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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia, affecting one in nine people age 65 and older. One of the most important neuropathological characteristics of Alzheimer's disease is the aggregation and deposition of the protein beta-amyloid. Beta-amyloid is produced by proteolytic processing of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP). Production of beta-amyloid from APP is increased when cells are subject to stress since both APP and beta-secretase are upregulated by stress. An increased beta-amyloid level promotes aggregation of beta-amyloid into toxic species which cause an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a decrease in cell viability. Therefore reducing beta-amyloid generation is a promising method to control cell damage following stress. The goal of this thesis was to test the effect of inhibiting beta-amyloid production inside stressed AD cell model. Hydrogen peroxide was used as stressing agent. Two treatments were used to inhibit beta-amyloid production, including iBSec1, an scFv designed to block beta-secretase site of APP, and DIA10D, a bispecific tandem scFv engineered to cleave alpha-secretase site of APP and block beta-secretase site of APP. iBSec1 treatment was added extracellularly while DIA10D was stably expressed inside cell using PSECTAG vector. Increase in reactive oxygen species and decrease in cell viability were observed after addition of hydrogen peroxide to AD cell model. The increase in stress induced toxicity caused by addition of hydrogen peroxide was dramatically decreased by simultaneously treating the cells with iBSec1 or DIA10D to block the increase in beta-amyloid levels resulting from the upregulation of APP and beta-secretase.
In our modern world the source of for many chemicals is to acquire and refine oil. This process is becoming an expensive to the environment and to human health. Alternative processes for acquiring the final product have been developed but still need work. One product that is valuable is butanol. The normal process for butanol production is very intensive but there is a method to produce butanol from bacteria. This process is better because it is more environmentally safe than using oil. One problem however is that when the bacteria produce too much butanol it reaches the toxicity limit and stops the production of butanol. In order to keep butanol from reaching the toxicity limit an adsorbent is used to remove the butanol without harming the bacteria. The adsorbent is a mesoporous carbon powder that allows the butanol to be adsorbed on it. This thesis explores different designs for a magnetic separation process to extract the carbon powder from the culture.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), which currently affects approximately 5.4 million Americans, is a type of dementia, which causes memory, cognitive, and behavioral problems. AD is among the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States, typically affecting people ages 65 and older. Beta-Amyloid (Aβ) is an Alzheimer's target protein, which starts as a single protein, but can misfold and bind to itself, forming larger chains and eventually fibrils and plaques of Aβ in the brain. Antibodies that bind to different regions and sizes of Aβ may prevent progression into a more toxic stage. The antibody worked with in this thesis, A4 scFv, binds to oligomeric Aβ. The objective of this antibody research is to optimize the production of functional antibodies, specifically A4, through modifications in the scFv growth process, in order to enhance the discovery of possible diagnostics and therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease. In order to produce functional A4 antibody, four complex sugars were tested in the E. Coli bacterial culture growth media that expresses the desired antibody. The sugars: sucrose, glucose, mannitol, and sorbitol were used in the growth process to improve the yield of functional antibody. Through the steps of growth, purification, and dialysis, the sugar sorbitol was found to provide the optimal results of ending functional antibody concentration. Once an ample amount of functional A4 scFv is produced, it can be used in assays as a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease.