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Determining the effectiveness of the water conservation implementations within the City of Tempe's neighborhood grant program

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Two large sectors of water consumption within cities are: city owned irrigated landscape (such as parks) and household consumption. A related, third sector of consumption that has very little research behind it is shared landscapes in residential communities. Neighborhood communities,

Two large sectors of water consumption within cities are: city owned irrigated landscape (such as parks) and household consumption. A related, third sector of consumption that has very little research behind it is shared landscapes in residential communities. Neighborhood communities, including those with formal Homeowner’s Associations and informal Neighborhood Associations, have common landscapes they are responsible for up-keeping and irrigating. 208 neighborhood communities exist within the City of Tempe. Each year the city provides $30,000 in grant funding to these 208 neighborhoods to implement water conservation projects. This thesis focuses on ten neighborhoods who had applied and were granted funding to implement a conservation project between the years 2011 and 2016. My findings showed that this program has not been effective in reducing water consumption, wither due to the lack of implementation or the small-scale of the projects. From my research and synthesis, I suggest a layer of accountability be added to the program to ensure projects are effective and participants are implementing their projects and that the program is effective overall. This study provides the City of Tempe with relevant and viable information to aid management of water consumption and conservation within neighborhoods.

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2019-05

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Understanding the Push for Development in Water Stressed Phoenix, Arizona

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Located in the Sunbelt of the Southwestern United States, Phoenix Arizona finds itself in one of the hottest, driest places in the world. Thankfully, Phoenix has the Salt River, Gila River, Verde River, and a vast aquifer to meet the

Located in the Sunbelt of the Southwestern United States, Phoenix Arizona finds itself in one of the hottest, driest places in the world. Thankfully, Phoenix has the Salt River, Gila River, Verde River, and a vast aquifer to meet the water demands of the municipal, industrial, and agricultural sectors. However, rampant groundwater pumping and over-allocation of these water supplies based on unprecedented, high flows of the Colorado River have created challenges for water managers to ensure adequate water supply for the future. Combined with the current 17-year drought and the warming and drying projections of climate change, the future of water availability in Phoenix will depend on the strength of water management laws, educating the public, developing a strong sense of community, and using development to manage population and support sustainability. As the prevalence of agriculture declines in and around Phoenix, a substantial amount of water is saved. Instead of storing this saved water, Phoenix is using it to support further development. Despite uncertainty regarding the abundant and continuous availability of Phoenix's water resources, development has hardly slowed and barely shifted directions to support sustainability. Phoenix was made to grow until it legally cannot expand anymore. In order to develop solutions, we must first understand the push for development in water-stressed Phoenix, Arizona.

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2017-05

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Photometric Color Correction of the Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat (SPARCS)

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The Star Planet Activity Research CubeSat (SPARCS) will be a 6U CubeSat devoted to photometric monitoring of M dwarfs in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) (160 and 280 nm respectively), measuring the time-dependent spectral slope, intensity and evolution of

The Star Planet Activity Research CubeSat (SPARCS) will be a 6U CubeSat devoted to photometric monitoring of M dwarfs in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) (160 and 280 nm respectively), measuring the time-dependent spectral slope, intensity and evolution of M dwarf stellar UV radiation. The delta-doped detectors baselined for SPARCS have demonstrated more than five times the in-band quantum efficiency of the detectors of GALEX. Given that red:UV photon emission from cool, low-mass stars can be million:one, UV observation of thes stars are susceptible to red light contamination. In addition to the high efficiency delta-doped detectors, SPARCS will include red-rejection filters to help minimize red leak. Even so, careful red-rejection and photometric calibration is needed. As was done for GALEX, white dwarfs are used for photometric calibration in the UV. We find that the use of white dwarfs to calibrate the observations of red stars leads to significant errors in the reported flux, due to the differences in white dwarf and red dwarf spectra. Here we discuss the planned SPARCS calibration model and the color correction, and demonstrate the importance of this correction when recording UV measurements of M stars taken by SPARCS.

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2021-05