Matching Items (3)

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Evaluating of the Potential for Assessing Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and Cancer at the Population Level Using Analysis of Sewage-borne Biomarker Compounds

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Thousands of human lives are lost every day due to chronic diseases, some more preventable than others. For years, the gold standard for diagnosing and monitoring these diseases has been

Thousands of human lives are lost every day due to chronic diseases, some more preventable than others. For years, the gold standard for diagnosing and monitoring these diseases has been through traditional methods such as individualized doctor-patient clinical evaluations, usually involving laboratory tests. These methods, though effective, can be costly, time-consuming, and fail to encompass an overarching perspective of the health profile of the larger population. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has successfully been employed for decades as a population-level data source informing on the consumption of licit and illicit substance use. It also is showing promise for its use as a community-wide diagnostic tool for broader public health measurements. This literature review constitutes a theoretical evaluation of the potential use of WBE for monitoring the top two deadly diseases in the United States; cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. Literature-reported metabolites indicative of these diseases were evaluated to determine if they were capable of being identified and monitored in wastewater. Potential analytes include cardiac-specific troponin, α-fenotroin, and inositol. Results obtained within suggest WBE could be used as a viable and economical tool to track and monitor the top deadly diseases in human populations. This methodology could be implemented in tandem with current practices in order to provide a more holistic understanding of prevalence and risk for CVD and cancer.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 Through Wastewater-Based Epidemiology and COVID-19 Clinical Testing Data on a Large US University Campus

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As the return to normality in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic enters its early stages, the necessity for accurate, quick, and community-wide surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 has been emphasized. Wastewater-based

As the return to normality in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic enters its early stages, the necessity for accurate, quick, and community-wide surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 has been emphasized. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been used across the world as a tool for monitoring the pandemic, but studies of its efficacy in comparison to the best-known method for surveillance, randomly selected COVID-19 testing, has limited research. This study evaluated the trends and correlations present between SARS-CoV-2 in the effluent wastewater of a large university campus and random COVID-19 testing results published by the university. A moderately strong positive correlation was found between the random testing and WBE surveillance methods (r = 0.63), and this correlation was strengthened when accommodating for lost samples during the experiment (r = 0.74).

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Methods and devices for evaluating environmental remediation progress and population health

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This dissertation critically evaluated methodologies and devices for assessing and protecting the health of human populations, with particular emphasis on groundwater remediation and the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) to

This dissertation critically evaluated methodologies and devices for assessing and protecting the health of human populations, with particular emphasis on groundwater remediation and the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) to inform population health. A meta-analysis and assessment of laboratory-scale treatability studies for removing chlorinated solvents from groundwater found that sediment microcosms operated as continuous-flow columns are preferable to batch bottles when seeking to emulate with high fidelity the complex conditions prevailing in the subsurface in contaminated aquifers (Chapter 2). Compared to monitoring at the field-scale, use of column microcosms also showed (i) improved chemical speciation, and (ii) qualitative predictability of field parameters (Chapter 3). Monitoring of glucocorticoid hormones in wastewater of a university campus showed (i) elevated stress levels particularly at the start of the semester, (ii) on weekdays relative to weekend days (p = 0.05) (161 ± 42 μg d-1 per person, 122 ± 54 μg d-1 per person; p ≤ 0.05), and (iii) a positive association between levels of stress hormones and nicotine (rs: 0.49) and caffeine (0.63) consumption in this student population (Chapter 4). Also, (i) alcohol consumption determined by WBE was in line with literature estimates for this young sub-population (11.3 ± 7.5 g d-1 per person vs. 10.1 ± 0.8 g d-1 per person), whereas caffeine and nicotine uses were below (114 ± 49 g d-1 per person, 178 ± 19 g d-1 per person; 627 ± 219 g d-1 per person, 927 ± 243 g d-1 per person). The introduction of a novel continuous in situ sampler to WBE brought noted benefits relative to traditional time-integrated sampling, including (i) a higher sample coverage (93% vs. 3%), (ii) an ability to captured short-term analyte pulses (e.g., heroin, fentanyl, norbuprenorphine, and methadone), and (iii) an overall higher mass capture for drugs of abuse like morphine, fentanyl, methamphetamine, amphetamine, and the opioid antagonist metabolite norbuprenorphine (p ≤ 0.01). Methods and devices developed in this work are poised to find applications in the remediation sector and in human health assessments.

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Date Created
  • 2018