Matching Items (10)

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Fermentation Station, LLC

Description

Fermentation and humanity have a very long intertwined history, neither would exist without the other. Fermenting food preserves it so it can survive long beyond its normal shelf life by

Fermentation and humanity have a very long intertwined history, neither would exist without the other. Fermenting food preserves it so it can survive long beyond its normal shelf life by maintaining an environment that promotes the survival of healthy bacteria and not dangerous ones. Recently, largely thanks to the dawn of social media and the internet, the notion that eating healthily is important has once again come around. Kombucha has taken advantage of this revolution by promoting good tasting probiotics that are easily consumed and incorporated into day to day life. Sauerkraut and other fermented vegetables have not caught on because they are not presented in an easy to use format, there is no variety of flavoring, and consumers have no idea how to start eating it in their daily diet. This is the whole in the market that Fermentation Station is filling.
Normally, sauerkraut is only sold in very large containers that are intimidating to the average consumer. Fermentation Station will solve this issue by selling sauerkraut in small serving size containers or slightly bigger containers for a week long supply. Additionally, Fermentation Station will sell multiple different flavors of sauerkraut. This is necessary to intrigue a younger audience who desires variety and choice
The other place where sauerkraut falls short is that people are unaware of how to incorporate into their day to day meals. To solve this the company social media team has been growing its following on several platforms. By providing easy recipes through these platforms, consumers can see how they too can easily start eating more sauerkraut without actually altering their diet much. To augment the creator, Ryan Conley’s talents, two additional team members were brought on to help with branding and marketing, mostly on social media.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Evaluating the Consumption Rates of Primary Versus Secondary Fermentation Substrates and Methane Production of Northern Peatlands

Description

Northern peatland carbon cycling is under close observation and is critical to include in models projecting the future effects of climate change as these ecosystems represent a significant source of

Northern peatland carbon cycling is under close observation and is critical to include in models projecting the future effects of climate change as these ecosystems represent a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4). Changes in the in situ conditions, brought upon by the warming climate, could alter the rates of organic matter decomposition and accelerate the emissions of greenhouse, changing northern peatland’s status as a carbon sink. In order to develop a better understanding of the climate’s effect on the microbial community composition, carbon decomposition cascade, and flux of CH4 and CO2, anoxic soil microcosms were supplemented with either glucose or propionate to test the distinct intermediary metabolism of four northern peatland sites with statistically similar geochemistry that exist across a climate gradient. Lutose (LT) and Bog Lake (BL) consumed the supplemented glucose at the highest rates, 42.6 mg/L per day and 39.5 mg/L per day respectively. Chicago Bog (CB) and Daring Lake (DL) consumed the supplemented propionate at the highest rates, 5.26 mg/L per day and 4.34 mg/L per day respectively. BL microcosms showed low levels of methanogenesis as CH4 concentrations reached a maximum of 2.61 µmol/g dry soil in the treatments. In DL, the site with the highest production of CH4, the low abundance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanocellaceae and Methanoregulaceae) and relatively steady concentrations of acetate and formate could indicate that these are the more desired methanogenic substrates. These findings are indicative of the differences in metabolic potential found across these geochemically similar peatlands, lending to climate variables being a major driver in microbial community potential. To further characterize the intermediary metabolism and the effect of the climate gradient in these sites, future experimentations should incorporate 13C DNA-stable isotope probing data, establish a mass balance of the system, and incubate the microcosms at their respective in situ temperatures.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Engineering a Co-culture System for Co-utilization of Lignocellulose-derived Sugars for Improved Biomass Conversion

Description

The inability of a single strain of bacteria to simultaneously and completely consume multiple sugars, such as glucose and xylose, hinder industrial microbial processes for ethanol and lactate production. To

The inability of a single strain of bacteria to simultaneously and completely consume multiple sugars, such as glucose and xylose, hinder industrial microbial processes for ethanol and lactate production. To overcome this limitation, I am engineering an E. coli co-culture system consisting of two ‘specialists'. One has the ability to only consume xylose and the other only glucose. This allows for co-utilization of lignocellulose-derived sugars so both sugars are completely consumed, residence time is reduced and lactate and ethanol titers are maximized.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Electro-selective Fermentation of Scenedesmus acutus algae for enhanced lipid extraction

Description

The microalgae Scenedesmus have been regarded as a potential source for biofuel production, having up to ~30% of dry weight as lipids used for biodiesel fuel production. Electro-selective fermentation

The microalgae Scenedesmus have been regarded as a potential source for biofuel production, having up to ~30% of dry weight as lipids used for biodiesel fuel production. Electro-selective fermentation (ESF) is a novel approach that can selectively degrade proteins and carbohydrates while conserving lipids within algal cells, while simultaneously enhancing lipid wet-extraction and biohydrogenation. ESF is a combination of SF and Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC) technologies. Experiments reported here prove that ESF is an effective means of enhancing lipid wet-extraction by ~50% and achieving 36% higher lipid saturation conversion, compared to SF, over 30 days of semi-continuous operation. Anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) residing on the anode surface produced a current that led to increased rate of organic substrate utilization, protein degradation, and ultimately enhanced lipid extraction and biohydrogenation that converted unsaturated to saturated fatty-acids. Thus, ESF provides a promising method for enhancing lipid extraction for biofuel production.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Improving cyanobacterial hydrogen production through bioprospecting of natural microbial communities

Description

Some cyanobacteria can generate hydrogen (H2) under certain physiological conditions and are considered potential agents for biohydrogen production. However, they also present low amounts of H2 production, a reaction reversal

Some cyanobacteria can generate hydrogen (H2) under certain physiological conditions and are considered potential agents for biohydrogen production. However, they also present low amounts of H2 production, a reaction reversal towards H2 consumption, and O2 sensitivity. Most attempts to improve H2 production have involved genetic or metabolic engineering approaches. I used a bio-prospecting approach instead to find novel strains that are naturally more apt for biohydrogen production. A set of 36, phylogenetically diverse strains isolated from terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments were probed for their potential to produce H2 from excess reductant. Two distinct patterns in H2 production were detected. Strains displaying Pattern 1, as previously known from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, produced H2 only temporarily, reverting to H2 consumption within a short time and after reaching only moderately high H2 concentrations. By contrast, Pattern 2 cyanobacteria, in the genera Lyngbya and Microcoleus, displayed high production rates, did not reverse the direction of the reaction and reached much higher steady-state H2 concentrations. L. aestuarii BL J, an isolate from marine intertidal mats, had the fastest production rates and reached the highest steady-state concentrations, 15-fold higher than that observed in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Because all Pattern 2 strains originated in intertidal microbial mats that become anoxic in dark, it was hypothesized that their strong hydrogenogenic capacity may have evolved to aid in fermentation of the photosynthate. When forced to ferment, these cyanobacteria display similarly desirable characteristics of physiological H2 production. Again, L. aestuarii BL J had the fastest specific rates and attained the highest H2 concentrations during fermentation, which proceeded via a mixed-acid pathway to yield acetate, ethanol, lactate, H2, CO2 and pyruvate. The genome of L. aestuarii BL J was sequenced and bioinformatically compared to other cyanobacterial genomes to ascertain any potential genetic or structural basis for powerful H2 production. The association hcp exclusively in Pattern 2 strains suggests its possible role in increased H2 production. This study demonstrates the value of bioprospecting approaches to biotechnology, pointing to the strain L. aestuarii BL J as a source of useful genetic information or as a potential platform for biohydrogen production.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Effects of vinegar on colonic fermentation and glycemia

Description

ABSTRACT This randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study examined the effects of a preprandial, 20g oral dose of apple cider vinegar (ACV) on colonic fermentation and glycemia in a normal population,

ABSTRACT This randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study examined the effects of a preprandial, 20g oral dose of apple cider vinegar (ACV) on colonic fermentation and glycemia in a normal population, with the ultimate intention of identifying the mechanisms by which vinegar has been shown to reduce postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. Fifteen male and female subjects were recruited, ages 20-60y, who had no prior history of gastrointestinal (GI) disease or resections impacting normal GI function, were non-smokers, were non-vegetarian/vegan, were not taking any medications known to alter (glucose) metabolism, and were free of chronic disease including diabetes. Subjects were instructed to avoid exercise, alcohol and smoking the day prior to their trials and to consume a standardized, high-carbohydrate dinner meal the eve prior. There was a one-week washout period per subject between appointments. Breath hydrogen, serum insulin and capillary glucose were assessed over 3 hours after a high-starch breakfast meal to evaluate the impact of preprandial supplementation with ACV or placebo (water). Findings confirmed the antiglycemic effects of ACV as documented in previous studies, with significantly lower mean blood glucose concentrations observed during ACV treatment compared to the placebo at 30 min (p=0.003) and 60 min (p=0.005), and significantly higher mean blood glucose concentrations at 180 min (p=0.045) postprandial. No significant differences in insulin concentrations between treatments. No significant differences were found between treatments (p>0.05) for breath hydrogen; however, a trend was observed between the treatments at 180 min postprandial where breath hydrogen concentration was visually perceived as being higher with ACV treatment compared to the placebo. Therefore, this study failed to support the hypothesis that preprandial ACV ingestion produces a higher rate of colonic fermentation within a 3 hour time period following a high-carbohydrate meal. Due to variations in experiment duration noted in other literature, an additional study of similar nature with an expanded specimen collections period, well beyond 3 hours, is warranted.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Colonic fermentation as a byproduct of vinegar consumption: a parallel arm randomized control trial in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes

Description

Many people with or at risk for diabetes have difficulty maintaining normal postprandial blood glucose levels (120-140 mg/dl). Research has shown that vinegar decreases postprandial glycemia. The purpose of this

Many people with or at risk for diabetes have difficulty maintaining normal postprandial blood glucose levels (120-140 mg/dl). Research has shown that vinegar decreases postprandial glycemia. The purpose of this study was to examine a possible mechanism by which vinegar decreases postprandial glycemia, particularly the effect of vinegar ingestion on gut fermentation. In this parallel arm randomized control trial, the effects of daily ingestion of vinegar on gut fermentation markers were observed among adults at risk for type 2 diabetes in Phoenix, Arizona. Subjects (n=14) were randomly assigned to treatments consisting of a vinegar drink (1.5g acetic acid) or a placebo (2 vinegar pills containing 40mg acetic acid each). All participants were required to consume the vinegar drink (16 oz) or 2 placebo pills every day for 12 weeks. At week 12, participants filled out a questionnaire to report gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and three consecutive breath samples were taken from each subject to measure fasting breath hydrogen (BH2) with a breath analyzer. Fasting BH2 measures for the vinegar drink group (16.1+11.8 ppm) were significantly different than those from the pill group (3.6+1.4) with a partial eta squared of 0.39 (p=0.023). After adjusting for age as a confounding factor (r=0.406) and removing an outlier, fasting BH2 measures for the vinegar drink group (4.3+1.1 ppm) were still significantly different than those from the pill group (3.6+1.4) with a partial eta squared of 0.35 (p=0.045). Participants in both groups reported mild changes in GI symptoms. In conclusion, adults at risk for type 2 diabetes that consume 2 tablespoons of vinegar a day may have increased gut fermentation compared to those who do not consume vinegar.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Understanding electro-selective fermentation of Scenedesmus acutus and its effect on lipids extraction and biohydrogenation

Description

Electro-Selective Fermentation (ESF) combines Selective Fermentation (SF) and a Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC) to selectively degrade carbohydrate and protein in lipid-rich microalgae biomass, enhancing lipid wet-extraction. In addition, saturated

Electro-Selective Fermentation (ESF) combines Selective Fermentation (SF) and a Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC) to selectively degrade carbohydrate and protein in lipid-rich microalgae biomass, enhancing lipid wet-extraction. In addition, saturated long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are produced via β-oxidation. This dissertation builds understanding of the biochemical phenomena and microbial interactions occurring among fermenters, lipid biohydrogenaters, and anode respiring bacteria (ARB) in ESF. The work begins by proving that ESF is effective in enhancing lipid wet-extraction from Scenedesmus acutus biomass, while also achieving “biohydrogenation” to produce saturated LCFAs. Increasing anode respiration effectively scavenges short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) generated by fermentation, reducing electron loss. However, the effectiveness of ESF depends on biochemical characteristics of the feeding biomass (FB). Four different FB batches yield different lipid-extraction performances, based on the composition of FB’s cellular structure. Finally, starting an ESF reactor with a long solid retention time (SRT), but then switching it to a short SRT provides high lipid extractability and volumetric production with low lipid los. Lipid fermenters can be flushed out with short a SRT, but starting with a short SRT fails achieve good results because fermenters needed to degrading algal protective layers also are flushed out and fail to recover when a long SRT is imposed. These results point to a potentially useful technology to harvest lipid from microalgae, as well as insight about how this technology can be best managed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Engineering Cellular Transport Systems to Enhance Lignocellulose Bioconversion

Description

Lignocellulosic biomass represents a renewable domestic feedstock that can support large-scale biochemical production processes for fuels and specialty chemicals. However, cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic sugars into valuable chemicals by microorganisms

Lignocellulosic biomass represents a renewable domestic feedstock that can support large-scale biochemical production processes for fuels and specialty chemicals. However, cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic sugars into valuable chemicals by microorganisms still remains a challenge. Biomass recalcitrance to saccharification, microbial substrate utilization, bioproduct titer toxicity, and toxic chemicals associated with chemical pretreatments are at the center of the bottlenecks limiting further commercialization of lignocellulose conversion. Genetic and metabolic engineering has allowed researchers to manipulate microorganisms to overcome some of these challenges, but new innovative approaches are needed to make the process more commercially viable. Transport proteins represent an underexplored target in genetic engineering that can potentially help to control the input of lignocellulosic substrate and output of products/toxins in microbial biocatalysts. In this work, I characterize and explore the use of transport systems to increase substrate utilization, conserve energy, increase tolerance, and enhance biocatalyst performance.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Building microbial communities and managing fermentation in microbial electrolysis cells

Description

Microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs) offer an alternative to methane production in anaerobic water treatment and the recapture of energy in waste waters. MXCs use anode respiring bacteria (ARB) to

Microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs) offer an alternative to methane production in anaerobic water treatment and the recapture of energy in waste waters. MXCs use anode respiring bacteria (ARB) to oxidize organic compounds and generate electrical current. In both anaerobic digestion and MXCs, an anaerobic food web connects the metabolisms of different microorganisms, using hydrolysis, fermentation and either methanogenesis or anode respiration to break down organic compounds, convert them to acetate and hydrogen, and then convert those intermediates into either methane or current. In this dissertation, understanding and managing the interactions among fermenters, methanogens, and ARB were critical to making developments in MXCs. Deep sequencing technologies were used in order to identify key community members, understand their role in the community, and identify selective pressures that drove the structure of microbial communities. This work goes from developing ARB communities by finding and using the best partners to managing ARB communities with undesirable partners. First, the foundation of MXCs, namely the ARB they rely on, was expanded by identifying novel ARB, the genus Geoalkalibacter, and demonstrating the presence of ARB in 7 out of 13 different environmental samples. Second, a new microbial community which converted butyrate to electricity at ~70% Coulombic efficiency was assembled and demonstrated that mixed communities can be used to assemble efficient ARB communities. Third, varying the concentrations of sugars and ethanol fed to methanogenic communities showed how increasing ED concentration drove decreases in methane production and increases in both fatty acids and the propionate producing genera Bacteroides and Clostridium. Finally, methanogenic batch cultures, fed glucose and sucrose, and exposed to 0.15 – 6 g N-NH4+ L-1 showed that increased NH4+ inhibited methane production, drove fatty acid and lactate production, and enriched Lactobacillales (up to 40% abundance) above 4 g N-NH4+ L-1. Further, 4 g N-NH4+ L-1 improved Coulombic efficiencies in MXCs fed with glucose and sucrose, and showed that MXC communities, especially the biofilm, are more resilient to high NH4+ than comparable methanogenic communities. These developments offer new opportunities for MXC applications, guidance for efficient operation of MXCs, and insights into fermentative microbial communities.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015