Matching Items (9)

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5-HT1B receptor agonist CP 94,253 reduces cocaine intake in female rats post-abstinence and after resuming self-administration

Description

Approximately five million Americans suffer from cocaine use disorder with no FDA approved pharmaceutical to help their path to recovery (Yerby, 2019). Serotonin is heavily implicated in cocaine use and

Approximately five million Americans suffer from cocaine use disorder with no FDA approved pharmaceutical to help their path to recovery (Yerby, 2019). Serotonin is heavily implicated in cocaine use and in the reward system, and is therefore a suggested target for pharmaceuticals aiming to aid in psychostimulant addiction (Sarlin, 2019; Clark and Neumaier, 2001). CP 94,253, a 5-HT1BR agonist, has been shown to increase cocaine intake during maintenance of daily cocaine self-administration, though it has also been shown to decrease intake after a period of forced abstinence (Parsons et al., 1998; Pentowski et al., 2009). While a decrease in cocaine intake post-abstinence is promising post-abstinence, it remains to be seen whether this is a viable option if patients relapse. Most experiments are conducted with male rats, though an increasing amount of data has come to light on the differing effects of drugs on male and female rats (Mennenga and Bimonte-Nelson, 2014). Previous studies conducted through our lab have shown no difference in cocaine self-administration behavior across the estrous cycle phases with CP 94,253. It remains to be seen however, whether CP 94,253 would function dissimilarly in female rats than in male rats. This experiment studied the effects of CP 94,253 on post-abstinence and post-resumption cocaine self-administration in free-cycling female rats across two doses of cocaine. It was shown that CP 94,253 reduces cocaine intake both post-abstinence and post-resumption, suggesting that this pharmacotherapy would work in cases of relapse, and that there are no sex differences in its effects. While more studies should be conducted with locomotion and stress tests, thus far this experiment provides further evidence for the validity of CP 94,253 to be a promising pharmacotherapeutic option for future investigation.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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5-HT1B Receptor Agonists Hold Promise as Treatments for Psychostimulant Use Disorders

Description

Previously we found that the serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR) agonist CP 94,253 (CP) enhances the reinforcing properties of cocaine when given to male rats self-administering the drug daily, however, CP

Previously we found that the serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR) agonist CP 94,253 (CP) enhances the reinforcing properties of cocaine when given to male rats self-administering the drug daily, however, CP had the opposite effect following a 21-day period of abstinence. Methamphetamine, like cocaine, has similar mechanisms of action on the monoamine neurotransmitter systems. Therefore, we predicted that CP would have effects on the reinforcing properties of methamphetamine similar to cocaine. Additionally, we examined effects of the FDA-approved 5-HT1B/DR agonist, zolmitriptan, on psychostimulant self-administration. We first tested the effects of CP on methamphetamine self-administration utilizing a fixed ratio or progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement and found that regardless of whether or not rats experienced abstinence, CP decreased methamphetamine intake. We next verified that the effects of CP were mediated by 5-HT1BRs by demonstrating they were reversed when paired with a 5-HT1BR antagonist. We then tested the effects of zolmitriptan on methamphetamine responding and found the same results as found with CP. Finally, we tested whether the effects of zolmitriptan generalize to female rats. Both male and female rats were given access to various doses of cocaine after treatment with zolmitriptan. We also ruled out 5-HT1BR ligands has having an effect on locomotion, to rule out motor impairment as the reason behind the decreases in drug intake. Unlike our previous findings with CP effects on cocaine self-administration, zolmitriptan attenuated cocaine intake both before and after abstinence in both male and female rats. The pre-abstinence effects of zolmitriptan in attenuating intake of different psychostimulants suggest its potential as a pharmacological treatment for psychostimulant use disorders.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

The Effect of Ovarian Hormonal Status on 5HT1B Receptor Modulation of Cocaine Self-Administration

Description

Cocaine is a powerful psychomotor stimulant that can affect serotonin (5HT), dopamine, and norepinephrine systems in the brain. Previous studies with 5HT1B receptor agonist, CP94253, have shown dose-dependent decreases in

Cocaine is a powerful psychomotor stimulant that can affect serotonin (5HT), dopamine, and norepinephrine systems in the brain. Previous studies with 5HT1B receptor agonist, CP94253, have shown dose-dependent decreases in cocaine-self administration in male rats during maintenance. However, these studies do not take into consideration sex differences between male rats and female rats. Female rats introduce a new complexity because they constantly undergo an estrous cycle that consists of four phases, metestrus, diestrus, proestrus, and estrus. It was hypothesized that cocaine infusions and active lever response rates would greatly decrease during proestrus and estrus in comparison to metestrus and diestrus due to hormonal level differences of LH, FSH, progesterone, and estradiol. In this study, female rats were trained to self-administer a training dose of 0.75 mg/kg/infusion on a fixed progressive ratio (FR5). Rats were then pretreated with CP94253 to test the effects of this 5HT1B agonist on female rat cocaine self-administration during the estrous cycle. Results showed there was no three-way interaction between cycle phase, pretreatment, and cocaine dose on infusions or active lever responses. However, pretreatment with CP94253 decreased cocaine intake and active lever responses at high cocaine doses, regardless of cycle phase. Lastly, there was a two-way interaction between pretreatment and cycle phase in which active lever responses decreased during diestrus and proestrus. These results imply that CP94253 enhances cocaine's effect regardless of cycle phase. Future work can work with ovariectomized (OVX) female rats to observe cocaine self-administration during controlled cycle phases.

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  • 2018-05

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Nicotine Self-Administration and the Social Context

Description

Research suggests that the more positive the first drug experience, the more likely addiction will develop. Since smoking is initiated in a social setting, it is surprising how little is

Research suggests that the more positive the first drug experience, the more likely addiction will develop. Since smoking is initiated in a social setting, it is surprising how little is known about social context effects on acquisition of nicotine self-administration. We investigated this issue in rats during late adolescence using conjoined self-administration chambers that had a removable shared wall. Rats were assigned to training conditions with either a solid black plexiglass or wire mesh partition in place throughout 22 subsequent 2-hour daily training sessions. Initially, 58 day-old (late-adolescent) male and female rats received 2, 30-min habituation sessions/day over 2 consecutive days, with only an inactive lever present. Sessions began with presentation of a retractable lever and thereafter each response on that lever resulted in simultaneous delivery of saline or 1 of 2 doses of nicotine (0.015 or 0.030 mg/kg, IV) and lever retraction for a 20-second time out. The findings indicate that the social context inhibits nicotine self-administration in female rats during the development of addiction, but has little effect on the initial stages of drug acquisition. Furthermore, the data suggest that in male rats the social context enhances responding independent of nicotine, but has few effects on nicotine self-administration during the development of addiction. The findings have important implications for substance use disorders.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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A Selective Serotonin1B Receptor Agonist Modulates Cocaine Self-Administration in Female Rats Regardless of Estrous Cycle Phase

Description

Greater than 11% of the total population of Americans age 12 and older were illicit drug users with close to 1 million suffering from cocaine use disorder in 2017 alone

Greater than 11% of the total population of Americans age 12 and older were illicit drug users with close to 1 million suffering from cocaine use disorder in 2017 alone (SAMHSA, 2017), yet there are no effective pharmacological treatments for this disorder. Previous research from the Neisewander Laboratory in male rats found that administration of a 5-HT1BR agonist facilitates cocaine intake when given prior to a daily self-administration session, while inhibiting cocaine intake and attenuating drug-seeking behavior following 21 days of protracted abstinence, yet it is not known whether such effects are observed in female rats. Women face unique challenges in all phases of the drug addiction cycle. With respect to active drug-taking (i.e., the maintenance phase), women tend to increase their rate of consumption more rapidly than men, and female rats acquire cocaine self-administration faster than males. In part, this is due to ovarian hormone influences on the reinforcing properties of cocaine, where peak levels of endogenous estrogen hormones correspond to an increase in cocaine intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of CP94253, a selective 5HT1BR agonist, on cocaine intake across all phases of the estrous cycle in female rats. The rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg, IV) on a fixed ratio (FR) 5 schedule of reinforcement and daily vaginal smears were taken after each session to monitor the estrous cycle. Rats were pretreated with CP 94,253 (5.6 mg/kg, IP) or vehicle prior to separate tests during each estrous cycle phase and were then either given 1-h access to 0.75 mg/kg cocaine followed by 1-h access to 0.375 mg/kg cocaine or 1-h access to 0.1875 mg/kg cocaine followed by 1-h access to 0.075 mg/kg cocaine. Similar to males, CP 94,253 decreased cocaine intake in females at intermediate doses, however, the estrous cycle phase did not alter this effect.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Prosocial influences on nicotine reinforcement, reward, and neural signaling in rodent models

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Social influences are important determinants of drug initiation in humans, particularly during adolescence and early adulthood. My dissertation tested three hypotheses: 1) conditioned and unconditioned nicotine and social rewards

Social influences are important determinants of drug initiation in humans, particularly during adolescence and early adulthood. My dissertation tested three hypotheses: 1) conditioned and unconditioned nicotine and social rewards elicit unique patterns of neural signaling in the corticolimbic neurocircuitry when presented in combination versus individually; 2) play behavior is not necessary for expression of social reward; and 3) social context enhances nicotine self-administration. To test the first hypothesis, Fos protein was measured in response to social and nicotine reward stimuli given alone or in combination and in response to environmental cues associated with the rewards in a conditioned place preference (CPP) test. Social-conditioned environmental stimuli attenuated Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens core. A social partner elevated Fos expression in the caudate-putamen, medial and central amygdala, and both nucleus accumbens subregions. Nicotine decreased Fos expression in the cingulate cortex, caudate-putamen, and the nucleus accumbens core. Both stimuli combined elevated Fos expression in the basolateral amygdala and ventral tegmental area, suggesting possible overlap in processing both rewards in these regions. I tested the second hypothesis with an apparatus containing compartments separated by a wire mesh barrier that allowed limited physical contact with a rat or object. While 2 pairings with a partner rat (full physical contact) produced robust CPP, additional pairings were needed for CPP with a partner behind a barrier or physical contact with an object (i.e., tennis ball). The results demonstrate that physical contact with a partner rat is not necessary to establish social-reward CPP. I tested the third hypothesis with duplex operant conditioning chambers separated either by a solid or a wire mesh barrier to allow for social interaction during self-administration sessions. Nicotine (0.015 and 0.03 mg/kg, IV) and saline self-administration were assessed in male and female young-adult rats either in the social context or isolation. Initially, a social context facilitated nicotine intake at the low dose in male rats, but suppressed intake in later sessions more strongly in female rats, suggesting that social factors exert strong sex-dependent influences on self-administration. These novel findings highlight the importance of social influences on several nicotine-related behavioral paradigms and associated neurocircuitry.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Novel cues reinstate cocaine-seeking behavior and induce Fos Protein as effectively as conditioned cues

Description

The capability of cocaine-associated stimuli in eliciting craving in human addicts, even after extended periods of abstinence, is modeled in animals using cue reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior. This study

The capability of cocaine-associated stimuli in eliciting craving in human addicts, even after extended periods of abstinence, is modeled in animals using cue reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior. This study aimed to examine brain activation in response to cocaine cues in this model apart from activation produced by test novelty using a novel cue control. Rats trained to self-administer cocaine paired with either an oscillating light or tone cue underwent daily extinction training and were then tested for reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior elicited by response-contingent presentations of either their assigned cocaine-paired cue or the alternate, novel cue. Additional controls received saline infusions and cue presentations yoked to a cocaine-trained rat. Brains were harvested for Fos immunohistochemistry immediately after the 90-min reinstatement test. Surprisingly, conditioned and novel cues both reinstated responding to a similar degree; however magnitude of reinstatement did vary by cue modality with the greatest reinstatement to the light cues. In most brain regions, Fos expression was enhanced in rats with a history of cocaine training regardless of cue type with the exception of the Cg1 region of the anterior cingulate cortex, which was sensitive to test cue modality. Also Fos expression within the dorsomedial caudate-putamen was correlated with responding in the novel, but not conditioned, cue groups. In subsequent experiments, we observed a similar pattern of reinstatement in rats trained and tested for sucrose-seeking behavior, whereas rats trained and tested with the cues only reinstated to a novel light and tone, but not a familiar cue. The results suggest that novel cues reinstate responding to a similar extent as conditioned cues regardless of whether animals have a history of operant-delivered drug or a natural reinforcer. Furthermore, similar brain circuits as those involved in cocaine-seeking behavior are activated by novel cues, suggesting converging processes exist to drive conditioned and novel reinforcement seeking.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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The role of the serotonin 2 family of receptors in cocaine-elicited and cocaine-conditioned behaviors

Description

5-HT2A receptor (R) antagonists and 5-HT2CR agonists attenuate reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior (i.e., incentive motivation). 5-HT2Rs are distributed throughout the brain, primarily in regions involved in reward circuitry, including the

5-HT2A receptor (R) antagonists and 5-HT2CR agonists attenuate reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior (i.e., incentive motivation). 5-HT2Rs are distributed throughout the brain, primarily in regions involved in reward circuitry, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), caudate putamen (CPu), and basolateral (BlA) and central (CeA) amygdala. Using animal models, we tested our hypotheses that 5-HT2ARs in the medial (m) PFC mediate the incentive motivational effects of cocaine and cocaine-paired cues; 5-HT2ARs and 5-HT2CRs interact to attenuate cocaine hyperlocomotion and functional neuronal activation (i.e, Fos protein); and 5-HT2CRs in the BlA mediate the incentive motivational effects of cocaine-paired cues and anxiety-like behavior, while 5-HT2CRs in the CeA mediate the incentive motivational effects of cocaine. In chapter 2, we infused M100907, a selective 5-HT2AR antagonist, directly into the mPFC and examined its effects on reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. We found that M100907 in the mPFC dose- dependently attenuated cue-primed reinstatement, without affecting cocaine-primed reinstatement, cue-primed reinstatement of sucrose-seeking behavior, or locomotor activity. In chapter 3, we used subthreshold doses of M100907 and MK212, a 5-HT2CR agonist, to investigate whether these compounds interact to attenuate cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos protein expression. Only the drug combination attenuated cocaine hyperlocomotion and cocaine-induced Fos expression in the CPu, but had no effect on spontaneous locomotion. Finally, in chapter 4 we investigated the effects of a 5- HT2CR agonist in the BlA and CeA on cocaine-seeking behavior and anxiety-like behavior. We found that CP809101, a selective 5-HT2CR agonist, infused into the BlA increased anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze (EPM), but failed to alter cocaine-seeking behavior. CP809101 infused into the CeA attenuated cocaine-primed reinstatement and this effect was blocked by co-administration of a 5-HT2CR antagonist. Together, these results suggest that 5-HT2ARs in the mPFC are involved in cue-primed reinstatement, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2CRs may interact in the nigrostriatal pathway to attenuate cocaine hyperlocomotion and Fos expression, and 5-HT2CRs are involved in anxiety-like behavior in the BlA and cocaine-primed reinstatement in the CeA. Our findings add to the literature on the localization of 5-HT2AR antagonist and 5-HT2CR agonist effects, and suggest a potential treatment mechanism via concurrent 5-HT2AR antagonism and 5-HT2CR agonism.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Modeling acquisition of nicotine self-administration in rats

Description

Nicotine is thought to underlie the reinforcing and dependence-producing effects of tobacco-containing products. Nicotine supports self-administration in rodents, although measures of its reinforcing effects are often confounded by procedures that

Nicotine is thought to underlie the reinforcing and dependence-producing effects of tobacco-containing products. Nicotine supports self-administration in rodents, although measures of its reinforcing effects are often confounded by procedures that are used to facilitate acquisition, such as food restriction, prior reinforcement training, or response-contingent co-delivery of a naturally reinforcing light. This study examined whether rats acquire nicotine self-administration in the absence of these facilitators. A new mathematical modeling procedure was used to define the criterion for acquisition and to determine dose-dependent differences in rate and asymptote levels of intake. Rats were trained across 20 daily 2-h sessions occurring 6 days/week in chambers equipped with active and inactive levers. Each active lever press resulted in nicotine reinforcement (0, 0.015, 0.03, 0.06 mg/kg, IV) and retraction of both levers for a 20-s time out, whereas inactive lever presses had no consequences. Acquisition was defined by the best fit of a logistic function (i.e., S-shaped) versus a constant function (i.e., flat line) for reinforcers obtained across sessions using a corrected Akaike information criterion (AICc) as a model selection tool. The results showed an inverted-U shaped function for dose in relation to the percentage of animals that acquired nicotine self-administration, with 46% acquiring at 0.015 mg/kg, 73% at 0.03 mg/kg, and 58% at 0.06 mg/kg. All saline rats failed to acquire as expected. For rats that acquired nicotine self-administration, multiple model comparisons demonstrated that the asymptote (highest number of reinforcers/session) and half learning point (h; session during which half the assymptote had been achieved) were justified as free parameters of the reinforcers/session function, indicating that these parameters vary with nicotine dose. Asymptote exhibited an inverted U-shaped function across doses and half learning point exhibited a negative relationship to dose (i.e., the higher the dose the fewer sessions to reach h). These findings suggest that some rats acquire nicotine self-administration without using procedures that confound measures of acquisition rate. Furthermore, the modeling approach provides a new way of defining acquisition of drug self-administration that takes advantage of using all data generated from individual subjects and is less arbitrary than some criteria that are currently used.

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Date Created
  • 2011