Matching Items (5)

Filtering by

Clear all filters

133248-Thumbnail Image.png

2D or Not To Be: The Story and Science of Graphene

Description

The story of graphene truly began in what was simply a stub in the journal Physical Review not two years after the end of World War II. In 1947, McGill University physicist P.R. Wallace authored “The Band Theory of Graphite”

The story of graphene truly began in what was simply a stub in the journal Physical Review not two years after the end of World War II. In 1947, McGill University physicist P.R. Wallace authored “The Band Theory of Graphite” and attempted to develop a foundation on which the structure-property relationship of graphite could be explored; he calculates the number of free electrons and conductivity of what he describes as “a single hexagonal layer” and “suppos[es] that conduction takes place only in layers” in bulk graphite to predict wave functions, energies at specific atomic sites in the hexagonal lattice, and energy contours using a tight binding approximation for a hypothesized version of what we now call ‘armchair-style’ graphene. While Wallace was the first to explore the band structure and Brillouin Zones of single-layer graphite, the concept of two-dimensional materials was not new. In fact, for years, it was dismissed as a thermodynamic impossibility.

Everything seemed poised against any proposed physical and experimental stability of a structure like graphene. “Thermodynamically impossible”– a not uncommon shutdown to proposed novel physical or chemical concepts– was once used to describe the entire field of proposed two-dimensional crystals functioning separately from a three-dimensional base or crystalline structure. Rudolf Peierls and Lev Davoidovich Landau, both very accomplished physicists respectively known for the Manhattan Project and for developing a mathematical theory of helium superfluidity, rejected the possibility of isolated monolayer to few-layered crystal lattices. Their reasoning was that diverging thermodynamic-based crystal lattice fluctuations would render the material unstable regardless of controlled temperature. This logic is flawed, but not necessarily inaccurate– diamond, for instance, is thermodynamically metastable at room temperature and pressure in that there exists a slow (i.e. slow on the scale of millions of years) but continuous transformation to graphite. However, this logic was used to support an explanation of thermodynamic impossibility that was provided for graphene’s lack of isolation as late as 1979 by Cornell solid-state physicist Nathaniel David Mermin. These physicists’ claims had clear and consistent grounding in experimental data: as thin films become thinner, there exists a trend of a decreasing melting temperature and increasing instability that renders the films into islands at somewhere around ten to twenty atomic layers. This is driven by the thermodynamically-favorable minimization of surface energy.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-05

134240-Thumbnail Image.png

Market and Feasibility Study for Novel Processing of Aluminum Alloy for Applications in 3D Printing

Description

One of the more difficult portions of our capstone project has been identifying a potential market for our Clay Metal—whether there even is a potential market. To that end, I plan to use the strategies discussed in MSE482 to complete

One of the more difficult portions of our capstone project has been identifying a potential market for our Clay Metal—whether there even is a potential market. To that end, I plan to use the strategies discussed in MSE482 to complete a feasibility study and market analysis for our two clay metal systems to determine if our alloys are viable as a product in any market and to determine what steps we might need to take to bring our material to that market. While we have done some preliminary research similar to a feasibility study, a more comprehensive understanding of our problem and its existing solutions will help us optimize our design with respect to desirable properties and cost. There are various metrics used to identify what materials properties are most desirable for consumers; the exact metric we use will become clearer when I have identified our demographic.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017-05

135298-Thumbnail Image.png

Effect of Powder Recycling on Direct-Metal-Laser-Sintered Aerospace Alloy

Description

This project sought to analyze the effects of recycling Inconel 718 powder for Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMSL) for additive manufacturing by testing low cycle fatigue tensile samples ranging from virgin to ten times recycled. Fracture generally occurs at the

This project sought to analyze the effects of recycling Inconel 718 powder for Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMSL) for additive manufacturing by testing low cycle fatigue tensile samples ranging from virgin to ten times recycled. Fracture generally occurs at the sample surface where persistent slip planes form and accumulate to cause a sudden fracture leading to signature markings for various phases of crack growth. Effects caused by contamination would be found in the first region of crack growth at the initiation site as the cause stress concentration. Tensile strength and fatigue life were compared to initiation site size found from fracture images obtained using scanning electron microscope imaging which found no significant deviations from the expected surface cracking and LCF region of slip plane buildups. Contamination was not found at any initiation site indicating that fracture life was not impacted by the amount of powder recycling. LCF life ranged from 60,000 to 250,000 which the majority experiencing fractures near 120,000 cyclic loadings. If defect effects were to be found than the low fatigue life sample would exhibit them however its fracture surface did not exhibit contamination but a slight increase in porosity found in the phase III cracking region. The In 718 powders were also analyzed to determine that the primary powder contaminates were brush fibers used to sweep away unused powders during processing however these were not seen in the final DMLS samples.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2016-05

137466-Thumbnail Image.png

Wet NanoBonding™: Catalyzing Molecular Cross-Bridges and Interphases Between Nanoscopically Smoothed Si-Based Surfaces and Tailoring Surface Energy Components

Description

Dry and steam NanoBonding™ are conceived and researched to bond Si-based surfaces, via nucleation and growth of a two-dimensional SiOxHy or hydrated SiOxHy interphase connecting surfaces at the nanoscale across macroscopic domains. The motivation is to create strong, long

Dry and steam NanoBonding™ are conceived and researched to bond Si-based surfaces, via nucleation and growth of a two-dimensional SiOxHy or hydrated SiOxHy interphase connecting surfaces at the nanoscale across macroscopic domains. The motivation is to create strong, long lasting, hermetically bonded sensors with their electronics for the development of an artificial pancreas and to bond solar cells to glass panels for robust photovoltaic technology. The first step in NanoBonding™ is to synthesize smooth surfaces with 20 nm wide atomic terraces via a precursor phase, ß-cSiO2 on Si(100) and oxygen-deficient SiOx on the silica using the Herbots-Atluri process and Entrepix’s spin etching. Smooth precursor phases act as geometric and chemical template to nucleate and grow macroscopic contacting domains where cross bridging occurs via arrays of molecular strands in the hydrated SiOxHy interphase. Steam pressurization is found to catalyze NanoBonding™ consistently, eliminating the need for direct mechanical compression that limits the size and shape of wafers to be bonded in turn, reducing the cost of processing. Total surface energy measurements via 3 Liquids Contact Angle Analysis (3L CAA) enables accurate quantitative analysis of the total surface energy and each of its components. 3L CAA at each step in the process shows that surface energy drops to 42.4 ± 0.6 mJ/m2 from 57.5 ± 1.4 mJ/m2 after the Herbots-Atluri clean of an “As Received” wafer. 3L CAA after steam pressurization Nanobonding™ shows almost complete elimination from 13.8 mJ/m2 ± 1.0 to 0.002 ±- 0.0002 mJ/m2 in the contribution of acceptors to the total free surface energy, and an increase from 0.2 ± .03 to 23.8± 1.6 mJ/m2 in the contribution of donors. This is consistent with an increase in hydroxylation of the ß-cSiO2 surface as a consistent precursor phase for cross-bridging. This research optimizes the use of glycerin, water, and α-bromo-naphtalene in the use of 3L CAA to effectively quantify the components of total free surface energy which helps to better understand the most consistent method for NanoBonding™.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2013-05

148173-Thumbnail Image.png

Breakdown and classification of skill transfer type between a hockey slap shot and golf drive

Description

There is surprisingly little scientific literature describing whether a hockey slap shot positively or negatively transfers to a driving golf swing. Golf and hockey use a similar kinematic sequence to send the ball / puck towards a target, but does

There is surprisingly little scientific literature describing whether a hockey slap shot positively or negatively transfers to a driving golf swing. Golf and hockey use a similar kinematic sequence to send the ball / puck towards a target, but does that directly translate to positive skill transfer between the two sports, or are there other important factors that could result in a negative skill transfer? The aim of this study is to look further into the two kinematic sequences and determine their intertask skill transfer type. A field experiment was conducted, following a specific research design, in order to compare performance between two groups, one being familiar with the skill that may transfer (hockey slapshot) and the other group being unfamiliar. Both groups had no experience in the skill being tested (driving golf swing) and various data was collected as all of the subjects performed 10 golf swings. The results of the data analysis showed that the group with experience in hockey had a higher variability of ball distance and ball speed. There are many factors of a hockey slapshot that are likely to develop a negative intertask skill transfer, resulting in this group's high inconsistency when performing a golf swing. On the other hand, the group with hockey experience also had higher mean club speed, showing that some aspects of the hockey slapshot resulted in a positive skill transfer, aiding their ability to perform a golf swing.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2021-05