced and a wavy structure appears. When compared to a similar system using rigid substrates where no buckling occurs, the stress is reduced by an order of magnitude, significantly prolonging the life of the Si anode. Thus the stress can be released at high Li-ion diffusion induced strains by buckling the Si thin film. Several aspects of this anode system have been analyzed including studying the effects of charge rate and thin film plasticity, and the results are compared with preliminary empirical measurements to show great promise. This study serves as the basis for a radical resolution to one of the few remaining barriers left in the development of high performing Si based electrodes for Li-ion batteries.

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Date Created
2011

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Probabilistic finite element analysis and design optimization for structural designs

Description

This study focuses on implementing probabilistic nature of material properties (Kevlar® 49) to the existing deterministic finite element analysis (FEA) of fabric based engine containment system through Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) and implementation of probabilistic analysis in engineering designs through

This study focuses on implementing probabilistic nature of material properties (Kevlar® 49) to the existing deterministic finite element analysis (FEA) of fabric based engine containment system through Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) and implementation of probabilistic analysis in engineering designs through Reliability Based Design Optimization (RBDO). First, the emphasis is on experimental data analysis focusing on probabilistic distribution models which characterize the randomness associated with the experimental data. The material properties of Kevlar® 49 are modeled using experimental data analysis and implemented along with an existing spiral modeling scheme (SMS) and user defined constitutive model (UMAT) for fabric based engine containment simulations in LS-DYNA. MCS of the model are performed to observe the failure pattern and exit velocities of the models. Then the solutions are compared with NASA experimental tests and deterministic results. MCS with probabilistic material data give a good prospective on results rather than a single deterministic simulation results. The next part of research is to implement the probabilistic material properties in engineering designs. The main aim of structural design is to obtain optimal solutions. In any case, in a deterministic optimization problem even though the structures are cost effective, it becomes highly unreliable if the uncertainty that may be associated with the system (material properties, loading etc.) is not represented or considered in the solution process. Reliable and optimal solution can be obtained by performing reliability optimization along with the deterministic optimization, which is RBDO. In RBDO problem formulation, in addition to structural performance constraints, reliability constraints are also considered. This part of research starts with introduction to reliability analysis such as first order reliability analysis, second order reliability analysis followed by simulation technique that are performed to obtain probability of failure and reliability of structures. Next, decoupled RBDO procedure is proposed with a new reliability analysis formulation with sensitivity analysis, which is performed to remove the highly reliable constraints in the RBDO, thereby reducing the computational time and function evaluations. Followed by implementation of the reliability analysis concepts and RBDO in finite element 2D truss problems and a planar beam problem are presented and discussed.

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Date Created
2012

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Conformable skin electronics based on spiral pattern

Description

Skin electronics is one of the most promising applications of stretchable electronics. The versatility of skin electronics can only be guaranteed when it has conformal contact with human skin. While both analytical and numerical solutions for contact between serpentine interconnects

Skin electronics is one of the most promising applications of stretchable electronics. The versatility of skin electronics can only be guaranteed when it has conformal contact with human skin. While both analytical and numerical solutions for contact between serpentine interconnects and soft substrate remain unreported, the motivation of this thesis is to render a novel method to numerically study the conformability of the serpentine interconnects. This thesis explained thoroughly how to conduct finite element analysis for the conformability of skin electronics, including modeling, meshing method and step setup etc.. User-defined elements were implemented to the finite element commercial package ABAQUS for the analysis of conformability. With thorough investigation into the conformability of Fermat’s spiral, it has been found that the kirigami based pattern exhibits high conformability. Since thickness is a key factor to design skin electronics, the thesis also talked about how the change of thickness of the skin electronics impacts on the conformability.

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Date Created
2015

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Finite element modeling of human brain response to football helmet impacts

Description

The football helmet is a device used to help mitigate the occurrence of impact-related traumatic (TBI) and minor traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in the game of American football. The current design methodology of using a hard shell with an energy

The football helmet is a device used to help mitigate the occurrence of impact-related traumatic (TBI) and minor traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in the game of American football. The current design methodology of using a hard shell with an energy absorbing liner may be adequate for minimizing TBI, however it has had less effect in minimizing mTBI. The latest research in brain injury mechanisms has established that the current design methodology has produced a helmet to reduce linear acceleration of the head. However, angular accelerations also have an adverse effect on the brain response, and must be investigated as a contributor of brain injury.

To help better understand how the football helmet design features effect the brain response during impact, this research develops a validated football helmet model and couples it with a full LS-DYNA human body model developed by the Global Human Body Modeling Consortium (v4.1.1). The human body model is a conglomeration of several validated models of different sections of the body. Of particular interest for this research is the Wayne State University Head Injury Model for modeling the brain. These human body models were validated using a combination of cadaveric and animal studies. In this study, the football helmet was validated by laboratory testing using drop tests on the crown of the helmet. By coupling the two models into one finite element model, the brain response to impact loads caused by helmet design features can be investigated. In the present research, LS-DYNA is used to study a helmet crown impact with a rigid steel plate so as to obtain the strain-rate, strain, and stress experienced in the corpus callosum, midbrain, and brain stem as these anatomical regions are areas of concern with respect to mTBI.

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Date Created
2014